## Map Projections: A Reference ManualMap projection concerns the science of mathematical cartography, the techniques by which the Earth's dimensions, shape and features are translated in map form, be that two-dimensional paper or two- or three- dimensional electronic representations. The central focus of this book is on the theory of map projections. Mathematical cartography also takes in map scales and their variation, the division of maps into sets of sheets and nomenclature, and addresses the problems of making measurements and conducting investigations which make use of geodetic measurements and the development of graphical methods for solving problems of spherical trigonometry, marine- and aeronavigation, astronomy and even crystallography. |

### Contents

Map projections with straight parallels | 49 |

Map projections with parallels in the shape of concentric circles | 89 |

Map projections with parallels in the shape of nonconcentric | 135 |

Projections for topographic and namedquadrangle maps | 155 |

Map projection research | 171 |

Best and ideal map projections projections satisfying given conditions | 193 |

Numerical methods in mathematical cartography | 229 |

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### Common terms and phrases

almucantars angle arbitrary Arc length area distortion azimuthal equidistant Bonne projection Bugayevskiy calculated central meridian Chebyshev projection circle coefficients conformal projections coordinate system cosē curvature cylindrical projections determined developed ellipsoid of revolution elliptical equal equal-area projections equidistant conic projection equidistant projection functions Geodesy geodetic coordinates Geodeziya i Aerofotos'emka geographical geographical pole Ginzburg gnomonic projection hemisphere isocols isometric Kartografiya latitude linear scale factors longitude map graticule map projections mathematical cartography maximum angular deformation Mercator projection meridians and parallels Meshcheryakov method normal obtain orthogonal perspective projection plane polar pole polyconic projections problem projection formulas Projections of maps proyektsiy pseudocylindrical projection radius rectangular coordinates region being mapped sin po sinē sinusoidal sinusoidal projection Snyder sphere spherical standard parallels straight lines surface take the form tanē tion transformation transverse triaxial ellipsoid TSNIIGAiK Vakhrameyeva values world maps