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herd, hir'd, board, lord, gourd, bar'd, barr'd. Hark, lark, jerk, stork, work, mark’d, jerk’d, work'd. Arm, harın, farm, alarm, arm’d, harm’d, alarm’d. Earn, learn, scorn, thorn, burn, turn, worn, shorn, earn'd, scorn'd, burn'd, turn'd. Hearse, verse, force, horse, dar'st, burst, first, worst, hears’d, vers’d, forc'd, hors'd. Bars, bears, hears, wears, pairs, tares, snares, repairs. Mart, dart, start, hurt, pert, girt. Carve, curve, serve, starve, carv'd, curv'd, serv’d, starv'd. Sm, s'n, sp, st, ss’d, ks, ct, k’d, ft, f'd, pt, pd, pn, k'n, d'n,
v’n, ťn. Chasm, schism, prism, criticism, witticism, patriotism. 'Reas'n, seas’n, ris'n, chos'n. Asp, clasp, grasp, wasp, lisp, crisp. Vast, mast, lest, dost, must, lost, mist; pass'd, bless’d, gloss'd, miss'd. Makes, quakes, likes, looks, streaks, rocks, crooks. Act, fact, respect, reject; wak’d, likod, look’d, rock’d. Waft, oft, left, sift, quaff’d, scoff'd, laugh’d. Apt, wept, crept; sipp'd, supp’d, slopid, pip’d, popp’d. 'Op'n, rip'n, weap'n, happ'n. Tak’n, wak’n, weak’n, tok’n, drunk'n. Sadd’n, gladd’n, lad’rı, burd'n, hard'n, gard’n. Grav’n, heav'n, riv'n, ov'n, ev'n, giv'n, wov’n. Bright'n, tightn, whit'n.
Lst, mst, nst, rst, dst, rdst, rmdst, rndst. Call'st, heal'st, till'st, fill'st, roll'st, pull'st. Armist, charm’st, form’st, harm’st. Can’st, runn'st, gain'st, against, (agenst.) Durst, worst, erst, first, barist, barrist, hir’st. Midst, call’dst, fill’dst, roll’dst. Heard'st, guard'st, reward'st, discard'st. Arm’dst, harm’dst, form'dst, charm’dst. Learn'dst, scorn’dst, burn’dst, turn’dst.
Ble, ple, dle, rl, bld, did, pld, rld. Able, feeble, bible, double ; troubl'd, babbld, bubbl’d, doubl’d. Ample, steeple, triple, topple; tripl'd, topplid, dappld, crippld. Cradle, saddle, idle, bridle; cradl’d, saddl’d, idld, swaddl’d. Marl, hurl, whirl; world, hurld, whirl’d, furl'd.
10 and E should never be heard, in these and similar words, unless in sing. ing, and then only when a verse demands the syllable as a requisite to me,
Ngs, ngst, ng’d, ngdst. Rings, wrongs, hangs, songs; hang'st, sing'st, wrong’st, bring'st; wrong’d, hang’d, clang’d; wrong’dst, throng’dst. V. Exercise in transition from one class of Elements to
another. The design of this exercise is to impress vividly on the mind the distinctive quality of each species of sound, and the effect of each on the organic action. — The columns are to be read across the page
“ Tonics.” “ Subtonics." “Atonics."
Exercise in transition from one class of Organic Actions
Ch-ur-ch , L-u-12
VII. Exercise in difficult Combinations of Elements.
1. U, as in Use. Lucubration Institution Accumulate Incalculably lugubrious constitution manipulate superiority incalculable revolution deglutition supremacy
2. Words of many syllables. Absolutely Necessarily Coextensively abstinently ordinarily
Annihilation accessory momentarily annunciation accurately temporarily appreciation agitated
voluntarily apologetic adequately Obediently association angularly immediately circumlocution antepenult innumerable apocalyptic architecture intolerable circumvolution agriculture dishonorable coagulation Annihilate ambiguously colonization antipathy articulately commemoration apocrypha collaterally Congratulatory apostatize colloquially authoritatively appropriate Affability disinterestedly assiduous agricultural expostulatory assimilate allegorical Dietetically associate alimentary disingenuousness auricular astrological Immutability Acquiescence atmospherical compatibility acquisition christianity ecclesiastical alienation chronological spirituality
3. Repetition of Elements. Hail! heavenly harmony. Up the high hill he heaved a huge round stone. Heaven's first star alike ye see. Let it wave proudly o'er the good and brave. The supply lasts still. And gleaming and streaming and steaming and beaming, And rushing and flushing and brushing and gushing, And flapping and rapping and clapping and slapping, And curling and whirling and purling and twirling, Retreating and beating and meeting and sheeting, Delaying and straying and playing and spraying, Advancing and glancing and prancing and dancing,
Recoiling, turmoiling and toiling and boiling,
Can no one be found faithful enough to warn him of his danger? No one dared do it.
A good deal of disturbance ensued.
Had he but heeded the counsel of his friend, he might have been saved.
He came at last too late to be of any service. .
It is a fact familiar in the experience of most teachers, that, after the utmost care in the systematic cultivation of the utterance of young readers, by regular analytic exercises, such as the preceding, the influence of colloquial negligence in habit, is so powerful, that the same individual who has just articulated, with perfect exactness, the elements on a column, - while he is kept mechanically on his guard against error, by express attention to details, - will, immediately on beginning to read a page of continuous expression of thought, relapse into his wonted errors of enunciation. To correct this tendency, no resort is so effectual as that of studying analytically a few lines, previous to commencing the usual practice of a reading lesson. The attention must first be turned to the words as such, -as forms of articulation, — then to their sounds in connection with their sense.
The following will be found useful modes of practising such exercises as are now suggested. Begin at the end of a line, sentence, or paragraph, so as to prevent the possibility of reading negligently : then, 1st, articulate every element in every word, separately and very distinctly, throughout the line or sentence ; 2d, enunciate every syllable of each word, throughout the line or sentence, clearly and exactly; 3d, pronounce every word, in the same style ; 4th, read the line or sentence, from the beginning, forward, with strict attention to the manner of pronouncing every word ; 5th, read the whole line or sentence with an easy fluent enunciation, paying strict attention to the expression of the meaning, but without losing correctness in the style of pronunciation.
1 These and similar examples, as they occur in reading lessons, should be repeated till they can be executed with perfect distinctness, and with an easy exertion of the organs. But a hard and labored style should be carefully avoided as a very bad fault.
This is, apparently, a merely mechanical drill; but its effects are strikingly beneficial, in a very short time. The habits of classes of young readers have thus been, in some instances, effectually changed, within a very few weeks, from slovenliness and indistinctness to perfect precision and propriety, united to fluency and freedom of style.
To adults, also, the practice of such exercises as have been mentioned, proves, in the highest degree, useful, as an effectual means of correcting erroneous habit, and of acquiring that distinctness of utterance which is so important in the exercise of public speaking, or in that of private reading, for social and literary purposes.
An exercise of great practical value, as regards the formation of habit in enunciation, is, to select from every reading lesson, before and after the regular consecutive reading of a piece, all words and phrases which contain difficult combinations, and repeat them often.
A full statement of the rules of usage in pronunciation, as regarde the accent of polysyllables, does not properly fall within the scope of this work, which is designed rather for the cultivation of the voice, and the discipline of the organs, than as a manual of orthoëpy. The most important classes of errors in pronunciation, have been already indicated. But this branch of the subject is discussed, at greater length, in the “ American Elocutionist,” to which the present volume is introductory. It occurs in a form adapted to the instruction of young readers, in the “ Introduction to the American Common-School Reader and Speaker," and is presented for the use of professional speakers, in the volume entitled “ Pulpit Elocution.” 1
For the present purpose it may suffice to suggest the benefit arising from the daily systematic study of a good standard dictionary of orthoëpy ; such as Walker's, which, — with due allowance for a very few points in which custom has slightly changed since that work was written, - remains the most accurate report of authorized custom, in the vast majority of places where the English language is spoken. If Dr. Webster's dictionary be preferred, the 8vo edition of it, prepared by Mr. J. E. Worcester, will be found the most useful; as it contains, in the introduction, a full list of all words in
· The works mentioned in the text, are prepared by the compiler of this manual.