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16. For(z)before the child (a)shall know " shall not be such as was in her vexto refuse (6) the evil, and choose the good, “ ation, when at the first (i) he (k) “ the land that thou abhorrest (c) shall lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun “ be forsaken (d) of both her kings.” " and the land of Naphtali, and after

“ ward (1) did more grievously afflict CHAP. IX. to v. 8. (e)

her by the way of the sea (m), beyond

“ Jordan, in Galilee of the nations. · NEVERTHELESS (g) the dimness (h)

(h) "2

2. The people that walked in darkbably) that he

reach the


of know- vengeance he had been denouncing. This ing, be reared to that age, or - till he leads naturally to the rapturous exclamshall know.

ations upon the nature and blessings of this (z) v. 16. “ For," or moreover.” This light. See 1 Lightf. 622, 623.-2 Lightf. seems a new and distinct prophecy, refer- 181. Bp. Lowth has materially improved ring to what was the immediate subject of the translation of the early part of the Ahaz's alarm.

chapter. “ But there shall not hereafter. (a) “ The child,” or “ this child,” i. e. “ be darkness in the land which was dis(as many think) “Shearjashub," whom “ tressed; in the former time he debased Isaiah was ordered to take with him to " the land of Zebulun and the land of meet Ahaz, Isaiah vii. 3. The object is “ Naphtali; but in the latter time he hath supposed to be, by giving a pledge which “ made it glorious; even the way of the should come to pass before that child, “sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the naShearjashub, should reach the age of dis- “ tions. The people that walketh in dark. tinguishing good from bad, to make the “ness have seen a great light, they that punctual performance of the more distant “ dwell in the land of the shadow of death, promise, the virgin's conception, free from “ unto them hath the light shined. Thou doubt. See Chandl. Def. 316 to 339. Dr. " hast multiplied the nation, thou hast inTrapp's 1st Discourse, and Benson's Intro- “creased their joy; they rejoice before duction, xxiii. to xxv. In Isaiah viii. 4. is “ thee, as with the joy of harvest, as they a promise, that before another child, Ma. “ rejoice who divide the spoil. For the hershalalhashbaz, should have knowledge " yoke of his burthen, the staff laid on his to cry "My Father, and My Mother, (i. e. “ shoulder, the rod of his oppressor hast "to speak plain)" the riches of Damascus “ thou broken, as in the day of Midian. and the spoil of Samaria (the capitals of " For the graves of the armed warrior in Syria and Israel) should be taken away be- “ the conflict, and the garments rolled in fore the king of Assyria. The mode of “ much blood shall be for a burning, even expression there throws light on this pas

« fuel for the fire. For unto us, &c.” sage.

Dr. Hales's rendering of part of the passage (6) " Know to refuse, &c." i. e. “ attain is also entitled to notice. “ As (God) in of discretion."

“ the former times debased the land of (c)'" Abhorrest," or "fearest,” referring “ Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, so in to the countries of Syria and Israel. 2 Hales,

" the future shall he make glorious (by) 455.

way of the sea, beside Jordan, Ga(d) “Forsaken," or " deprived. 2 Hales, “ lilee of the nations. The people that 455."

“ walked, &c." See also Mede on Rev. 77, (e) A prophetic ecstacy, upon contem- 78. and Kidder, 95. plating the blessings of the Messiah.

(i) “ At the first;" referring probably to (g) v. 1. “ Nevertheless," or " for." the invasion of Benhadad, 1 Kings xv. 26. (h) “ The dimness, &c.” The preceding (b) “He,” i.e. perhạps impersonally. chapter ended with denouncing one of in “ Afterward;” perhaps alluding to God's heavy visitations, referring probably the captivity by Tiglath-pileser, king of to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Assyria, 2 Kings xv. 29. Mede on Revel. Romans; and the meaning here seems to

77, 78. be, that at the time he is contemplating, (m) “ The way of the sea,” leading want of light shall not be a ground, as in from Syria through the middle of Caperformer instances, for a mitigation of seve- naum to Jordan, and from thence by the rity; that the objects of this visitation sea of Galilee into Egypt. Mede on Revel. should act in opposition to the strongest | 77, 78. light, and thereby justify to the utmost the


to years

<< the


ness, have seen (n) a great light (o):

“ crease of his government and peace “they that dwell in the land of the

" there shall be no end (y), upon the “ shadow of death, upon them hath (0) " throne of David, and upon his king“ the light shined. 3. Thou hast multi- • dom, to order it, and to establish it

plied the nation, and not increased (p) “ with judgment and with justice (= " the joy: they joy before thee, ac

“ from henceforth even for ever: the cording to the joy (9) in harvest (r), “ zeal of the LORD of hosts will perand as men rejoice when they divide « form this.” “ the spoil (r). 4. For thou hast broken “ the yoke (s) of his burden, and the

CHAP. XI. (a) “ staff(s) of his shoulder, the rod (s) And there shall come forth a rod (6) “ of his oppressor, as in the day of “ out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch 6 “ Midian (t). 5. For every battle of " shall grow out of his roots. 2. And 6 the warrior is with confused noise and “ the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon garments rolled in blood, but this shall

“ him, the spirit of wisdom and under“ be with burning (u) and fuel of fire. “standing, the spirit of counsel and “6. For unto us a child is (v) born, might, the spirit of knowledge, and “ unto us a son is (v) given; and the 6 of the fear of the Lord: 3. And shall

government shall be upon his shoul- “ make him of quick understanding in “ der : and his name shall be called (7) “ the fear of the LORD, and he shall no: " Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty “judge after the sight of his eyes, nei“ God, The everlasting Father, The “ther reprove after the hearing of “ Prince of Peace (r). 7. Of the in

4. But with righteousness

66 his ears.

(n) v. 2. “ Have seen,” and “ hath probably is, that the deliverance he con• shined," i. e. " shall see," and “ shall, templated was not an ordinary deliverance, “shine." The past for the future: as cer- but one whose tendency should be, to tain as though it had already happened. make wars to cease throughout the earth.

(0) “A great light,”i.e. “the Messiah," See note (z) on Ps. xlvi. 9. ante, 311. the person referred to in verse 6.

(v) v. 6. “ Is," i.e. " is to be;" the (p) v. 3. “ And not increased," rather present for the future. See note (n) 03 " thou hast increased. Pole." Or it may be verse 2. interrogatively, “ Hast thou multiplied the

(w) “ His name shall be called," i, e. “ nation, and not increased the joy ?" and " he shall be." then the extent of that joy and the grounds (x) “ Of peace.” So that peace (or prin for it are naturally enumerated. See Dr. ciples calculated to produce it), was to be Lowth in loco.

one of the characteristics of his kingdon (9) “ The joy in harvest.” A proverb See ante, Is. ii. t. - Mic. v. 5. for great joy.

(y) 1. 7. “ No end." So Dan. vii. 14. (r) “ Harvest,” and “ spoil.” Sources “ His” (i. e. the Messiah’s) “ dominion ia of joy ; the one in peace, the latter in war. “ an everlasting dominion, which shall not

(s) v. 4. “ The yoke, &c.” “ the staff, &c." “ the rod, &c." figurative expressions

pass away, and his kingdom that which

« shall not be destroyed. to denote the weight of those burthens (the ii44. Dan, vii. 18. 27. burthens of sin) from which they were to (7) “With judgment and with justice." be delivered.

Another characteristic. See post, 1s. xi. 4. (t) “Of Midian." See Judges vi. vii. (a) A prophetic account of the characviii. This was one of God's signal deli- ter of the Messiah, and the peaceable na verances, about 1250 years before Christ. ture of his kingdom, of the call of the Israel served the Midianites seven years ; Gentiles, and restoration of the Jews. and at the end of that time, Gideon, with (6) v. 1. “A rod," and " a branch," i... 300 men, went up against Midian : their " the Messiah.” Though the nation might hosts were discomfited and fell upon each have been so reduced, that they might be other, their princes and 120,000 men were compared to a tree which had nothing left slain, and Israel was delivered.

but stem and roots, yet from thence should (u) v. 5. "Burning, &c." Burning arms a rod or shoot come forth, and a branch was a symbol of peace; and the meaning grow. See 2 Lightf. 584.

And see Dan.


“shall he judge the poor, and reprove (c) “shall play on the hole of the asp, and “ with equity for the meek of the earth : “ the weaned child shall put his hand "and he shall smite the earth (d) with “ on the cockatrice-den. 9. They shall " the rod of his mouth, and with the “ not hurt (h) nor destroy in all my holy " breath of his lips shall he slay the mountain: for the earth shall be full “ wicked. 5. And righteousness shall “ of the knowledge of the Lord, as (i) “ be the girdle of his loins, and faith- 66 the waters cover the sea. 10. And in “fulness the girdle of his reins. 6. The " that(k) day there (1) shall be a root(m) "wolf (e) also shall dwell with the lamb, “ of Jesse, which shall stand for an en"and the leopard shall lie down with “sign (n) of the people; to it shall the " the kid : and the calf and the young “ Gentiles seek (0), and his rest shall be “ lion and the fatling together, and a “glorious. 11. And it shall come to " little child shall lead them. 7. And

pass in that day, that the LORD shall “the cow and the bear shall feed (8); set his hand again the second time, to “their young ones shall lie down to- recover the remnant (p) of his people

gether; and the lion shall eat straw “ which shall be left, from Assyria, and “ like the ox. 8. And the sucking child “ from Egypt, and from Pathros, and (c) v. 4. “ Reprove, &c." or

" with “ Jesus hath sent mine angel, &c. I am the equity work conviction in. I Fab. 105.". root and offspring of David, &c."

(d) « « Smite the earth." One of the cha- (n) v. 10. 12. “ An ensign.” To collect racteristics of the Messiah. See ante, note followers, to gather together those who on Is. ïi. 4.

will range under his standard. See Is. (e) v. 6. “ The wolf, &c." figuratively: xlix. 22. and Is. Ixii. 10. "Such shall be the harmony and concord, (6) “ The Gentiles.” Another prophecy " that the most violent dispositions shall of the coming in of the Gentiles; of their “not molest the meekest.” It corresponds adopting Christ's religion. See ante, Is. ïi. with the description of the same period, 2. and the note there. Is. ii. 4. ante, 625, “they shall beat their (p) v. ll. “ The remnant, &c.” One, "swords into plough-shares, &c.” And see amongst many, of the prophetic intimations Is. Ixv. 25.

of a signal restoration of the Jews. The (g) v. 7. “ Feed,” add "together." dispersion of the Jews into all nations, so

(h) v. 9. “ Hurt, &c.” So Is. ii. 4. “ Na- distinctly denounced against them for dis"tion shall not lift up sword against nation, obedience, Deut. xxviii. 25. 37. 64. and “neither shall they learn war any more.' their continuance as a marked and separate Though it is the natural tendency of Chris. people, is one of the signal miracles of tianity to produce peace upon earth, and God's hand, and bears the strongest testigoodwill between man and man, so that mony to the truth of the Mosaic writings. there would be no wars or dissensions if its These writings contain what appears a dictates were universally followed, yet it is plain and clear prophecy of the future probable both these passages in chapter ii. restoration of the Jews : 6. It shall come and chapter xi. refer to a period not yet “ to pass, when all these things are come arrived.

upon thee, the blessing and the curse, (i) “ As," i. e. “ as completely;" the “ which I have set before thee, and thou earth shall be as full of the knowledge “shalt call them to mind among all the naof the Lord, as the sea is of water ; there “ tions whither the Lord thy God hath shall be no place this knowledge shall not “ driven thee, and shalt return unto the reach.

“ Lord thy God, and shalt obey his voice (k) v. 10." In that day," i. e. (probably) “ according to all that I (i. e. Moses) com" when Christianity shall have made such “ mand thee this day, thou and thy chil"progress."

“ dren, with all thy heart, and with all thy (1) There shall be, &c." or " the root “ soul; that then the Lord thy God will " of Jesse, which standeth for an ensign, “ turn thy captivity, and have compassion "&c. 1 Fab. 106."

“ upon thee, and will return and gather (m) A root, &c." i. e. “ the Messiah ;" “ thee from all the nations whither the 80 called, Rev. v. 5. “ Behold the lion of “ Lord thy God hath scattered thee. And " the tribe of Judah, the root of David hath " the Lord thy God will bring thee into the "prevailed, &c.” And Rev. xxii. 16.“ I “ land which thy fathers possessed, and

“ from Cush, and from Elam, and from “off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, “ Shinar, and from Hamath, and from “ and Judah shall not rex Ephraimn. “ the islands of the sea. 12. And he “ 14. But they shall fly upon (t) the “ shall set up an ensign for the nations, " shoulders of the Philistines (u) to“ and shall assemble the outcasts of “ ward the west, they shall spoil them “ Israel (9), and gather together the dis- “ of the east together : they shall lay

persed of (9) Judah, from the four cor- “their hand upon Edom and Moab, “ ners of the earth. 13. The envy also " and the children of Ammon (u) shall " of Ephraim (r) shall depart, and the “ obey them. 15. And the Lord shall “ adversaries (s) of Judah shall be cut utterly destroy the tongue (20) of the


“ thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee the appellation of “ Ephraim,” because the "good, and multiply thee above thy fa- tribe of Ephraim was in his time the most " thers, &c. Deut. xxx. I to 5.”. Io speak- powerful. See Isaiah vii. 2. 5. 9. 17. – ing of this and other prophecies on the ix. 9. So Zech. ix. 10. same subject, in his admirable Lectures on (s) - Adversaries," rather “enmity." the last four books of Moses, Dr. Graves " That the dissensions between the ten (the present Dean of Ardagh in Ireland) “ tribes and the two, those who were under observes, “ Undoubtedly the language of “ the kings of Israel, and those who were “ prophecy justifies the Jews in looking “ under the kings of Judah, should cease." “ forward to some most signal and favour- See Zechariah ix. 10. where in the pro“ able change, some illustrious restoration phecy of the times of Christianity it is “ of divine favour and temporal prosper- said, “ I will cut off the chariot from “ity.” And it may be collected as his “ Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalemi, opinion, that whatever may be the accom- " and the battle bow shall be cut off," plishment of these predictions, it is clear it and Ezek. xxxvii. 21, 22. 24. 28. where, in has never yet taken place : that as to the reference to times not yet arrived, " Thus time and circumstances of the event, the " saith the Lord God, “ Behold, I will Christian will pronounce his opinion with “ take iwe children of Israel from among great caution and reserve, but that the “ the heathen, whither they shall be gone, circumstances of the world at the time he " and will gather them on every side, and was writing, give reason to believe it is ap- “ bring them into their own land: and I proaching : that the change will probably “ will make them one nation in the land consist, primarily, in the conversion of the

upon the mountains of Israel: and one great bulk of the entire nation, the de- “ king shall be king to them all : and they scendants of the ten tribes as well as of the “ shall be no more two nations, neither two, to Christianity, and that when once “ shall they be divided into two kingdoses converted, they may become, in the lands

any more at all : and David my servant" in which they are dispersed, such irresist- i.e. the Messiah) “ shall be king over ible preachers as to carry conviction to " them: and they all shall have one every heart. 2 Graves, 147, 448. 454. 473, “ Shepherd : they shall also walk in my 474. See ante, note (s) on Deut. iv. 27. 30. judgments, and observe my statutes,

(9) v. 12. “Israel," i. e. (perhaps) “the “and do them: and the heathen shall “ ten tribes ;” and “ Judah," the two. At “ know that I the Lord do sanctify Israel

, Cochin, in China, there is a colony of Is.

“ when my sanctuary shall be in the midst raelites, about 16,000, whom Dr. Buchanan “ of theni for evermore." considers as descended from the ten tribes.

(t) v. 14. “Fly upon," i. e. perhaps, 2 Graves, 435-6. 1 Fab. 66. “ The Aff “ make common cause against." “ ghans and Rohillas in Persia are perhaps (u) “Philistines," “ Edom," “ Moab," and “ of the same stock, as well as the Ameri- “the children of Ammon," i.e. (probably) " can Indians mentioned by Mr. Adair, “ the opposers of the true religion.” See “ many of whose rites, practices, and no- ante, 541. Numb. xxiv. 17, 18, (Balaam's “ tions seem to be of Israelitish origin.' prophecy,) where the future adversaries of See 1 Fab. on the Conversion of the Jews. God's religion are called by the names of 42 to 66.

the then opposers of his people, "Moab," (r) v. 13. “ Ephraim," i. e.

Sheth,” *** Edom," and " Seir.” And “ tribes," “ the subjects of the kings of see post, 638. Isaiah xxv. 10. “ Israel." Isaiah repeatedly gives them (w) d. 15.“ Tongue." A narrow piece

" the ten

Egyptian (2) sea, and with his mighty" and utterly spoiled: for the LORD • wind shall he shake his hand over “ hath spoken this word. 4. The earth “ the river (x), and shall smite it in the “ mourneth, and fadeth away, the seven streams, and make men go over

" world languisheth and fadeth away, “ dry shod. 16. And there shall be “ the haughty people of the earth do “an highway for the remnant of his “ languish. 5. The earth also is de“people which shall be left, from

66 filed under the inhabitants thereof: “ Assyria; like as it was to Israel in “ because they have transgressed the “ the day that he came up out of the “ laws, changed the ordinance, broken “ land of Egypt.”

" the everlasting covenant (6). 6. There

66 fore hath the curse devoured the CHAP. XXIV. (y)

earth, and they that dwell therein

are desolate : therefore the inhabit“ Behold the Lord maketh the « ants of the earth are burned, and few " earth (z) empty, and maketh it waste, “ men left. 7. The new wine mourn" and turnethit upside down, and “ eth (c), the wine languisheth, all the “ scattereth abroad the inhabitants “merry-hearted (d) do sigh. 8. The " thereof. 2. And it shall be, as with “ mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of “the people (a) so with the priest; as “ them that rejoice endeth, the joy of 6 with the servant, so with his master; “ the harp ceaseth. 9. They shall not “ as with the maid so with her mistress; “ drink wine with a song (e), strong “ as with the buyer so with the seller; 66 drink shall be bitter to them that “as with the lender, so with the bor- “ drink it. 10. The city of con

rower; as with the taker of usury so “ fusion (g) is broken down: every “ with the giver of usury to him. “ house is shut up that no man may “ 3. The land shall be utterly emptied, “ come in. 11. There is a crying for (h)


of land running into the sea. So 11 Lucan, carried the inhabitants of Judah and Jeru613. “ Tenuem producit in æquora lin- salem to Babylon; or that by the Romans, “guam.” This and the next verse are who finally destroyed Jerusalem within 40 figurative; and the meaning probably is, years after our Saviour's crucifixion; and that so far from impediments to the return it might relate even to more distant times. of the Jews and Israelites, it should meet (z) v. 1. “ The earth," i. e. “ the land with the greatest facilities — there should “ of Judea." be no obstacle; that where land would ob- (a) v. 2. “ As with the people, &c." struct them, it should be swallowed up

all ranks shall undergo the same where water, it should be made dry: that “ fate: none shall escape.” God would interpose as signally and effect- (6) v. 5. “ The everlasting covenant," ually, as if he were to destroy the tongue i. e. (probably) " the engagement man of the Egyptian sea and make it water ; “ makes with God.” The Israelites enor as if he were to dry up the streams of tered into such an engagement Exod. the Euphrates, and make it land. Mr. xxiv. 3 to 8. and Christians do the same Faber thinks the destruction of the Egyp- at baptism. tian and Turkish governments is referred (c) v. 7. “ The new wine mourneth," to, that they might not obstruct the re- i. e. either, “the means of making new turn of the ten tribes. See 1 Fab. 112 “ wine fail, (from the destruction of the to 126.

“ vineyards,)” or, “ even that, which (1) “ The Egyptian sea," i. e. “the " above all things used to produce mirth, “Nile :" “ the river," i. e. " the Euphra- “ has no longer that effect. “ tes. Mede, 529. Parkh. Hebr. Dict. (d) “ The merry-hearted," i.e. “ those « 206."

“ who used to be so." (y) There are no marks in this chapter (e) v. 9. “ With a song," i. e. “ there to confine its predictions to any one par. « will be no cheerfulness or singing even ticular event. It might have in view each amongst those who drink wine." of the three great desolations; that by (g) v. 10. “Confusion," or

“vanity," Shalmanezer, who carried away the ten “ idolatry." tribes; that by Nebuchadnezzar, who () v. 11. “A crying for," i.e. (per

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