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friendship and benevolence towards the person who has so kindly an effect upon it.”
“Gay,” or Brisk, Style.
[Habits of EXPRESSION.] — Spectator. “Next to those whose elocution is absorbed in action, and who converse chiefly with their arms and legs, we may consider the professed speakers, — and, first, the emphatical, — who squeeze and press and ram down every syllable with excessive vehemence and energy. These orators are remarkable for their distinct elocution and force of expression : they dwell on the important particles of and the, and the significant conjunction and, — which they seem to hawk up, with much difficulty, out of their own throats, and to cram,with no less pain, – into the ears of their auditors. — These should be suffered only to syringe, (as it were,) the ears of a deaf man, through a hearing trumpet; though I must confess that I am equally offended with the whisperers, or low speakers, who seem to fancy all their acquaintance deaf, and come up so close to you, that they may be said to measure noses with you. — I would have these oracular gentry obliged to talk at a distance, through a speaking trumpet, or apply their lips to the walls of a whispering gallery. — The wits, who will not condescend to utter anything but a bon mot, and the whistlers, or tune-hummers, who never talk at all, may be joined very agreeably together in a concert; and to these "tinkling cymbals' I would also add the sounding brass,' the bawler, who inquires after your health with the bellowing of a town-crier.”
[Tue Critic.] --Sterne. “And what of this new book the whole world makes such a noise about?” – “Oh! 't is out of all plumb, my lord,- quite an irregular thing! - not one of the angles at the four corners was a right angle. I had my rule and compasses, my lord, in my pocket!” -“Excellent critic!”
“ And for the epic poem your lordship bid me look at — upon taking the length, breadth, height, and depth of it, and trying them at home upon an exact scale of Bossu's - 't is out, my lord, in every one of its dimensions." -“Admirable connoisseur!—And did you step in to take a look at the great picture, on your way back?” — “ 'Tis a melancholy daub, my lord ! — not one principle of the
• pyramid,' in any one group !--- and what a price ! — for there is nothing of the coloring of Titian, -the expression of Rubens, - the grace of Raphael, — the purity of Domenichino, — the corregiescity of Corregio, - the learning of Poussin, — the airs of Guido, - the taste of Caracci, - or the grand contour of Angelo!”
· IV.-"DECLAMATORY” FORCE.
- [THE AMERICAN UNION.] – Webster. “ While the Union lasts, we have high, exciting, gratifying prospects spread out before us, for us and for our children. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. God grant that, in my day, at least, that curtain may not rise! God grant that on my vision never may be opened what lies behind ! — When my eyes shall be turned to behold, for the last time, the sun in the heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; — on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood! Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, and still · full high advanced,' — its arms and trophies streaming in their original lustre, — not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured ; — bearing, for its motto, no such miserable interrogatory as, “What is all this worth?' nor those other words of delusion and folly, “Liberty first, and Union afterwards,' — but everywhere spread all over, in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart, — Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!'”
Scorn, Abhorrence, and Detestation. [Helen MacGregor, TO THE spy, Morris.] - Scott. “I could have bid you live, had life been to you the same weary and wasting burden that it is to me, – that it is to every noble and generous mind. -- But you, wretch! you could creep through the world unaffected by its various disgraces, its ineffable miseries, its constantly accumulating masses of crime and sorrow; you could live and enjoy yourself, while the noble-minded are betrayed, -while nameless and birthless villains tread on the neck of the brave and long-descended :— you could enjoy yourself, like a butcher's dog
in the shambles, battening on garbage, while the slaughter of the brave went on around you! This enjoyment you shall not live to partake of: you shall die, base dog! — and that before yon cloud has passed over the sun!”
V. _“IMPASSIONED” FORCE.
Anger and Threatening.
Indignant and Enthusiastic Address.
The eternal city shall be free! her sons
VI. - Shouting.
“ Hark! - the bell, the bell !
VII. — Shouting and Calling. (“Expulsive orotund," "pure tone,” intense "sustained" force.) [MACDUFF'S OUTCRY ON THE MURDER OF DUNCAN.) - Shakspeare.
" Awake! awake!
EXERCISE I. - A SEA-VOYAGE. -- Irving. [This extract exemplifies, in its diction, the forms of narrative, descriptive, and didactic style. The emotions arising from the subject and the language, are those of tranquillity, wonder, admiration, pathos, and awe.
The first of these emotions prevails through the first two paragraphs, and produces, in the vocal “ expression,” “pure tone,'' decreasing gradually from gentle “ expulsion” to “ effusion :” the “ force” is “ moderate :” the stress, at first, "unimpassioned radical,” gradually changing to a soft “median :" the 5 pitch” is on 6 middle notes,” - the -ó melody,"' « diatonic,” in prevalent “intervals of the second," varying from the “ simple concrete” to the “ wave:" the “ movement” is “slow," — the pauses moderately long, - the “ rhythm” requires an attentive but delicate marking.
Wonder is the predominating emotion expressed in the third paragraph. It produces a slight deviation from perfect“ purity of tone" towards “ aspiration :” the “ force” increases gently, after the first sentence : a slight tinge of " vanishing stress " pervades the first sentence; an ainple 6 median” prevails in the first two clauses of the second, and a vivid “ radical” in the third clause; and, in the third sentence, a stronger 6 vanishing stress” than before, becomes distinctly audible, in proportion to the increasing emphasis : the “ pitch" of this paragraph is moderately “low," at first, and gradually descends, throughout, as far as to the last semicolon of the paragraph ;
- the “ slides” are principally downward “ seconds and thirds :" the “ movement” is “slow,' excepting in the last clause of the second sentence, in which it is “lively;" the pauses are long; and the “ rhythm” still requires perceptible marking.
Admiration is the prompting emotion in the “ expression" of the fourth paragraph. - After the first sentence, which is neutral in effect, the voice passes from “ pure tone” to “ orotund,” as the " quality” required in the union of beauty and grandeur : the force passes from “ moderate” to “declamatory :" the " stress” becomes bold “median expulsion :" the "middle pitch,” inclining to “ low," for dignity of effect; and downward " thirds” in emphasis : the ** movement” is “moderate ;” the pauses correspondent; and the " rhythm” somewhat strongly marked.
The fifth and sixth paragraphs are characterized, in “ expression," by pathos and awe. The first two sentences of the fifth paragraph, are in the neutral or unimpassioned utterance of common narrative and remark; the next three sentences introduce an increasing effect of the “pure tone” of pathos; the last three of the paragraph are characterized by the expression of awe carried to its deepest effect; and the preceding pure tone, therefore, gives way to " aspiration,” progressively, to the end of the paragraph. The “ force,” in the first part of the paragraph, is " subdued ;' — in the latter, it is a suppressed :" the “ stress " is “ median," throughout, — gently marked in the pathetic part, and fully, in that expressive of awe. The "pitch” is on“ middle” notes, inclining high in the pathetic expression, and “ low," descending to “ lowest,” in the utterance of awe; the “ melody” contains a few slight effects of " semitone," on the emphatic words in the pathetic strain, and full downward - slides" of " third” and “ fifth,'' in the language of awe. The movement” is “slow” in the pathetic part, and “very slow” in the utterance of awe; the pauses correspond ; and the “rhythm" is to be exactly kept in the pauses of the latter, as they are the chief source of effect.
The first two sentences of the sixth paragraph, are characterized by the expression of deep pathos, differing from that of the first part of the preceding paragraph, by greater force, lower notes, fuller “stress," slower " movement," and longer pauses. The “expression” of the third sentence, passes through the successive stages of apprehension, or fear, awe and horror, - marked by increasing “ aspiration” and force, deepening notes, slower “movement," and longer pause, so as, at last, to reach the extreme of these elements of effect. The fourth sentence expresses still deeper pathos than before, and by the increased effect of the same modes of utterance. In the last sentence, in which awe combines with pathos, the “expression” becomes yet deeper and slower, but without increase of ic force.”