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influence over the English, and left bequests which remained after the source of that influence had ceased to exist. I may instance the reign of the profligate Charles II., when, with a Portuguese princess for his queen, that monarch, dependent on French bounty, allowed French writers and French tailors to set the fashion in England, and the language of high life, and partly of books, be. came a mongrel of bad French and worse English.

Abbreviation is one of the forms through which languages pass in their natural development. By abbreviation has the Latin passed into the Romance languages. The abbreviation has not been in the structure of sentences ; for in the structure of sentences expansion has taken place, and fulness ensued, so that it is difficult to render by the same number of words a passage from a Latin classic into a Romance tongue. The abbreviation has been in the forms of the words; the inflexions have been curtailed ; caseendings and person-endings, even to some extent tense and moodendings, have been diminished or done away. The words thus set free from bonds have followed new impulses of development, and given birth to new modes of utterance conformably with the progress of our modern civilisation ; and even produced new languages, any one of which would not suffer in comparison with classic Latin.

I have already intimated that the Saxon did not receive any very large inheritance immediately from the confused mass of words and tongues which ensued from the social collision of the North and the South. Yet do we owe to the Romance languages so much, that I am not at liberty to pass on until I have given some particulars, the rather that without the facts that ensue, a knowledge of the English lacks an important element.

Out of an original Latin term two or more English words were formed, either by some change in the body of the word, or some change in its termination; of these newly-coined words, one will be found to bear a close resemblance to its original; another will have departed from it in form and in meaning to a greater or less extent: the former is the older, probably the more scholar-like ; the latter is the more recent and the more popular. I subjoin a few instances, annexing contractions to show whence the terms have come to us, thus : Fr, shows that the word is derived directly from the French ; It. from the Italian ; and Sp. from the Spanish. When the English word seems to come to us immediately from the Latin, the contraction Lat. is prefixed :

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dud

clamare, to shout

Fr. claim, exclaim, reclaim commendare, to entrust Sp. commend, recommend comparare, to get together Sp. compare, prepare consuetudo, custom

Fr. costume, custom divinus, divine

Fr. divine, a divine, a diviner

Sp. don, duenna; dominus, a master

(Fr. dominate, dominion dubitare, to doubt

Š It. doubt;

Fr. dubitation dubius, uncertain

Lat. dubious, dubiety donum, a gift

Sp. donation ;

(Fr. donative
s a leading ; Fr. duchy;
aucarus, { Med, Lat. a duchy ) It, duke, doge
factio, a making

Fr. faction, fashion
fragilis, easily broken

Fr. fragile, frail gravis, heavy

Fr. grave, gravity, gravita hospes, a host

Fr. hospital, spital, hospitable

It. implicate; implicare, to fold in

(Fr. imply, implicit

Ś Sp. ingenious ingenium, genius

i Fr. engine magister, master

Sp. mister, mistress, master major, greater

Fi. major, majority, mayor opera, work

SFr. operate, operator, operation

It. opera pietas, piety

Fr. piety, pity. potio, drink

Fr. potion, poison
redimo, to buy of

Fr. redeemed, redemption
Romanus, Roman

Fr. Roman, Romance
securitas, security

Fr, security, surety senior, older

Fr. sire, sir salro, I save

Fr. save, safe, salutary separo, I put apart

Fr. separate, sever servio, I serve

Fr. serve, servant, sarf

s Sp. specie, species; species, a kind

{ Fr. special, especially superfices, a surface

Fr. surface, superficies, super

ficial This list pretends to nothing more than to give instances in which two or more words accrued from one Latin term. In some instances it is not easy to determine whether our English word came immediately from the Latin, or through some one of the Romance languages. If, however, the facts above set forth are correct in the main, then we learn how much our language has been enriched by the Romance tongues, and that we are chiefly under obligations to the French

Were this the place to enter into a statement and comparison of the words and forms in the Romance languages borrowed from the Latin, we should be able to do much to enforce on our pupils the study of the Latin as the mother tongue, and as the key to the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Portuguese; nor do we doubt that the knowledge of comparative philology which, thanks to German scholarship, is now rapidly spreading over the civilised

world, will ere long lead to what may be termed the genealogica. study of languages. Instead of spending many years in learning some little Latin and less Greek, after the tedious and almost futile plan of our ancient grammar-schools, the young will be led to study languages in their natural groups: the Indo-European group; the Shemitic group; the Celtic group ; and in subordinate classes, the Greek, the Latin, and the German group. With a good knowledge of Latin, which ought not to cost a boy above three years, a student, if rightly directed, could acquire the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Portuguese within two years, and at the same time receive great aid toward a minute and accurate knowledge of the English, especially if at the same time he was studying German together with its cognate tongues. The commercial prospects which are opening out in South America, and the dawn of civil liberty which seems rising in the south of Europe, will probably aid in accelerating the time when this new and effectual method of linguistical study shall supersede the present empirical, piecemeal, and uninstructive plans.

COMPOSITION.
Form each of the ensuing words into a sentence.
Words with their proper Prepositions.

. F. R.
To call on, at, for, on aļ Lat. cal, to call

person; at a house, s
Capable of,

Lat. cap, to receive
Care for,
Careful of, for,

Sax, car, solicitude
Careless of,
Carp at,

Lat. carp, to pluck
Catch at, up,

Dut. ketz, to catch
Caution against,

Lat. caut, to guard against
Certify of,

Lat. certus, certain
Change for, with,. . Fr. change, to change
Charge on, or against a Fr. charge, to load

person ; with a thing, 1 " Report the following anecdote :

A PARDON AT THE Rigur MOMENT. On the 29th of May, the whole garrison was paraded on the Castle-hill, at Edinburgh, and formed in three sides of a hollow square, facing inwards. With drums muffled and rolling, while the band played a solemn dead-march, three of the Highland recruits, each stepping slowly behind his open coffin, were brought by an armed escort down the winding pathway from the citadel, and placed in the vacant space of the square, opposite a numerous firing party, under the orders of the provost-marshal. It was a bright and beautiful summer morning, but there was a dark cloud on every face, for no ceremony is more impressive and terrible than a military execution-and on that morning three soldiers were to die. They were desired to kneel down beside their open coffins, while the following paper was read by the adjutant-general:-

du

clamare, to shout

Fr. claim, exclaim, reclaim commendare, to entrust Sp. commend, recommend comparare, to get together Sp. compare, prepare consuetudo, custom

Fr. costume, custom divinus, divine

Fr. divine, a divine, a diviner dominus, a master

Sp. don, duenna;

| Fr. dominate, dominion dubitare, to doubt

Š It. doubt;

Fr. dubitation dubius, uncertain

Lat. dubious, dubiety donum, a gift

{ Sp. donation;

| Fr. donative s a leading;

Fr. duchy; aucarus, ( Med, Lat, a duchy } It. duke, doge factio, a making

Fr. faction, fashion fragilis, easily broken

Fr. fragile, frail gravis, heavy

Fr. grave, gravity, gravita hospes, a host

Fr. hospital, spital, hospitable implicare, to fold in

| It. implicate;

(Fr, imply, implicit ingenium, genius

Sp. ingenious

Fr. engine magister, master

Sp. mister, mistress, master major, greater

FT. major, majority, mayor

SFr. operate, operator, operation opera, work

It. opera pietas, piety

Fr. piety, pity potio, drink

Fr. potion, poison
redimo, to buy of

Fr. redeemed, redemption
Romanus, Roman

Fr. Roman, Romance
securitas, security

Fr, security, surety senior, older

Fr. sire, sir salvo, I save

Fr. save, safe, salutary soparo, I put apart

Fr. separate, sever servio, I serve

Fr. serve, servant, sarf species, a kind

s Sp. specie, species ;

1 Fr. special, especially superfices, a surface

Fr. surface, superficies, super

ficial This list pretends to nothing more than to give instances in which two or more words accrued from one Latin term. In some instances it is not easy to determine whether our English word came immediately from the Latin, or through some one of the Romance languages. If, however, the facts above set forth are correct in the main, then we learn how much our language has been enriched by the Romance tongues, and that we are chiefly under obligations to the French

Were this the place to enter into a statement and comparison of the words and forms in the Romance languages borrowed from the Latin, we should be able to do much to enforce on our pupils the study of the Latin as the mother tongue, and as the key to the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Portuguese; nor do we doubt that the knowledge of comparative philology which, thanks to German scholarship, is now rapidly spreading over the civilised

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