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puls pend pens pen pet

Latin wards.

Stems.

English words, pectus (pectoris), the breast pector expectcrate peculium, private property pecul

peculation pecunia, money

ресип

pecuniary pello, I drive

pel

expel, impel pulsus, driven

repulsion, ex pulsion pendo, I hang, weigh

depend, pendulum, sti pend pensus, hung

pensive, compensate pene, almost

peninsula peto, I seek, aim at

centripetal, competition centrum, a centre

centr

central, centrifugal pictus, painted

pict

depict, picture piscis, a fish

pisc

piscatory, placidus, pleasing

placid

placid, placidly placo, I appease

plac placable, im placa ble The word nonentity recalls the days of the schoolmen, or monkish philosophers of the middle ages, who subtilly, profoundly, and perseveringly speculated on metaphysical topics, striving to invest the dogmas of the Church with a philosophical dress and certitude. Entity or being, and nonentity or no-being, were among the counters with which they played their clever intellectual game; which, like most other games, secured little else than amusement.

“ Fortune is no real entity, nor physical essence, but a mere relative signification."--Bentley.

“ With real munition he did fortify

His heart.”Daniel. “ They must have the assistance of some able military man, and con. venient arms and ammunition for their defence.”- Bacon.

The word adoration, etymologically considered, signifies a kissing of the mouth to a visible object of worship-in token of reverence and as expressive of worship.

The term peculation means the making of that your own which is not your own. Peculation, as derived from peculium, private property, wears a socialist aspect, and seems to say, “la proprieté, c'est le vol ;” that is, “private property is plunder,” a truly monstrous and anti-social doctrine.

“A real circular motion is always accompanied with a centrifugal force, arising from the tendency which a body always has to proceed in a right line.”-Maclaurin, “ Account of Newton's Philosophical Discoveries."

LATIN STEMS. If words degenerate they also improve. As a nation refines, its thoughts refine. What, therefore, was originally material becomes intellectual. The intellectual, too, may pass into the moral, and the moral may be elevated into the spiritual. Our most purely spiritual terms were all physical in their origin. What a wide difference is there between birth and the new birth; between generation and regeneration. Spirit in its original Latin is merely treath or breathing. Heaven, the state of spiritual blessedness, if viewed derivatively, is merely the heaved up place, as hell is the covered place; hellyer is still used in some parts of England for

a coverer,--that is, a tiler or slater, a house-coverer. And what is virtue ? originally, but the quality of vir,—that is, a man! And what was that quality ? Valour ; he was emphatically the man who was most brave.

Happy, too, is a word which has undergone a favourable transformation. You see its primitive meaning in happen and mishap. Hap, originally, was applied to a good or a bad event, signifying occurrence merely. But in this world of goodness, the general tenur of events is sucb as to promote men's good, hence to receive its haps is to be happy, and to be exceptional in regard to its haps is to be unhappy :-

“Such happes which happen in such hapless warres,
Make me to tearm them broyles and beastly larres.”

Gascoigne There are words represented as of recent origin which may claim some age. The term Rationalist owes not its birth to the influence of recent German philosophy, but was used under the Commonwealth to designate a sect then new which idolised reason. Nor is the term Christology of German origin, but seems to have been invented by Dr. Thomas Jackson in the seventeenth century. The verb to progress is often disallowed as an Americanism, but it is found in Sbakspeare :

“Let me wipe off this honourable dew
That silverly doth progress on thy cheeks.”

“King John.” act 5,. 2.

LATIN Stems.
Latin words.

Stems.

English words. plebs, the common people pleb

plebeian plenus, full

plen

plenitude, replenish pleo, I fill,

ply, plet

supply, complete, expletive plico, 1 fold

plic

complicated ploro, i wail

plor

deplore, implore plumbum, lead

plumb, plum plumber, plummet pono, I place

pon

depone, exponent positus, placed

pos, posit impose, position populus, the people popul popular porto, I carry

portable, export poto, I drink

potion, potable praeda, plunder

preda

predatory, depredation pravus, wicked

prav

depravily precor, I pray

prec

deprecate, imprecate prehendo, I take hold of prehend apprehend prehensus, taken

prehens apprehension pretium, a price

preci

appreciate probo, I prove

probable, probation probus, good

prob

probity pudens (pudentis), modest pudent impudent puer, a boy

puer

puerile pugna, a fight

pugn

pugnacious, impugn puto, I prune, put in 1 order, think ac in }

amputate, reputation, disput

pute putris, rotten

putrefaction, putrid quaero, I seek, ask

quir, quer qucry, inquire

port pot

prob

pulr

Latin words. Stens. English words. quaesitus, asked

quisit,quest question, inquest, ina

quisition, requisition quassus, shaken, agitated CUSS

discuss, percussion quatuor, four

quat, quadr quaternion, quadrangle angulus, a corner

angl, angul angie, (ingular queror, I complain : quer

querulous quinque, five

quinqu quinquennial radix (radícis), a root radic

radical, cradicate ramus, a branch

ram

ramitication rasus, scraped

ras

rusor, erase ratio (rationis), reason rat

rational, rate rectus, straight

rccli

rectilineal, rectify linea, a line

line

linear, lineament rego, I rule

reg

regal, regulate rectus, ruied

rect

rector, director rete, a net

reti

reticulate, retina rideo, I laugh

rid

deride, ridicule risus, laughed at

ris

risible, derisire rigo, I water

rig

irrigate rodo, I gnaw

rod

corrode, erode rosus, gnaved

ros

corrosion, erosion rota, a wheel

gota

rutation, rotary rumen (rumínis), the gullet rumin

ruminate ruptus, broken

rupt

bankrupt, eruption rus (ruris), the country rus, rur rustic, rural sacer (sacri), sacred sacri, sacer sacrifice, sacerdotal sal (salis), salt

sali

saline salio, I leap

sali

salient saltus, leapt

sault, sult assault, insult salvus, safe

salo

salvation, salvage sanctus, holy

sanct

sanctify, sanctuary satis, enough

satis, sati satisfy, satiate satur, fuli

satur

saturate scando, I climb

scend ascend, descend scindo, I cleave

scind

rescind scio, I know

sci

science, prescience scribo, I write

scribe, inscribe scriptus, written

Script

scripture, postscript scrutor, I search diligently scrut scrutiny, inscrutable 'scurra, a scoffer

scurr

scurrility sectus, cut

sect

dissect, sectarian sedeo, I sit

sed, sid sedentary, preside sessus, seated

sess

session semen (seminis), seed semin disseminate, seminary semi, half

semi

semicircle, semivowel Expletives are words not needed for the sense, but used merely to fill up and round off the sentence. Of course expletives are to be avoided :

“While expletives their feeble aid do join,

And ten low words oft creep in one dull line.” Pope. The term depone in law phraseology is used by the Scotch where we use depose. The distinction is arbitrary, for we speak of the deponent while we say be deposes, noi depones ; though of old depones was used in England :

“And further Sprot deponetli, &c.” - State Trials."

scrib

The retina, or eye-net, the immediate seat or rather instrument of vision, is the net-like expansion of the optic nerve, on which objects are drawn, and from which they are made visible by the mind.

Reticulated denotes that which is made like net-work. Hence the meaning of reticule or little bag made of net-work, sometime since much in use among ladies.

To ruminate is to pass and repass the food through the rumen or gullet in order to its repeated chewing. Hence the phrase to chew the cud. Metaphorically, to ruminate is to muse, to reflect calmly :

"As when a traveller, a long day past,

In painful search of what he cannot find.
At night's approach, content with the next cot,

There ruminates a while his labour lost."
In prose we say to ruminate on,—that is, to meditate upon :-

" He practises a slow meditation, and ruminates on the subject."Watts, “On the Mind.”

Bankrupt, a term of French extraction, properly denotes a trader or money-dealer whose bank or bench is broken, the last condition of commercial destitution :

“A bankrupt is defined a trader who secretes himself, or does certain other acts tending to defraud his creditors.”- Blackstone.

The terms rustic and rural differ in their application, the first beiog said of persons, the second of things. Rustics are often insensible to the loveliness of rural scenes.

COMPOSITION.
Form into a sentence each of these words with their proper Prepositions

F. R.
Confide in,

fido, I trust
Copform to,

forma, form Congenial with,

genus, kind Congratulate on,

gratulor, I congratulate Connect with,

necto, I bind Conscious of,

scio, I know Consecrate to,

sacer, sacred Consent to,

sentio, I fcel, think
Consign to,

signum, a sign
Consist of, in, with, I
Consistent with, I

sto, I stand
Consult, and consult with, consul, a counsellor
Contend with, against, tendo, I stretch
Contiguous to,

tango, I touch
Contrast with,

traho, I draw Contrary to,

contra, opposite
Conversant in, with, about, versor, I am engaged in
Convert to, into,

verto, 1 turn
Convict of,
Convince of, S

vinco, I overcome
Copy from, after,

copie, a transcript
Correspond to, with,

Tespondeo, I anzicer
Covenant with, for,

venio, I come
Care of,

cura, care

To consist of, to consist in, and to consist with, have each a different meaning. To consist of has reference to the materials of which an object is made up; to consist in has reference to the substance or essence of a thought; to consist with has reference to the character or dignity of an agent or actor. It consists with the character of a wise man to expound doctrines in which the welfare of his fellow-men consists : that exposition he makes by words which consist of sounds, or by books which consist of letters. The wealth of a nation consists not so much in the number as the heart, the intelligence, and the sinews of its inhabitants,

HISTORICAL THEME,
Moses at Mount Horeb.

CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-No. V.

· ENGLISH DICTIONARIES. “I suppose, from what you said in our last conversation, that there are several dictionaries of the English language ?"-" Yes, there are several.”_" Well, then, which am I to choose ?"-"The selection in part depends on the amount of money you can spare for the purpose.”-iMy stock is small, but I would rather wait until it has increased, than purchase an inferior book."-" Very good, but what should you say to five guineas for a dictionary ?” “I can afford no such sum; the utmost that my means will allow me to expend in the work is a guinea, or a guinea and a half.”• Let us set the limit at a guinea and a half "-"Nay, I am not sure I shall be able to raise that sum, and I am sure it will be a long time first."-"You did not hear me out; I was going to say that taking a guinea and a half as the highest price, I would men. tion several dictionaries which range from that down to six or

ven shillings."-" Thank you, that plan will suit me very well." -“With a guinea and a half for our highest point, we exclude the dictionary of the celebrated Doctor Samuel Johnson. I may, however, remark that to that learned man we owe the consmence. ment of sound lexicography in regard to the English tongue.""Lexicography! what is that?"-"Dr. Johnson himself shall inform you; in his celebrated dictionary he defines lexicography as the art or practice of writing dictionaries.' Now can you tell me the derivation of the word?"-"Graphč means writing?"-"Yes, what does the former part of the word mean?"-"Is it connected with lego or logos ?” -“ With both; the original Greek is Lexicon, which, from lego, I speak (logos, a word), may be rendered word-book."-"I wish word-book' had been in use, I should then have had no difficulty : I like those Saxon compounds, they are so obvious in their import; how much better would word-book have been than dictionary or lexicon : but where is the difference between dictionary and lexicon?"-"In general there is no difference between them, though dictionary is by usage applied to word-books relating to the English or the Latin, and lexicon is applied to word-books relating to the Greek, the Hebrew, and other learned languages.”-“Then, why have we two words?”-“As a matter of fact we have two words, because the English has been supplied with its terms fro:n two languages-the Greek, whence we get lexicon, and the Laiin, whence we get dictionary. But we have

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