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F.R.
Devolve on, upon,

volvo, I roll
Devote to,

votum, a vow Dictate to,

dico, I say
Die of (a disease), by (the sword or

famine), for (another)
Differ with (a person in opinion),

from (a person or thing in fero, 7 bear

some quality), Different from,

fero, I bear Difficulty in,

facilis, easy
Diininution of,

minutus, small
Disabled from
Disagree with,
Disagieeable to,
Disappointed of (a thing not ob. ?

tained), in (a thing obtained), S
Disapprove of,

probus, good
Discourage from,

coeur, heart
Discouragement to,
Disengaged from

gage, a pledge
Disgusted at, with,

gustus, taste
Dislike to,
Disinissal from

missus, sent
Disparagement to,
Dispense with,

dispenser, to set free Dispose of, to, for,

positus, placed Dispossess of,

possideo, I possess Dispute with,

puto, I think: Study carefully, and parse carefully the following admirable remarks by a great master. Having done so, write, as well as you can, on the same subject; and having corrected, preserve whats yon write. You may now, if you have followed my advice, and kept your compositions, compare your earlier attempts with the essay you produce on the love of knowledge. The comparison can hardly fail to give you both instruction and encouragement.

THE LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE, But while I am descanting 80 minutely upon the conduct of the understanding, and the best modes of acquiring knowledge, some men may be disposed to ask, “Why conduct my understanding with such endless care ?--and what is the use of so much knowledge?” What is the use of so much knowledge?-what is the use of so much life? What are we to do with the seventy years o existence allotted to us ?-and how are we to live them out to the last? I solemnly declare that, but for the love of knowledge, I should consider the life of the meanest hedger and ditcher, as preferable to that of the greatest and richest man here present. for the fire of our minds is like the fire which the Persians burn in the mountains,-it flames night and day, and is immortal and not to be quenched! Upon something it must act and seed,-upon the pure spirit of knowledge, or upon the foul dregs of polluting passions. Therefore, when I say, in conducting your understand ing, love knowledge with a great love, with a vehement love, with a love coeval with life; what do I say but love innocence-love yirtue-love purity of conduct-love that which, if you are rich and

Perso

great, will sanctify the blind fortune which has made you 80, and

ke men call it justice,-love that which, if you are poor, will render your poverty respeciable, and make the proudest feel it unjust to laugh at the meanness of your fortunes,- love that which will comfort you, adorn you, and never quit you; which will open to you the kingdom of thought, and all the boundless regions of conception, as an asylum against the cruelty, the injustice, and the pain that may be your lot in the outer world, -that which will make your motives habitually great and honourable, and light up in an instant a thousand noble disdains at the very thought of meanness and fraud! Therefore, if any young man here have

rked his life in the pursuit of knowledge, let him go on without doubting or fearing the event;-let him not be intimidated by the cheerless beginnings of knowledge, by the darkness from which she springs, by the difficulties which hover around her, by the wretched habitations in which she dwells, by the want and

ow which sometimes journey in her train; but let him ever follow her as the angel that guards him, and as the genius of his life. Sue will bring him out at lart into the light of day, and exhibit him to the world comprehensive in acquirements, fertile in resources, rich in imagination, strong in reasoning, prudent and powerful above his fellows, in all the relations and in all the offices of life.-Sydney Smith.

FRENCH STEMS. The words which the English owes to the Romance languages are very numerous. Of this number, by far the largest portion comes from the French. This portion is too large to be here enumerated, though a few specimens may be given. Before, however, I proceed to set down instances, let it be observed that I shall prefer those which retain some marked resemblance to their originals, or still appear in their native form.

ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE FRENCH.
From Cheval, a horse (Lat. Caballus), come

Chevalier, a knight.
Chivalry, knighihood.
Cavalier, a knight, or horseman.

Cavalry, horse-troops.
From CHARTRE or CHARTE, a charter (Lat. charta), come

Chart, a sea-map.
Charter, a writing bestowing privileges.
Chartist, a person desirous of a new charter.
Cartel, a writing containing stipulations, de.
Cartoon, a drawing on large paper, a painting.
Cartouch, a case for balls or cartridges.
Cartrage or Cartridge, a case for gunpowder.

Cartulary, a register; a monastic record.
From BARRE, a bar (the same word), come to bar, lo hinder.

Barricade, a fence or temporary fortification.
Barrier, a boundary, or obstacle.

Barring-out, a boyish game. The following are a few separate instances—bottle; brilliant escape; engagement; flask; forage ; flank; guarantee; guard.

garnish; grimace; hash; harangue; hardy; lodge; marquis alason ; packet; robe; wardrobe; saloon; supper; dinner ; (breakfast is Saxon); tirade; troubadour. The words which denote the various officers in civil government are mostly Norman French, as might be expected from the conquest of England by William the Norman : e. g., king and earl are Saxon, but prince, duke, marquis, baron, count, mayor, &c., are of French origin, at least 80 far as the English is concerned.

The ignorance of older philologists may be exemplified in the derivation which they gave of parliament. Parliament is A word of French extraction, from the word parler, to speak; she ment, as the student now knows, is merely the terminational suffix. But the wisdom of our forefathers made ment into mind, and stated that the parliament was so called because men there freely spoke their mind! The history of this derivation is no better than the philology, for in the French parliament liberty of speech was not predominant.

Another instance of philological ignorance is presented in these facts. Curmudgeon, which Bailey, in his “ Universal Etymological Dictionary(1731), describes as meaning a covetous hunks, a pitiful, niggardly, close- fisted fellow, Dr. Johnson derived from the French cậur-mechant (bad-heart), appending the words Unknown Correspondent as the authority. Dr. Ash, taking the English appendage as the meaning of the French words, gives the etymology thus : curmudgeon froin caur unknown, and mechant correspondent !!

French words hare been a medium by which Latin words have corne into the English, the extent of our obligation to both those languages can be known only when we have seen specimens of this transference. FRENCH WURDS AS A MEDIUM FROM THE LATIN TO THE ENGLISH. Latin.

French.

English. ala, a wing

aile (of old aisle) aisle auctor, originator

auteur

author bonitas, goodness

bonté

bounty bos, an ox

boeuf

beef brevis, short

brief

brief califacere, to warm

echauffer

chafe canalis, a pipe

chenal

channel canna, a reed

canne

canc caput, the head

chef

chief carmen, a song,

charme

charm ; catena, a chain,

cbaine

chain computare, to reckon

compter

count cooperire, to cover

couvrir

cover cultellus, a knife

coutelas

cutlass diabolus, Satan

diable

devil dignari, to think worthy deigner

deign ebur, ivory

ivoire extraneous, outward etianger

strange feretrum, a bier

bier ferox, fierce

biere

feroce

fierce

ivory

Latin.

French.

English.

feodalité fidelitas, fidelity

fealty

feaulté gigas, a giant

géant

giants gubernari, to govern

gouverner

to govern gula, the throat

goulet

gullet ud incantare, to enchant enchanter

enchant inimicitia, enmity

inimité

enmity und lectarium, a bed

litière

litter 3959 levare, to lift

lever

to lift is lex, a laro

loi

loyal macer, lean

maigre

meagre 135 magister, master

maître

master 305magnus, great

magne

main 5093 medietas, the middle

moitie

moiety 130 mirabile, wonderful merveille

marvels nomen, a name,

nom

noun lodo numerus, a number

nombre

numbers nutrix, a nurse

nourrice

nurse oleum, oil

huile

oil 10 sis paganus, a villager

paysan

peasant panarium, a basket

panier

pannier passus, a step

pas

pace Brno pauper, needy

pauvre

poor peregrinus, a stranger pelerin

pilgrim populus, the people

peuple

peoples prepositus, placed over prévost

provost 3 presbyter, an elder

prêtre

priesties probare, to make good prouver

provelds pullus, a chicken

poulet

poultry s puppis, the stern

poupe

poop ratio, renson

raison

reasons recipere, to receive

recevoir

receive dit regnare, to rule

regner

reign og rotundus, round

rond

round sapor, taste,

saveur

εαυoun: 10: supernus, supreme

souverain

sovereign tegula, a tile

tuile

tile in traditor, a traitor

traitre

traitor visus, sight i n

vue

view iso A careful survey of a French dictionary on the part of one who is skilled in derivation, would bring to light an extent of obligation owing by the English to the French language, of which ordinary students have no idea. I subjoin a few words by way of specimen, taken under several letters of the alphabet 17 3d ben

gizo mbon 310 toidust FRENCH WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.9251ox O French. Ploda)

ador

English. tasd Latin. ube adage

to adage y adagium 1920 aigle 27 od eagle

aquila 27 ailes i

aisle

ala amour 10 amour

amor angle of Saran

angle

angulus antre (Shakspeare) antre

antrum aro

arc

arcus

[graphic]

Bei French,

French.

English. Latin. bâton

batoon

baculun baume

balm

balsăinum bile

bile

bilis bourg

burgh

purgos (Greek) boutique

booth

apotheke (Greek) bulle

bull

bulla cage

cage caisse

case

capsa campagne

champagne campánia cap

cape

caput coche

coach cendre

cinders

cinis cerisa :

cherry

cerisus chaire

chair chaloupe

sloop charo

chariot

carrus: cheminée

chimney camínus cle or clef

clef

clavis coin

coigne

cuncus comté

county

comitatus corps

corpse

corpus couple

couple

copula duel

duel

duellum empire

empire imperium epouse

spouse

sponsa etain

tin

stannum fable

fable

fabula face

face

facies faim

famine

fames
fardel.

fardeau phortos (Greek)
fibre

fibra
figue

fig

ficus flåte

flute foi

faith

fides front

front

frons fruit

fruit

fructus gai

gay

gaudium

jay gingembre

ginger zingiber

kolpos (Greek)

gustus Many French terms are employed in English either in their native form or slightly altered, and of these some eren in France arc of modern origin. We have dragoon from the name of the soldiers with whom Louis XIV. carried on the war, which received the name of his dragonades, against his French Protestant subjects in order to compel them to become Catholics. From the noun dragoon we have the verb to dragoon into. A roué, in slang language, a black-leg, is literally a wretch who deserves to be broken on the wheel-metaphorically one who has the same manners as the courtiers of the profligate Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, who is said to have given the name to his abandoned associates. Guillotine, a term which we derive from France, is the name of an instrument for decapitating political offenders ; it

fibre

geai

gulf

golle goût

gout

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