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are clean in his own eyes : but the 18. Pride goeth before (2) destruction : LORD weigheth the spirits. 3. Com- and a haughty spirit before a fall

. mit thy works unto the LORD, and 19. Better it is to be of an humble thy thoughts () shall be established. spirit with the lowly, tban to divide 4. The Lord hath made (s) all things the spoil with the proud. 20. He that for (s) himself: yea, even the wicked (t) handleth a matter wisely, shall find for the day of evil. 5. Every one that good: and whoso trusteth in the LORD is proud in heart, is an abomination to happy is he. 21. The wise in heart the LORD: though hand join in hand, shall be called prudent, and the sweethe shall not be unpunished. 6. By ness of the lips (a) increaseth (6) learnmercy and truth iniquity is purged; ing. 22. Understanding is a well-spring and by the fear of the LORD, men of life unto him that hath it: bat the depart from evil. 7. When a man's instruction of fools is folly. 23. The ways please the LORD, he maketh even heart of the wise teacheth his mouth, and his enemies to be at peace with him. addeth learning to his lips. 24. Plea8. Better is a little with righteousness, sant words are as an honey-coinb, sweet than great revenues without right. to the soul, and health to the bones. 9., A man's heart deviseth his way: 25. There is a way that seemeth right but the LORD directeth (u) his steps. unto a man : but the end thereof are 10. A divine sentence is in the lips of the ways of death. 26. He that labourthe king : his mouth transgresseth not eth, laboureth for himself; for his mouth in judgment. 11. A just weight and craveth it of him. 27. An ungodly balance are the Lord's: all the

weights man diggeth up evil: and in his lips of the bag are his work. 12. It is an there is as a burning fire. 28. A froabomination to kings to commit wicked- ward man soweth strife, and a whisperer ness : for the throne is established by separateth chief friends. 29. A violent righteousness. 13. Righteous lips are man enticeth his neighbour, and leadthe delight of kings: and they love him eth him into the way that is not good that speaketh right. 14. The wrath 30. He shutteth his eyes to devise of a king is as messengers of death (r), froward things : moving his lips he but a wise man will pacify (y) it. 15. In bringeth evil to pass. 31. The huary the light of the king's countenance is head is a crown of glory, if it be found life, and his favour is as a cloud of the in the way of righteousness. 32. He latter rain. 16. How much better is it that is slow to anger, is better than the to get wisdom than gold ? and to get mighty: and he that ruleth his spirit

, understanding, rather to be chosen than than he that taketh a city. 38. The silver ? 17. The high-way of the up- lot is east into the lap : - but the right is to depart from evil: he that whole disposing thereof (c) is of the keepeth his way, preserveth his soul. LORD.

:(r) v. 3. “Thoughts," or “ wishes."

(s) v. 4. “ Hath made,” or “ maketh." “ For himself," i.e. “ for his own purposes

or glory."

(t) “ The wicked, &c." Either as in. struments to execute his vengeance, or as examples to undergo it.

(u) v. 9. “ Directeth,” or “ control. " leth." He cannot go beyond what God allows.

(3) v. 14. “ As messengers of death." Likely to be followed by the destruction of those who are its objects. So Prov. XX. 21. “ The wrath of a king is as the roar“ing of a lion : whoso provoketh him to

“ anger, sinneth against his own soul," i.e. “ hazardeth his life."

(y)“ Pacify," i.e. “ do what he can to “ pacify: it cannot be resisted."

(z) v. 18. “Goeth before," i. e. " lead“ eth unto."

(a) v. 21. “ Sweetness of the lips," i. e. “ eloquence," or " kind speaking.

(6)“ Increaseth," i e. « sets of;" “ makes more valuable."

(c) v. 33. “Disposing thereof." There is nothing God cannot regulate : even in the casting, of lots he can fix the event. A strong intimation of the extent of his power.

CHAP, XVII.

evil for good, evil shall not depart from

his house. 14. The beginning of strife Berter is a dry morsel, and quietness is as when one lettethout water (1): therewith, than a house full of sacri- therefore leave off contention before fices (d) with strife. 2. A wise servant it be meddled with. 15. He that justishall have rule (e) over a son that causeth fieth (m) the wicked, and he that conshanie: and shall have part of the in- demneth the just, even they both are heritance among the brethren. 3. The abomination to the LORD. 16. Wherefining-pot is for (g) silver, and the fore (n) is there a price in the hand of furnace for gold, but the LORD trieth a fool to get wisdom, seeing he hath no the hearts. 4. A wicked doer giveth heart to it? 17. A friend loveth at heed to false lips : and a liar giveth all times, and a brother is born (o) for ear to a naughty tongue. 5. Whoso adversity. 18. A man void of undermocketh the poor, reproacheth his standing striketh hands (p), and be Maker: and he that is glad at calamities, cometh surety in the presence of his shall not be unpunished. 6. Childrens friend. 19. He loveth transgression that children are the crown of old men; and loveth strife: and he that exalteth his the glory of children are their fathers. gate (9) seeketh destruction. 20. He 7. Excellent speech becometh not a that hath a froward heart findeth no fool: much less do lying lips a prince. | good : and he that hath a perverse 8. A gift is as a precious stone in the tongue falleth into mischief.

21. He eyes of him that hath it: whithersoever that begetteth a fool doeth it to his it turneth, it prospereth. 9. He that sorrow: and the father of a fool hath covereth a transgression (h), seeketh no joy. 22. A merry heart doeth good love; but he that repeateth a matter, like a medicine: but a broken spirit separateth very friends. 10. A reproof drieth the bones. 23. A wicked man entereth (i) more into a wise man, than taketh a gift (r) out of the bosom () to an hundred stripes into a fool. 11. An pervert the ways of judgment. 24. Wisevil man seeketh only rebellion : there- dom is before(s) him that hath underfore a cruel messenger (k) shall be sent standing; but the eyes of a fool are in against him. 12. Let a bear robbed the ends of the earth (t). 25. A foolish of her whelps meet a man, rather than a son is a grief to his father, and bitterfool in his folly. 13. Whoso rewardeth ness to her that bare him. 26. Also to

(n) v. 16. “ Wherefore," i.e. « to what “ purpose.”. Why should a fool be supplied with the means of getting wisdom? he will never use them.

(o) v. 17. “ Born for :" his services then

en

(d) v. 1..“ Sacrifices," “ the choicest " things." (e) 0. 2. “ Rule over," i. e.

" rank above," “ be preferred unto." pot and the furnace try the precious metals, so the Lord trieth the hearts."

(h) v. 9. “Covereth a transgression," i. e. (perhaps)

“ overlooks or conceals an « indignity."

(i) v. 10. .“ Entereth more into," i. e. " has a greater effect upon.”

(k) v. 11. “ A cruel messenger," “ one “who shall bring him to severe punish"ment:" probably a proverb.

(1) v. 14. “ As when one letteth out “ water," (which cannot be brought back or controlled): “ the effects, the mischief it " will do, cannot be foreseen or checked.”

(m) v. 15. “Justifieth," i.e." judicially “ acquits; treats as innocent. 1 Magee, “ note 42. p. 407."

for which he was born.

(p) v. 18. “ Striketh hands," i. e.

gages, pledges himself;" the same as “ becoming surety."

(9) v. 19. “ Exalteth his gate," i. e. " is “ proud, or insolent.”

(r) v. 23. “A gift," i. e. “ a bribe." “ Out of the bosom," i. e. “ brought “ secretly and clandestinely."

(s) v. 24. “Before,” i. e. -" always in " the view of,” “ never lost sight of;" “ his guide."

(t) " In the ends of the earth," i. e. (perhaps) " gazing upon what he cannot * distinctly see:" so that whether it will guide him well or ill, he cannot know.

punish the just is not good, nor to strike that keepeth understanding, shall find princes for equity. 27. He that hath good. 9. A false witness shall not be knowledge spareth his words : and a unpunished, and he that speaketh lies man of understanding is of an excellent shall perish. 10. Delight (d) is not -spirit. 28. Even a fool, when he hold- seemly for a fool: much less for : eth his peace, is counted wise: and he servant to have rule over princes. that shutteth his lips is esteemed a man

11. The discretion of a man deferreth of understanding

his anger, and it is his glory to pass

over a transgression. 12. The king's CHAP. XIX.

wrath is as the roaring of a lion (e); Better is the poor that walketh in his but his favour is as dew upon the grass integrity, than he that is perverse in his 13. A foolish son is the calamity of his lips (u), and is a fool. 2. Also, that father; and the contentions of a wife are the soul (x) be without knowledge, it is a continual dropping (8). 14. House not good : and he that hasteth with his and riches are the inheritance of (1) fxfeet (y), sinneth. 3. The foolishness thers; and a prudent wife is from tbe of man perverteth his way (2): and LORD. 15. Slothfulness casteth into a his heart fretteth against the Lord. deep sleep (i); and an idle soul shall 4. Wealth maketh many friends; but suffer hunger. 16. He that keepeth the poor is separated from his neigh- the commandment, keepeth his own bour (a). 5. A false witness shall not soul (k); but he that despiseth his way be unpunished, and he that speaketh shall die. 17. He that hath pity upon lies shall not escape.

6. Many will the poor, lendeth unto the LORD; intreat the favour of the prince; and and that which he hath given, will every man is a friend to him that giveth he pay him again. 18. Chasten thy gifts. 7. All the brethren (6) of the son while there is hope, and let not poor do hate him : how much more do thy soul spare for his crying. 19. A his friends go far from him ? he pur- man of great wrath shall suffer punishsueth them with words, yet they are ment: for if thou deliver (l) him, yet wanting to him.

8. He that getteth thou must do it again. 20. Hear counwisdom, loveth (c) his own soul : he sel and receive instruction, that thou

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(u) v. 1. “Lips, and is a fool;" or

ways, " and is rich. 1 Kenn. 509. Parkh. Heb. “ Dic. 329." 66 Than the rich who is per“ verse in his lips. Grot." “ Than the “ rich who is perverse in his ways, and a " a fool. Pole.”

(x) v. 2. “ That the soul, &c." or .f soul without knowledge is not good."

“ Hasteth with his feet," i. e.“hurries on without thought;" “ acts without “ consideration;" “ is rash.”

(z) v. 3. “ Perverteth his way, &c." i.e. (either) “ leads him into wrong courses," or “ frustrates his attempts ;" and then he murmurs against God for what his own folly brings.

(a) v. 4. “From his neighbour.” “ They " who live nearest disregard him."

(6) v. 7. “ The brethren,” “ even his kinsmen desert him : much more they “ who have no tie but friendship."

(c) v. 8. “Loveth,” i.e. “ serveth, doeth “ good to;" “ acts as if be loved.”

(d) v. 10.“ Delight," i. e.“ pleasure."

“ Joy is as much misplaced when conferred “on him, as the rule over princes is nie“placed, when given to a servant."

(e) v. 12. “ As the roaring of a lion;" • as much to be dreaded ;" * as likely to “ bring destruction." In Prov. xvi. 14. “ The wrath of a king is said to be a

messengers of death."

(g) v. 13. " A continual dropping," “ which must at last wear a man e out."

(h) v. 14. “ Are the inheritance of," i.e. « descend from.” A man's ancestors may give him wealth: a prudent wife is a gift none but God can bestow.

(i) v. 15. “Sleep," “ so as to waste the “ hours in which subsistence ought to be “ obtained."

(k) v. 16. “ Keepeth his own soul,” i. e. “ shall live."

(1) v. 19. “ Deliver," or " spare." For “ bearance or lenity will never check “ him."

mayest be wise in thy latter end. one that hath understanding, and he 21. There are many devices in a man's will understand knowledge. 26. He heart (m); nevertheless the counsel of that wasteth his father, and chaseth away the LORD, that shall stand: 22. The his mother, is a son that causeth shame, desire (n) of a man is his kindness: and and bringeth reproach. 27. Cease, my a poor man is better than a liar. 23. The son, to hear the instruction that causeth fear of the Lord tendeth to life, and he to err from the words of knowledge. that hath it shall abide satisfied: he 28. An ungodly witness scorneth judgeshall not be visited with evil. 24. A ment; and the mouth of the wicked deslothful man hideth his hand in his bo- voureth (p) iniquity. 29. Judgements are som, and will not so much as bring it to prepared for scorners, and stripes for his mouth again. 25. Smite a scorner (o), the back of fools. and the simple will beware; and reprove

ISAIAH. CHAP. I. The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, | Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jowhich he saw (2) concerning Judah and tham (r), Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of (m) v. 21. “A man's heart.” The con- (p) v. 28.

“ Devoureth," i. e. “ feeds trast is between man's purposes and God's: “greedily upon; makes it his food; swalwhatever man may devise, it is God's coun- “ lows it as gluttons do dainties." sel only that shall stand. So Ps. xxxiii. (9) v.1. “Concerning," or "against." 10, 11. And see post, Is. xliv. 25, 26, 1 Chrys. 720.

(n) v. 22. “ The desire, &c." i. e. (per- (r) v. 1.“ Uzziah, Jotham, &c." Isaiah haps) " attraction." « Kindness makes a is supposed to have begun to prophesy in man sought after: but even a poor man, the last

year

of Uzziah's reign, and to have one who has no power to confer benefits, prophesied at intervals till the 15th or 16th “ is better than a liar, i. e. one who pro- year of Hezekiah, or even to the first year fesses what he will not perform, or one of Manasseh, about 72 years before Jerewho can give aid and pretends he cannot.” miah began. He lived in the same times

(o) v. 25.“ A scorner.' Who must be with Hosea, Amos, Micah, and Nahum, smitten, because reproof, words alone, and perhaps Joel ; and he began to prowhich will be sufficient for a man of under- phecy before Micah and Nahum, but after standing, will have no effect upon him; and Hosea, Joel, and Amos. the example, in smiting him, will do good. The following Table, shewing the duration of each reign from the commencement of

Uzziah's till the Babylonish captivity, and the character of the respective kings, will be of use in reading Isaiah and the subsequent Prophets :

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Judah. 2. Hear (s), O heavens (t), and “ brought up (*) children, and they give ear, earth: for (u) the LORD “ have rebelled against me.

3. The “ hath spoken, “ I have nourished and “ox (y) knoweth (7) his owner, and the

was upon

(s) v. 2. “ Hear, &c.". The prophecy “ and have forsaken him, and have turned in this chapter was probably delivered “ away their faces from the habitation of in the time of Ahaz. The state of the “ the Lord, and turned their backs. Also nation (as described verse 2 to 8.), cor- “ they have shut up the doors of the porch, responds with his times, not with those “ and put out the lamps, and have not of Uzziah, Jotham, or Hezekiah. Uzziah “ burned incense, nor offered burnt-offerand Jotham were successful against the “ings in the holy place, unto the God of neighbouring nations, and had God's “ Israel : wherefore the wrath of the Lord help (2 Chron. xxvi. 6 to 8. and 2 Chron.

Judah and Jerusalem; and he xxvii. 5, 6.); and though in Hezekiah's “ hath delivered them to trouble, to astontime Sennacherib took the fenced cities of “ ishment, and to hissing, as ye see with Judah, and forced Hezekiah for a time to

your eyes. (2 Chron. xxix 6 to 8.”) It pay him tribute, yet was Hezekiah soon is to the time of Ahaz, therefore, that this miraculously delivered from his power ; prophecy should (apparently) be ascribed. and the people in Hezekiah's time shewed

Vitringa, however, refers it to the time of great zeal in abolishing idolatry, and re- Hezekiah, shortly after the entire destructurning to the true worship of God. (See tion of the kingdom of Israel by Shalmane 2 Kings xviii. 3. 19, 14. — 2 Kings xix. zer, which was in the 6th year of Hezekiah.

- and 2 Chron. xxix. to xxxii.) But in It is an entire piece of itself, unconnected Ahaz's time the nation was brought very with the following chapters; containiog a low, because of Ahaz; and their sins were severe remonstrance against the prevailing very high. The king of Syria carried away corruptions, and strong exbortations to rea great multitude of the Jews captive to Da. pentance; threatening the impenitent, and mascus. Pekah, king of Israel, slew of

promising better things when the nation them in one day 120,000, all valiant men, should be reformed. The expressions are The Edomites also smote Judah, and car. clear, the connection easy: as to the images, ried away captives; and the Philistines sentiment, and style, it is a beautiful exinvaded and took many of their cities and ample of Isaiah's elegant manner, though villages, and dwelt there. (See 2 Chron. not equal to many of his other prophecies. xxviii. 5, 6. 17 to 20.) The sins of Ahaz See 2 Lowth. 4. were enormous; and God's judgments upon (t) “ Hear, O heavens, &c." A solemn the nation had no effect towards reclaiming invocation, to intimate the importance of him. He made molten images for Baalim, what he was about to say. It begins as burned his children in the fire after the the song of Moses, Deut. xxxii.; perhaps abomination of the heathen, and sacrificed to call attention to that song, and to inti. and burnt incense in the high places, and mate, that the state and times to which on the hills, and under every green tree.

song

looked forward were now In his distress, too, after being smitten by arrived. the Syrians, he sacrificed to the gods of (u) “ For, &c." or, “it is the Lord that Damascus, and said, “ Because the gods “ speaketh." " of the kings of Syria help them, therefore (c) “ Nourished and brought up." So " will I sacrifice to them, that they may that I had every reason to expect a grateful "help me." And he cut in pieces the return. vessels of the house of God, and shut up (y) v. 3. “ The ox," and “the ass," the the doors of the house of the Lord, and dullest of all animals. And yet have they made him altars in every corner of Jeru. more sense and gratitude than God's peosalem ; and in every several city of Judah ple. So Jer. viii. 7. “ The stork in the he made high places to burn incense unto in heaven knoweth her appointed times: other gods. (2 Chron. xxviii. 2 to 4. and 22 « and the turtle and the crane and the to 25.) The concurrence of the people in " swallow observe the time of their coa these abominations may be collected from “ing: but my people know not the judge Hezekiah's statement to the Levites, in the « ment of the Lord." first year of his reign : “ Our fathers (z)“ Knoweth,” i.e. " regards with “ have trespassed, and done that which "gratitude;" and yet for how little in con

was evil in the eyes of the Lord our God, parison have they to be thankful ! they are

part of that

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