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adelph, phil, and soph. These three parts are the parents of all the words of which I have just treated, and connected with them is all the information I have here sei forth. When I have added, that what I have said is only a very small part of what I might bare said, you will have some idea of the extent and value of etymological studies. The branchings of these three stems may be exhibited thus :adelph
s oph Philadelphia
philosophy philosopher, philosophically sophist, sophism, sophistry,
sophistical, sophistically. Do not suppose that I have chosen these three terms because they were specially prolific. I took adelph because it begins with the first letter of the alphabet. The other words followed of course. So far from the series being very prolific, one member of it, adelph, gives birth to only one word, and that word is etymologically unproductive.
My chief object, however, in going into this detail was to lay before you the principle on which the following list of words is drawn out, and the manner in which you are to study them. If you will faithfully, diligently, and perseveringly study these lists, combining with them the knowledge communicated in previous lessons, you will make rapid progress, and acquire a superior familiarity with the English language in all its elements. :
Having done with this triplet of words, and pursuing the order of the alphabet, I come to other Greek terms found in English :
GREEK STEMS. Greek words.
English words aethlos, a combat
athletic agogos, a leader
demagogue demos, the people
democracy kratos, strength
krat (crat) aristocracy aristos, best
aristocratic. In these lists I do not give the English meanings of the examples, lest you should be turned away from the efforts by which, from the aids furnished, you ought to be able to gather the significations yourself. When, however, it may appear desirable, I will quote instances from good authors of the employment of the words, and so you will obtain another kind of assistance. The most effectual teaching is that which leads persons to teach themselves.
“David's combat (with Goliah) compared with that of Dioxippus the Athenian Athlete.”—Delaney.
"The legislature of the kingdom (of England) is entrusted to three distinct powers, entirely independent of each other; first, the king; secondly, the lords, spiritual and temporal, which is an aristocratical Cesembly of persons selected for their piety, their birth, their wisdom, their valour, or their property; and thirdly, of the House of Commons (the representative of the democracy)." -Blackstone : “ Commentaries."
Exercises FOR PARSING. Philadelphia is the word employed by the Apostle Paul in his epistle to ihe Romans (xii. 10). Philadelphia, as em
by the Apostle to the Gentiles, is rendered in our English version by “brotherly love." A word of the same origin is used by the Apostle Peter, where (1. Pet. iii. 8) he gives the injunction love as brethren." Sophos is the Greek term found in that text: “ Professing themselves to be wise they became fools.” (Rom. i.
m. i. 22) The words just cited accurately describe the character of a sophist. A word derived from sophos is the word employed in this question : “ Whence hath this man this wisdom?” (Matt. xiii. 54.) Our word athletic has a word of the same origin in the words: “ Ye endured a great fight of afflictions." (Heb. x. 32.) The Greek demos is, in the original, used in the passage: "The people gave a shout.” (Acts xii. 22.). Kratos is in the New Testament represented by these English words,-namely, strength (Luke i. 51), power (Ephes. i. 10), and dominion (1. Pet. iv. 11).
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
just, just, right
mitt' (miss), to send
vis, sight, vision
fini, an end (final)
Alienate from, alien, another's (an alien) Questions: Where is the difference between to agree with and to agree to ? also between agree to and agree on? Form illustrative sentences. Where is the difference between admonish and admonish of? Form illustrative sentences. Besides working each term given in this list into a simple sentence, work into simple sentences words formed from them; as, admonition, admission, advocacy, agreement, alienation, taking care to employ the proper prepositions.
Study the following anecdote; write down the substance of it from memory; and then give an account of it to your fireside companions.
A WHALER IN A STORM. About eleven o'clock, I ventured on deck, and, for the first time in my life, saw what the ocean looks like in a storm. I could see nothing all around but heaving mountains of water; each succeeding wave seemed as if it would swallow up the labouring vessel, but it always appeared to melt away gently under us, except when one more rapid, or “ cross." would send water and spray washing over her decks and high up into the rigging. The motion of the ship was not uncomfortable, being very different from the short cross pitching we had experienced in the North Sea. I remained on deck about a quarter of an hour, gazing about me in silent wonder
and admiration, little thinking that the hitherto harmless waves were upon the very eve of proving their might over man's puny bolts and beams. Feeling it chilly, I went below. I had just entered the cabin and taken my seat, when the ship became motionless, as it were, and seemed to tremble in every beam. A report, like thunder, mingled with the rending and crashing of timber; sudden, and complete darkness, with a rush of water through the skylight, and the ship thrown on her beam-ends, showed me what one has to expect occasionally at sea. I scrambled on deck after the captain as I best could, scarcely knowing what had happened. Here nothing was to be seen but wreck and destruction. The quarter-deck was literally swept of everything, rails and bulwarks, almost all the stanchions, the binnacle, compasses, dog's couch, and nothing could be seen of the wheel but the nave. But the worst was still to come; two poor fellows were missing. One had perished unnoticed : he must have been killed amongst the wreck, washed overboard, and sunk like a stone. The other had been seen by the mate-for an in. stant only-floating on the binnacle and just sinking. No human assistance could have been rendered to them with such a sea running. Two other poor fellows were rather seriously injured, and took up my attention for some time. The captain, cool and collected, soon restored confidence to his men, and, in a short time, had the wreck cleared away, a long tiller shipped, and the vessel.again hove to. Spare spars were lashed to the stanchions that remained, so that ve had again something like bulwarks, but for many a day afterwards, the ship had a sadly-damaged and wrecky appearance.Goudsir's Arctic Voyage.
CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.–No. II.
“Mr. Mather laughed at me, to-day, when, in conversation with him, I said he like reading.'"-"Who is Mr. Mather?"-" The secretary of the Mechanics' Institution.”—“An unfit man for his office, I should judge, if he is accustomed to laugh at the mistakes of the members.”_" Well, however that may be, I really fancy I shall never be able to speak correct English, for I suppose he like reading' is wrong."-"Certainly, it is not good English."-" And yet, brother, I have tried to correct what you term the errors of my bringing-up; and now, alas ! I am as far off as ever.”-“ No, by no means as far off as ever, if only because you are trying to get right; earnest effort never wholly fails; you are a little too impatient; why, one thing you have overcome; you used to say "I speaks, and they speaks.'"_“Yes, and I someway had got it into my head that by dropping the s I should put all right." _“I have known others make a similar mistake. But come, I will endeavour to give you such instructions and explanations as shall make the case clear to you. Only observe that you must watch and suspect yourself, and you must never cease your self-questioning until you have rigidly applied and know that you habitually apply in practice that which you learn in study. For your comfort I may tell you that I know many persons who once spoke as ungrammatically as you do, nay, as you did, and who now both speak and write our language with neatness as well as strict accuracy. Let us begin. You know . what a noun is ?"_“Yos, a noun is a name.”-“Exactly, the noun may be called the namer, for it is the part of speech which gives i ames to things, to all objects and realities whether they are audible or visible, whether ihey are thoughis or feelings, whether
in the outer world or in the mind. Every real object, and some that are unreal; every thing known, conceived of, felt, or beheld is called a noun; for everything must, for grammatical purposes, have a name. If an idea or a material object has no name, it has, so far as grammar is concerned, no existence.”
"You know, also, what a pronoun is ?”_“Yes, a pronoun is a for-name, a word that stands in the place, or performs the work of a noun; thus, instead of saying 'he like reading'"-"No, go no farther, please to correct yourself.”—“Thank you, I am glad you stopped me."-"Learn to stop yourself when wrong.' _“I will try."-"Aye, that's the word ; as the children in the infant school sing, 'try, try, try again. Now proceed.”-“Well, then, instead of saying he likes reading' I might have said Thomas likes reading.'.-_Precisely ; then, you see, Thomas is the noun, and he the pronoun. So far, well."
"You know, also, what a 'person' means ?"-"Yes, I am a person."-"Well, that is pretty near the mark. Are there any other persons besides you in the world ?” “Yes, certainly, you for instance, and father and mother."--" Very good; now when you speak of yourself you say I, do you not?"-"Yes.”—“And when you speak to me you say you?"."Certainly."--"And when you speak of father and mother you say they?"-"I do."-"Well then, you see there are three ways of speaking of persons, as for instance, I, you, they.”_"Exactly so."-"Now of these, which think you is 'number onep"-"Well, I hope I am not selfish.”-“I meant no imputation; I dare say you are no more selfish than other people; however, is not • the great I' in all cases ' number one?' At any rate, we may, in grammar, call I the first person ; do you allow that?”'_“I suppose I must not object."-"Let us then call you the second person. Next to two stands three, and, consequently, he and they may be termed the third person. Mark, I represent the speaker, you the person spoken to, he the person spoken of? Do you understand? Here you have the same facts set forth in instances :
The Three Persons.
1. I love. 2. You love. 3. They love. Where I is the first person, you the second, they the third.”« Thank you, so far all is plain.”-“ Observe, then, that as there are (you know) two numbers, the singular and the plural, so each number has pronouns of its own. Here they are in full, the figures denoting the persons. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Singular.
Plural. 1. I love
We love 2. Thou lovest
You love 3. He loves
They love " What do you mean by personal pronouns?"-"Pronouns that indicate or relate to persons. They are called personal to distinguish them from other pronouns; but with those other pronouns do not trouble your head just now. Turn back to the form. In that form you see the model of good English, or the pattern which you are lo imitate. Mark then, that he, the third person, is the only person that has its verb ending in s. It was, then, rather Curivus that you should have struck off the s there, instead of dropping it in the first person singular, and in all the persons of the plural. In Hampshire, they are so fond of the s, that they put it to all the persons, except the second person singular; or if they make an exception, they do so where of all places they ought not, namely, in the third person singular. However, study what I have said,-study and imitate the example I have given. One word more. I have used and not explained the word verb.”-“0, you need not explain that; the verb, I know, is the doer, the verb represents action; for instance, love is a verb."-"Yes, give me some others.”_" Well, write is a verb, so is strike, and think, and run, and stop, and shout."-"Enough, enough. Now study and strive to apply these instructions.”_"Cannot you give me some instances to correct ?"-"I do not think the proper way to teach you good English is to put before you instances of bad English ; as, however, you are accustomed to these blunders, you can hardly be misled by them; probably you may, in my instances of bad English, recognise some old friends, from whose company I advise you to separate yourself now and for ever. Here, however, are some examples of first bad, and secondly good English; correct the former, and parse the latter."-"Parse, what is that?"-"Give the person and number of each instance."
Bad English to be corrected and avoided. I gives; they gives ; you gives ; thou gives; he give; we gives; they runs; he run; William cough; William and Mary coughs; why does they laugh ? They does not laugh; I does very well; they does badly; Henry ride well; de Henry ride well ? Sarah sing sweetly; the Sunday scholars goes to church; the curate read (present) the lessons impressively? do the clerk pronounce distinctly; you eats like a sloven; they drinks too much.
Good English to be parsed and imitated. The girl sings charmingly; the dogs bark; the hen clucks; the wind whistles; the storm rages; the tempest hurries on; you love reading; my father and mother go to church every Sabbath; how will the choristers sing? do the boys sing well ? the girls have a beautiful voice; thou singest out of tune; he keeps time very well; I praise diligent scholars; I entreat you to remain here; do you wish me to learn Latin ? good boys love learning; here, father is coming; he runs after the hare; hares have swift feet; does he
ve money ? he who loves money is not wise; he learns English; does he learn Latin ? they learn German, and you, I hear, learn Italian.
GREEK STEMS. Languages have their distinctive peculiarities which fit them for some special service in the great workshop of humanity. The numerous broad and open vowels of the Italian makes it specially suitable as the language of song. The strength and dignity of the Latin render it a good organ of civil government. The French, as being light and graceful, is unequalled as a medium of conversa. tion. The swell and pomp of the Spanish both represent and symbolise the people by whom it is spoken. Two or three languages possess almost every variety of excellence. Of those, the lowest in the scale is the English, which is distinguished alike for power, ex. pressiveness, delicacy, and music; yet it must, in these high qualities,