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The LIBRARY (situated on the East Side of the Quadrangle) consists of two Rooms, one over the other, 70 Feet long and 22 broad; both of them well furnished with Books, particularly fome valuable Manuscripts.
From hence we pass through the middle Gate into the GARDEN-Court, which widens by Breaks as we approach the Garden. This Court is feparated from the Garden, by an Iron Gate and Palisade which extend 130 Feet in Length, and admit of an agreeable Prospect of the Garden through them. In the Garden is a beautiful Mount · well disposed, behind which and on the North Side are some curious and uncommon Shrubs and Trees. The whole is surrounded by a Terras. Great Part of the Garden, as well as fome Parts of the College,
is encompass'd by the City Wall, which serves as · a Fence to the College, and is to be traced with its
Battlements and Bastions along the North and
South Boundaries of the College. 31At the South East Corner of the Garden we - enter the BOWLING-GREEN; which is neat and 3commodious. Opposite to the Entrance is a Pavi.
lion; 'on the Right Aowering Shrubs, and a Row of Elms to shade the Green, and on the Left a Row of Sycomores, which are a great Curiosity, being incorporated from one End of the Row to
the other. 1. Having conducted our Reader to the furtheft
Part of the College, we would recommend a View of the Building from the Mount; whence the Garden Court, in particular, has a very grand
Effect: For from thence the Wings appear pro.: perly display'd, and the whole is seen at a conve
nient Distance. The Perspective View annexed was taken from thence.
In a small Court belonging to the Warden's Lodgings, and adjoining to the Lane leading to
Queen's College, is a very ancient Mulberry Tree; which before the severe Winter in 1739, was fawn asunder; and after having lain at length on the Ground (being intended for Fuel) above a full Year, it was raised up on a Stone-pitch'd Area against a Wall; with no other View but to remove the Inconvenience of its lying in the Way: But it foon began to put forth luxuriant Branches, and it has now large Limbs, and bears great Quantities of Fruit every Year.
The last Curiosity we shall mention, is a beautiful elliptic Arch which is turned over the above Lane, for the Convenience of the Warden to pass into his Garden without coming out at the College Gate. The Lane it is thrown over does not turn at Right-Angles from that leading to the College, but runs obliquely; which renders the Contrivance of it the more artful and uncommon. A curious Observer will, nevertheless, if he examines the Ribs of the Arch, discover that they form straight. Lines from the Abutments on one Side to those on the other, notwithstanding the Whole in a Front-view.. seems a-twist.
This College was founded by William Longe, a Native of Wykeham in Hampshire, from whence he obtained the Name of William of WYKEHAM. His extraordinary Integrity recommended him to the higheft Trust and Favours of King Edward the
Third. When young he was employ'd by that King in most of the Building at that Time carried on by the Crown, particularly in the rebuilding Windsor Castle in the magificent Form in which it now appears. He was soon advanced to some of
the most considerable Preferments in the Church, and in 1367 was consecrated Bishop of Winchester, in the 4.3d Year of his Age. His Advancement in the State kept Pace with his Preferment in the Church. In 1364, the King granted him 20 s. per Day out of the Exchequer. He was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1364; and Chancellor of England, Sept. 17, 1367. Froissart says of Wykeham, that he was so much in favour with King Edward III. that every thing was done by him and nothing was done without him.
The Foundation Stone was laid March 5th, 1379, and it was finished on April 14, 1986. when the Warden and Fellows took Possession of it. In the Year following, St. Mary's College near Winchester was begun, and was finished and inhabited in the Year 1393, by a Warden, ten Fellows, three Chaplains, three Clerks, and fixteen Choristers; as also two Mafters and seventy Boys, out of whom a certain Number were to be annually elected as a Supply to New College. Both which Colleges this pious and munificent Founder law completed, making ample Provision for the support of each, and giving them fo regular and perfect a Body of Statutes, that many lucceeding Founders have compiled from them. And having survived many Years, he enlarged his Will with coftly Legacies of Jewels, · Plate, Money, and Books, to be distributed throughout the several Dioceses in which he was preferred, or had temporal Possessions, at his Decease. He died Sept. 27, 1404. when he was 80 Years of Age.
The University Sermon is preached here every Lady-Day and Trinity-Sunday in the Ante-Chapel.