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London, Edinburgh and Dublin
PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE

AND JOURNAL;

COMPREHENDING

THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF SCIENCE,

THE LIBERAL AND FINE ARTS,

AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES,

AND COMMERCE,

BY ALEXANDER TILLOCH, LL.D.

M.R.I.A. M.G.S. M.A.S. F.S.A. EDIN, AND PERTII; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF
THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MUNICII; AND OF THE ACADEMY

OF SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND ARTS, LEGHORN, &c. &c. &c.

AND RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S.

“ Nec aranearum sane textus ideo melior quia ex se fila gignunt, nec noster
vilior quia ex alienis libainus ut apes.” Just. Lips. Monit. Polit. lib. i. cap. 1.

VOL. LX.

For JULY, AUGUST, SEPTEMBER, OCTOBER, NOVEMBER,

and DECEMBER, 1822.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY RICHARD AND ARTHUR TAYLOR, SHOE LANE:

AND SOLD BY CADELL; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ;
HIGIILEY; SHERWOOD AND CO.; HARDING; UNDERWOOD; SIMPKIN
AND MARSHALL, LONDON: CONSTABLE and co. EDIN-
BURGH : AND PLNMAN, GLASGOW.

Ssi

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PREFACE.

IT is now within a few months of a quarter of a century since this work was commenced; a period rich in scientific discoveries, the records of which will be referred to with deep interest by future generations.

During this long period no exertion has been wanting on my part to render The PhilosoPHICAL MAGAZINE and Journal worthy of the flattering reception it has experienced, not only at home, but throughout the civilized world. That the work is a perfect one, it would ill become me to assert; but I believe that, without vanity, I may say, that with all its defects, whatever these may be, it has tended not a little to diffuse a love of science and the liberal arts among the present generation.

I beg to return unfeigned thanks to my numerous friends for the aids they have afforded me in conducting the work, and rendering my miscellany really useful to the world; and have now to announce, that to render this work still more worthy of the patronage

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