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“Found difficulty in procuring a lodging; at length put up in a hut occupied by a Turk. It was about 10 feet square, the walls of earth, the roof of bushes and poles covered with soil and grass growing on it. There was neither chair, table, bed nor floor in the habitation. The Turk seemed to live principally by his pipe and his coffee.
Sabbath, 12. After our morning devotions, we took some Tracts and a Testament and went to a mill near us, where three or four Greeks live. Found one of them grinding grain. Another soon came in. Both were able to read. We read to them the address to the church in Sardis, and then the account of the day of judgment, Mat. xxv. Conversed with them about what we read, and then spoke of the Lord's day, and endeavored to explain its design, and gave them some Tracts. We had our usual forenoon service in the upper part of the mill; and could not refrain from weeping, while we sung the 74th Psalm, and prayed among the ruins of Sardis. Here wore once a few names which had not defiled their garments; and they are now walking with their Redeemer in white. But, alas! the church as a body had only a name to live, while they were in reality dead; and they did not hear the voice of merciful admonition, and did not strengthen the things which were ready to die. Wherefore the candlestick has been removed out of its place. In the afternoon we walked out and enjoyed a season of social worship in the field. This has been a solemn, and we trust a profitable Sabbath to us. Our own situation, and the scenery around us,
have conspired to give a pensive, melancholy turn to our thoughts. Our eye has affected our hearts, while we beheld around us the ruins of this once splendid city, with nothing now to be seen but a few mud huts, inhabited by ignorant, stupid, filthy Turks, and the only men who bear the Christian name, at work all day in their mill. Every thing seems, as
if God had cursed the place, and left it to the dominion of Satan.
“Brother Parsons is unwell. If one of us should be attacked in this place with a lingering and dangerous disease, it would be only such a trial as we often thought of, and mentioned, when anticipating the mission. Yet such a trial would put our faith and our submission to a severe test. The Providence and grace of God alone can give us comfort and support.
“13. Went out to view more particularly the ruins of the place. Saw the decayed walls of two churches, and of the market, and the ruins of an ancient palace. Two marble columns are standing, about thirty feet high, and six in diameter, of the Ionic order. The fragments of similar pillars lay scattered on the ground. Chandler, who was here about sixty years ago, says five pillars were then standing. All our guide could tell of the place was, that it was the palace of the king's daughter. Ascended a high hill to see the ruins of the old castle. Some of the remaining walls are very strong. Copied two inscriptions.
"In the afternoon took leave of Sart, and went across the plain to see the tumuli or barrows on the opposite hill. In half an hour we crossed the Hermus, and in an hour more reached one of the largest barrows. It is made of earth, in the form of a semi-globe, and, as nearly as we could measure it with our steps, is 200 rods in circumference. From the summit of this, 40 or 50 others were in sight; most of them much smaller. Strabo says, the largest of these was built in honor of Halyattes, the father of Croesus, and was six stadia, i. e. three quarters of a mile, in circumference.
“From these tumuli we went to Tatarkeny, a village one hour east of Sart on the way to Philadelphia. Arrived in the evening, and put up with a Greek priest.
“ “14. At half past seven set out for Philadelphia. Our road lay along the south side of the plain. On the north side were several villages. In four hours we came to a Greek shop, where we took some refreshment, and gave Tracts to two or three men.
"In three hours more we reached Philadelphia, now called Allah Scheyr, i. e. the city of God. Obtained the use of a small dirty room in a khan, and put up for the night. In the evening Serkish called for Martino in great haste, and said, 'the Turks are taking our horses.' Remonstrance was in vain. A pacha was coming with some hundred attendants, and horses were wanted, for a few days, for their use,
Ours must go among the rest. Martino went immediately to the moslem, and stated that we are foreigners, have just arrived here, and wish to go on soon. The plea prevailed. The moslem ordered two men to take the horses, and reconduct them to the khan. "The heart of the king is in the hand of the Lord.'
“15. Early this morning, Theologus, a Greek to whom we had a letter of recommendation, went with us to visit Gabriel, the Archbishop of this diocese. He has held his present office six years, is reputed a man of learning, but now quite aged, perhaps seventy-five. Formerly he had one bishop under him; now none, and but about 20 priests. His diocese includes Sardis on the west, and Laodicea on the east; but he
says there are not above 600 or 700 Greek houses in it. There are five churches in this town, besides 20 which are either old or small and not now used. The whole number of houses is said to be 8,000, of which 250 are Greek, the rest Turkish.
"16. Read the first chapter of John to the school master and a priest, and accompanied it with some remarks. Went out with a guide to see the city. From an ancient castle on the south we had a good view of the place. It is situated at
the foot of Mount Tmolus, the scuth side of the plain. It is nearly in the form of a parallelogram, and surrounded by walls now in decay. We counted six minarets. Saw the church in which, they say, the Christians assembled, to whom St. John wrote. It is now a mosque. We went to see a wall about a mile west of the town, said to have been built of men's bones. The wall now remaining is about 30 rods long, and in some places eight feet thick and ten high. The tradition is, that there was a church near the place dedicated to St. John, and when a vast multitude were assembled to celebrate his festival, the enemy came upon them and slew them all. Their bodies were not buried, but piled up together in the form of a wall. The wall seems to be composed principally, if not wholly, of bones. On breaking off pieces, we found some small bones almost entire.
“17. Brother Parson's illness continues. It is now more than a week since it commenced. If we pursue our way, as we had intended, to Laodicea, and thence to Smyrna by Ephesus, we must travel a considerable distance in a barbarous part of the country, with the prospect of very bad accommodations. It is disagreeable to think of returning without visiting all the Seven Churches. But Providence seems to call us to do so. Laodicea is, at present, almost nothing but ruins; and that part of the country presents very little opportunity for missionary labor. We cannot think it our duty to risk health and life by pursuing the journey in our present circumstances, and accordingly resolve to return to Smyrna.
“18. In six hours we arrived at Cassabar. Near this town the plain, in which we have been travelling, is divided by Mount Sypilus. One part extends west towards Magnisia and Menimen. Through this the Hermus runs. The other part extends toward Smyrna to the S. W, running
between Mount Sypilus and Mount Tmolus. A few moments after we arrived it began to rain.
Sabbath, 19. It is pleasant to have a room by ourselves on the Sabbath. The morning was tranquis, and we seemed to feel something of the sacredness of the day, though surrounded by the noise and bustle of business. Martino told some persons last evening, that we wish to see the Greek priests, and about noon three priests and a schoolmaster came to see us. We gave 40 Tracts to the master for his school, and about as many to the priests, one of them having requested some for a small village -in the neighborhood. They left as with many wishes and prayers for our prosperity, and soon sent us a platter of fowls and herbs for our journey.
“20. At half past seven we left Cassabar, and after riding three hours over the plain we came to the east end of Mount Sypilus, and continued our course at the foot of it on the N. side. For about two hours we found the mountain high and steep, composed principally of lime stone, and consequently barren. A little before we reached Magnisia, we found it composed of earth and covered with grain and grass, the height not so great, and the ascent more gradual.
“Reached Magnisia after a ride of five hours and a half from Cassabar. As we entered the town we counted 20 minarets. The mosques, as well as their minarets, are painted white, and give the city a more splendid appearance than we have before seen in Asia. We put up at a khan. Toward evening went out to see the priests and the school. Found several priests together, and gave them Tracts.
"Magnisia lies at the foot of Mount Sypilus, on the north, about 25 miles N. E. from Smyrna. The streets are wide and the houses better than we have seen in any other town on our journey, and the mar