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In the ordinary list of the parts of speech stands the participle. This word, of Latin origin, denotes the partaker (from pars, a part, and capio, I take). The participle is so denominated because it partakes of the qualities of the verb and the adjective. Thus shining is a participle from the verb to shine. It may also be employed as an adjective. Thus,
PARTICIPLE. The sun shining disperses the clouds.
ADJECTIVE. The shining sun dazzles the eyes. The right of the participle to be accounted a separate part of speech has been contested not without reason. Perbaps less valid is the claim of the interjection. An interjection (inter, between ; and jacio, I cast) is a sound of surprise, or sorrow, thrown out under the impulse of strong and sudden emotion, as 0! Oh! Ah! and is with little propriety placed among the forms of articulate speech. Let us introduce a participle into our model. SUBJECT.
OBJECT, Alfred studying soon reads to me the obscure writing and manuscript.
The form is thus seen to comprise nine parts of speech.. If the interjection, or exclamation, is to be reckoned a part of speech it may be prefixed in the shape of Yes! Here, then, we find a con. densed view of all the parts of speech, and in the remarks by which the view has been prefaced and prepared, lies the kernel of the entire English Grammar. If you have gone with me understandingly thus far, you will have no difficulty in following me to the end, for having developed these general facts and principles, I have now only to take up each part of speech in succession, and in connexion with it, enter into such particulars as may appear desirable with a view to my object.
Before I close the chapter, however, I will add a few general remarks respecting the actual classification, which bears the name of the nine (or ten) parts of speech. The aim of the classifi. cation is to arrange under separate heads all the words of the English (or any other) language. Now a good classification has two qualities; first, it is exhaustive ; secondly, it is distinctive. It is exhaustive,--that is, it comprises and places under some suitable head, all the facts. It is distinctive,-that is, it makes such clear and sharp distinctions as to place the several facts each under its own head, without confounding similar facts together, or putting under one head, facts which may as properly stand under another head.
The classification under review is neither exhaustive nor diz. tinctive. It is not exhaustive, for it leaves out the infinitive mood which has as good a right to be called a part of speech as the participle. It is not distinctive, for the term adjective makes no di tinction where a distinction exists, and the term participle makes a distinction where no distinction is required. Indeed the classi. fication is wholly unscientific, being based not on a principle, but on vague and general views. Something less objectionable may be offered in the following words.
Speech corresponds to the realities which it represents. Those realities are thoughts and things. Now, thoughts and things may be reduced to three classes :-1, Objects ; 2, qualities of objects; 3, actions. Consequently the essential parts of speech are the noun, the atjective, and the terb. But objects and their qualities are the same things differently viewed. We may therefore strike out qualities. Thus we have two classes left.-namely, the noun and the verb. Verbs, however, are the names of action, as nouns are the names of being. Hence language resolves itself into names. We may, then, declare that speech is made up of names. These names may be expanded and divided into I, names of being, or nouns ; 2, names of action, or verbs ; and 3, names of qualities, or adjeetives. Under the last head, or names of qualities, may stand other parts of speech, for the adverb names the quality of the action of the verb, and the article names the extent in which the noun is to be taken. The term particles has not inappropriately been applied to adverbs and conjunctions, for, to a considerable degree they appear to be parts (particles,—that is, little parts) or fragments of once existing nouns and verbs. If, however, our analysis of language into names of being and names of action, is correct, then the sentence which, as given above, contains all the nine parts of speech, may be reduced to two; as, SUBJECT.
and thus we are brought back to the very form with which we commenced the chapter. Clearly, as compared with these two parts, the other words in the sentence are incidental, and of small moment.
It may be desirable to give another germ or two expanded into the full forms. SUBJECT.
fought OBJECT. brave Nelson
fought brave Nelson
fought the enemy brave Nelson
often fought the enemy brave Nelson
often fought the cruel enemy brave Nelson, defying danger,
often fought the cruel enemy brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the cruel enemy
brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the enemy of his
cos Other explanatory words or phrases might be added. Thus to the subject might be appended the words sailing from England, as
brave Nelson, sailing from England, and defying danger, fought. Or, you - might qualify fought by the adverb successfully. You might also make the sentence compound by inserting after fought the words, and conquered ; thus:
brave Nelson fought and conquered the enemy, &c. SUBJECT.
OBJECT. and lo! Stanley rising quickly caused great wrath'in the king.
1 conjunct. 2 interject.: 5
In the last example, one part of speech is omitted to exercise the mind of the student, who is also expected to effect the reduction of the proposition to the name of being and the name of action.
Let the reader carefully study and analyse the following sentences :1. Propositions without an object. 2. Propositions with an object. Birds sing.
The sun lights the earth.
The trees produce fruit.
The rain waters the meadows.
Storms purify the air.
The universe proclaims its author,
3. Propositions with a subject and object qualified.
A diligent scholar learns all his lessons. I.subjoin some fragments to be made into complete sentences :1. Propositions lacking subjects. 2. Propositions lacking objects. - leads a blind man.
disobedient children deserve - aids his sick mother,
this wealthy man succours - neglect their duty.
the proud despise - avoids bad company.
thick clouds cover - promises a rich harvest.
a bad child grieves — - loves his earthly family.
an honest debtor pays — delight their instructors.
a faithful dog guards - restores the light of day. - cost much money.
8. Propositions lacking verbs.
the providence of God - our lot on earth. It may here be necessary, by anticipation, to inform the totally uneducated student that, when the verb is singular it has s at the end, when plural it is without s. The verb must be in the singular number when the noun or pronoun connected with it denotes only one person or thing; and the verb must be in the plural number when the noun or pronoun connected with it denotes more than one person or thing; e. g.
SINGULAR : a boy loves; the house stands ; the duck swims.
PLURAL: boys love; houses stand ; ducks swim. The rule might be put in another form, as, when the noun has an s (or is in the plural) the verb is without; and when the verb has an s the noun is without.
PARSING. By parsing is meant the telling of the parts (pars, Latin, a part) of speech of which a composition consists. Parsing, besides assigning the parts of speech, states the conditions in which the words are, and the relations in which they stand. In its complete form, parsing cannot be done until the student is acquainted with the entire grammar. But he may parse as he goes, and as far as he goes. Viewed in this light, parsing is a sort of practical review made by the student of what he has done at each step of his progress. Such a practice, if pursued to the end, leads to a system of complete parsing. And such a practice will greatly conduce to a thorough familiarity with the English or any other tongue, Through such a practice, I shall endeavour to conduct my readers.
Let it, then, be understood that every exercise given for pars. ing is intended to embrace everything that has previously been taught. For instance, we have been occupied with the definition and the classification of the parts of speech considered as members of a simple sentence. In the first lesson on parsing, then, you are expected to make a practical application, in the sentences supplied for the purpose, of the information already conveyed. Similar must be your proceeding in every successive lesson, always embracing the whole past in the present. I will give an instance. Let the sentence to be passed be
A virtuous mind dislikes flattery. Viewing the sentence, first in relation to the parts of speech, I enter into its structure and mark it thus :
dislikes flattery. I then take up each word in succession, and give as full an account of it as I can ; e. g.
A is the indefinite article, abbreviated from an, which has the same root as one; an is used before words beginning with a vowel, and a before words beginning with a consonant ;
Virtuous is an adjective, qualifying the word mind ; it comes from the Latin virtus, which originally meant valour, the conduct of vir, that is, a man;
Mind is a noun, or name, forming, with its adjective virtuous and the article a, the subject to the verb dislikes ;
Dislikes is a verb ; it is a verb because it avers or declares some. thing, and together with flattery, it constitutes the predicate of the proposition, or that which is stated of the subject, virtuous mind ;
Flattery is a noun, being the object to the verb dislikes. The whole forms a simple sentence.
EXERCISES FOR PARSING. A nimble tongue often trips. The language of truth is plain. Truth is never evasive. Flattery is the food of vanity. The smiles of the world are deceitful. Constancy in friendship denotes a generous mind. Fidelity is inseparable from love. One vice is more expensive than many virtues. Wisdom is never sullen. The proper test of friendship is adversity. The number of offenders lessen the disgrace of crime. I will praise the name of God with a song. Go to the ant thou sluggard. The wise in heart will re. ceive commandments. The way of the Lord is strength to the upright. A soft answer turneth away wrath. The patient ox quietly submits to the yoke. The love of money is the root of evil. Unthinking persons care little for the future. Still waters are commonly deepest.
COMPOSITION. After having carefully performed the lesson in parsing, and so ascertained that you are well acquainted with the previous instruc. tion, you should, at the end of each successive lesson or section, attempt to write a short composition out of your own head. For this purpose, you may choose as your subject, some one of the sentences given you to parse, and express your thoughts upon it as well as you can. At first, never mind that your words are few,never mind that your sentences are ungrammatical,-never mind that your thoughts are poor and superficial. Only write something, and let that which you write be your own. If you wanted a lesson in spelling, or in tracing letters, then transcription would be right. But you have to practise in composition. Composition is the ex. pression of thought; therefore think, and then put down what you think; and put down nothing but your own thoughts.
You will be assisted in finding materials for composition, if you put to your own mind some questions. Suppose that the theme or subject on which you intend to write is this proposition, or
I. Do I know the meaning of each word and the import of the whole ?