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puls pend pens pen pet
English words, pectus (pectoris), the breast pector expectcrate peculium, private property pecul
peculation pecunia, money
pecuniary pello, I drive
expel, impel pulsus, driven
repulsion, ex pulsion pendo, I hang, weigh
depend, pendulum, sti pend pensus, hung
pensive, compensate pene, almost
peninsula peto, I seek, aim at
centripetal, competition centrum, a centre
central, centrifugal pictus, painted
depict, picture piscis, a fish
piscatory, placidus, pleasing
placid, placidly placo, I appease
plac placable, im placa ble The word nonentity recalls the days of the schoolmen, or monkish philosophers of the middle ages, who subtilly, profoundly, and perseveringly speculated on metaphysical topics, striving to invest the dogmas of the Church with a philosophical dress and certitude. Entity or being, and nonentity or no-being, were among the counters with which they played their clever intellectual game; which, like most other games, secured little else than amusement.
“ Fortune is no real entity, nor physical essence, but a mere relative signification."--Bentley.
“ With real munition he did fortify
His heart.”—Daniel. “ They must have the assistance of some able military man, and con. venient arms and ammunition for their defence.”- Bacon.
The word adoration, etymologically considered, signifies a kissing of the mouth to a visible object of worship-in token of reverence and as expressive of worship.
The term peculation means the making of that your own which is not your own. Peculation, as derived from peculium, private property, wears a socialist aspect, and seems to say, “la proprieté, c'est le vol ;” that is, “private property is plunder,” a truly monstrous and anti-social doctrine.
“A real circular motion is always accompanied with a centrifugal force, arising from the tendency which a body always has to proceed in a right line.”-Maclaurin, “ Account of Newton's Philosophical Discoveries."
LATIN STEMS. If words degenerate they also improve. As a nation refines, its thoughts refine. What, therefore, was originally material becomes intellectual. The intellectual, too, may pass into the moral, and the moral may be elevated into the spiritual. Our most purely spiritual terms were all physical in their origin. What a wide difference is there between birth and the new birth; between generation and regeneration. Spirit in its original Latin is merely treath or breathing. Heaven, the state of spiritual blessedness, if viewed derivatively, is merely the heaved up place, as hell is the covered place; hellyer is still used in some parts of England for
a coverer,--that is, a tiler or slater, a house-coverer. And what is virtue ? originally, but the quality of vir,—that is, a man! And what was that quality ? Valour ; he was emphatically the man who was most brave.
Happy, too, is a word which has undergone a favourable transformation. You see its primitive meaning in happen and mishap. Hap, originally, was applied to a good or a bad event, signifying occurrence merely. But in this world of goodness, the general tenur of events is sucb as to promote men's good, hence to receive its haps is to be happy, and to be exceptional in regard to its haps is to be unhappy :-
“Such happes which happen in such hapless warres,
Gascoigne There are words represented as of recent origin which may claim some age. The term Rationalist owes not its birth to the influence of recent German philosophy, but was used under the Commonwealth to designate a sect then new which idolised reason. Nor is the term Christology of German origin, but seems to have been invented by Dr. Thomas Jackson in the seventeenth century. The verb to progress is often disallowed as an Americanism, but it is found in Sbakspeare :
“Let me wipe off this honourable dew
“King John.” act 5,. 2.
English words. plebs, the common people pleb
plebeian plenus, full
plenitude, replenish pleo, I fill,
supply, complete, expletive plico, 1 fold
complicated ploro, i wail
deplore, implore plumbum, lead
plumb, plum plumber, plummet pono, I place
depone, exponent positus, placed
pos, posit impose, position populus, the people popul popular porto, I carry
portable, export poto, I drink
potion, potable praeda, plunder
predatory, depredation pravus, wicked
depravily precor, I pray
deprecate, imprecate prehendo, I take hold of prehend apprehend prehensus, taken
prehens apprehension pretium, a price
appreciate probo, I prove
probable, probation probus, good
probity pudens (pudentis), modest pudent impudent puer, a boy
puerile pugna, a fight
pugnacious, impugn puto, I prune, put in 1 order, think ac in }
amputate, reputation, disput
pute putris, rotten
putrefaction, putrid quaero, I seek, ask
quir, quer qucry, inquire
Latin words. Stens. English words. quaesitus, asked
quisit,quest question, inquest, ina
quisition, requisition quassus, shaken, agitated CUSS
discuss, percussion quatuor, four
quat, quadr quaternion, quadrangle angulus, a corner
angl, angul angie, (ingular queror, I complain : quer
querulous quinque, five
quinqu quinquennial radix (radícis), a root radic
radical, cradicate ramus, a branch
ramitication rasus, scraped
rusor, erase ratio (rationis), reason rat
rational, rate rectus, straight
rectilineal, rectify linea, a line
linear, lineament rego, I rule
regal, regulate rectus, ruied
rector, director rete, a net
reticulate, retina rideo, I laugh
deride, ridicule risus, laughed at
risible, derisire rigo, I water
irrigate rodo, I gnaw
corrode, erode rosus, gnaved
corrosion, erosion rota, a wheel
rutation, rotary rumen (rumínis), the gullet rumin
ruminate ruptus, broken
bankrupt, eruption rus (ruris), the country rus, rur rustic, rural sacer (sacri), sacred sacri, sacer sacrifice, sacerdotal sal (salis), salt
saline salio, I leap
salient saltus, leapt
sault, sult assault, insult salvus, safe
salvation, salvage sanctus, holy
sanctify, sanctuary satis, enough
satis, sati satisfy, satiate satur, fuli
saturate scando, I climb
scend ascend, descend scindo, I cleave
rescind scio, I know
science, prescience scribo, I write
scribe, inscribe scriptus, written
scripture, postscript scrutor, I search diligently scrut scrutiny, inscrutable 'scurra, a scoffer
scurrility sectus, cut
dissect, sectarian sedeo, I sit
sed, sid sedentary, preside sessus, seated
session semen (seminis), seed semin disseminate, seminary semi, half
semicircle, semivowel Expletives are words not needed for the sense, but used merely to fill up and round off the sentence. Of course expletives are to be avoided :
“While expletives their feeble aid do join,
And ten low words oft creep in one dull line.” Pope. The term depone in law phraseology is used by the Scotch where we use depose. The distinction is arbitrary, for we speak of the deponent while we say be deposes, noi depones ; though of old depones was used in England :
“And further Sprot deponetli, &c.” - State Trials."
The retina, or eye-net, the immediate seat or rather instrument of vision, is the net-like expansion of the optic nerve, on which objects are drawn, and from which they are made visible by the mind.
Reticulated denotes that which is made like net-work. Hence the meaning of reticule or little bag made of net-work, sometime since much in use among ladies.
To ruminate is to pass and repass the food through the rumen or gullet in order to its repeated chewing. Hence the phrase to chew the cud. Metaphorically, to ruminate is to muse, to reflect calmly :
"As when a traveller, a long day past,
In painful search of what he cannot find.
There ruminates a while his labour lost."
" He practises a slow meditation, and ruminates on the subject."Watts, “On the Mind.”
Bankrupt, a term of French extraction, properly denotes a trader or money-dealer whose bank or bench is broken, the last condition of commercial destitution :
“A bankrupt is defined a trader who secretes himself, or does certain other acts tending to defraud his creditors.”- Blackstone.
The terms rustic and rural differ in their application, the first beiog said of persons, the second of things. Rustics are often insensible to the loveliness of rural scenes.
fido, I trust
forma, form Congenial with,
genus, kind Congratulate on,
gratulor, I congratulate Connect with,
necto, I bind Conscious of,
scio, I know Consecrate to,
sacer, sacred Consent to,
sentio, I fcel, think
signum, a sign
sto, I stand
tango, I touch
traho, I draw Contrary to,
verto, 1 turn
vinco, I overcome
copie, a transcript
Tespondeo, I anzicer
venio, I come
To consist of, to consist in, and to consist with, have each a different meaning. To consist of has reference to the materials of which an object is made up; to consist in has reference to the substance or essence of a thought; to consist with has reference to the character or dignity of an agent or actor. It consists with the character of a wise man to expound doctrines in which the welfare of his fellow-men consists : that exposition he makes by words which consist of sounds, or by books which consist of letters. The wealth of a nation consists not so much in the number as the heart, the intelligence, and the sinews of its inhabitants,
CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-No. V.
· ENGLISH DICTIONARIES. “I suppose, from what you said in our last conversation, that there are several dictionaries of the English language ?"-" Yes, there are several.”_" Well, then, which am I to choose ?"-"The selection in part depends on the amount of money you can spare for the purpose.”-iMy stock is small, but I would rather wait until it has increased, than purchase an inferior book."-" Very good, but what should you say to five guineas for a dictionary ?” “I can afford no such sum; the utmost that my means will allow me to expend in the work is a guinea, or a guinea and a half.”• Let us set the limit at a guinea and a half "-"Nay, I am not sure I shall be able to raise that sum, and I am sure it will be a long time first."-"You did not hear me out; I was going to say that taking a guinea and a half as the highest price, I would men. tion several dictionaries which range from that down to six or
ven shillings."-" Thank you, that plan will suit me very well." -“With a guinea and a half for our highest point, we exclude the dictionary of the celebrated Doctor Samuel Johnson. I may, however, remark that to that learned man we owe the consmence. ment of sound lexicography in regard to the English tongue.""Lexicography! what is that?"-"Dr. Johnson himself shall inform you; in his celebrated dictionary he defines lexicography as the art or practice of writing dictionaries.' Now can you tell me the derivation of the word?"-"Graphč means writing?"-"Yes, what does the former part of the word mean?"-"Is it connected with lego or logos ?” -“ With both; the original Greek is Lexicon, which, from lego, I speak (logos, a word), may be rendered word-book."-"I wish word-book' had been in use, I should then have had no difficulty : I like those Saxon compounds, they are so obvious in their import; how much better would word-book have been than dictionary or lexicon : but where is the difference between dictionary and lexicon?"-"In general there is no difference between them, though dictionary is by usage applied to word-books relating to the English or the Latin, and lexicon is applied to word-books relating to the Greek, the Hebrew, and other learned languages.”-“Then, why have we two words?”-“As a matter of fact we have two words, because the English has been supplied with its terms fro:n two languages-the Greek, whence we get lexicon, and the Laiin, whence we get dictionary. But we have