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to fettle a wife, means to put her to rights ; fettled ale, means ale warmed with spice, sports, 88
spirits, eggs, &c. The word, together with our common term fat, of which fett
diminutive verbal form, has its origin in the Welsh Ffaeth, luxuriant, ripe, rich.
We have cast our eye down a page or two of an Irish Dictionary and found these coincidences :
Irish or Fenic words identical with English. German,
Bea hach, a beast, French, båte. From the Welsh the following among other instances have been given by the Rev. R. Garnett.*
Coincidences between the Welsh and the English.
Basged, a basket.
Crog, a hook, crook (Celt. crok). "Proceedings of the Philological Society," vol. I., p. 171. In these and the preceding examples, we have appended the corresponding words in German, French, and Saxon, in order to enable our readers to judge for themselves. It is more than possible that many of these words to the Welsh are borrowed from the E: glish. It is a very difficult matter to sepa. rate the original words from those that are borrowed.
Coincidences between the TVelsh and the English.
Dantaeth, a choice morsel, dainty
Tasel, fringe, tassel. A knowledge of the laws which affect the permutation of letters in words as they appear in different languages or dialects would disclose to the student many Celtic terms in English, of which otherwise he would have no suspicion. I have given clear examples. Other very clear examples could be added. I shall for exercise subjoin a few Celtic words with their several meanings, leaving the student to discover the corresponding English terms.
a heap, Cnoc (knok),
a rap, Cool,
a hillock, Coblyn,
a sprite, Cocru,
to indulge, Chwant,
even, soft, Filawg,
a young mare Fug,
a valley, Gweddu,
to unite, Gwylaw,
to weep, Llawd,
a youth, Llodes,
a girl, Mwygl,
one's own, spouse,
to tear, Souba,
NOUNS, THEIR ORIGIN AND CLASSES.
I nave given my scholars such instruction on the component elements of the English language as the occasion permits. You now see of wbat materials your mother tongue consists. In their origin, those materials are very diverse :—the Celtic, the Teutonic, the Norman-French, the Latin, the Greek, the Romance tongues -such as the French, the Italian, the Spanish-besides others, have all contributed a portion. Did I possess an unlimited command of space, I would here have entered into historical details, showing at what precise point of time the several elements entered our language. Some general idea on this head you will already bave obtained ; and for the present, at least, this must suffice. Our labours, then, have put us into possession of the constituent parts of the English tongue. These constituent parts we now possess in their simple and in their compound form, that is, we know wbence our words come, and of what verbal combinations they are capable. But we do not yet know what changes these simple words, and these compound words undergo in themselves. Equally are we uninformed of the laws under which they combine together so as to form sentences and become the vehicle of thought. In other words, we have dealt with the Etymology of our tongue, and have now to treat of its inflexions and its Syntax.
All the words of the English language have been brought into nine or ten classes. Arranging these classes according to their importance, I find them to be : 1, the noun ; 2, the verb; 3, the adjective; 4, the pronoun ; 5, the adverb; 6, the preposition; 7, the conjunction; 8, the article ; 9, the participle; 10, the interjection. If, however, I follow a more natural order, it may be better to treat of these classes in the following succession :-1, the noun ; 2, the article ; 3, the adjective ; 4, the pronoun; 5, the preposition; 6, the verb; 7, the participle; 8, the adverb; 9, the conjunction ; 10, the interjection. By this means we get together under one head the noun, and what' cbiefly pertains to the noun; and under another head the verb, and what chiefly pertains to the verb, as is seen in this arrangement:
Verbal Division. 2. VERB, participle, adverb, conjunction, interjection. The reasons of this division are obvious; for, 1st, the article limits the noun; the adjective qualifies the noun; the pronoun takes the place of the noun; the preposition governs the noun : and, 2nd, the participle belongs to the verb; the adverb qualifies used as a noun, by its being constructed as a noun; that is, by its having connected with it such particles as nouns commonly take. Now, nouns take before them the articles, the and a; and they have after them the preposition of. Consequently those words are nouns which have the or a before them, and of after them. Attend to these instances of
WORDS USED AS NOUNS. 1. Adjectives used as nouns: “The blacks of Africa are bought and Bold.”_"The Ancient of Days did sit” (Dan. vii. 9).-" Of the un. cients.” (Swift).
2. Pronouns used as nouns: “The namelegg He whose nod is nature's birth.” (Young).-—"I was wont to load my shc with knacks.” (Shalspeare).-" When I see many its in a page, I always tremble for the writer." (Cubbett).-“ Let those two try to do this with their whos and their whiches." (Spectator).
3. Verbs used as nouns. “The officer erred in granting a permit." “ A may be of mercy is sufficient.” (Bridge).-"To err is buman, to Sorgive divine." (Pope).
4. Participles used as nouns: “Neither regardeth he the crying of the driver.” (Job. xxxix. 7). "Reading, writing, and cyphering are necessary parts of education."-"Knowledge of the past comes next." (Ilarris). -" I am my beloved's.” (Sol. Songs, vii. 10).
5. Adverbs used as nouns: “One long now."'-"In these cases we examine the why, the what, and the how of things."-"'Tis Ileaven itself that points out an hereafter." (Addison).
6. Conjunctions used as nouns: "None of your ifs.” (Shakspeare). “ Your it is the only peacemaker ; much virtue lies in an if.” (Shakspeare).
7. Interjections used as nouns : “ Will cuts him short with a What then ?" (Addison).-" With hark and whoop and wild halloo.” (Scott).
8. Other words used as nouns: “Us is a personal pronoun.” (Murray).
"I and J were formerly expressed by the same character, as were U and V." (Allen).--"Th has two sounds." (Murray).--"Let B. be a now or instant.” (IIarris). -"Within this wooden 0." (Shakspeare). " Here are eight ands in one sentence.” (Blair).
From the study of these instances you will learn the grounds of the rule given by Campbell, in his Rhetoric, “ All words and signs taken technically (that is, independent of their meaning, and merely as things spoken of) are nouns; or rather are things read and construed (constructed) as nouns; as, For this reason I prefer contemporary to cotemporary. You will also see that adjectives, when they represent more than one, take s in the plural, as if they were nouns ; e. g., the ancients, the elders. Yet we do not say the wises, but the wise. The reason seems to be, that elder and ancient, though adjectives in form and import originally, have come to have a permanent force as nouns ; as is seen in the fact that you can say “ an ancient," "an elder;' but you cannot sly "a wise;" “a sage," you can say, though, sage and wise are nearly the same in meaning, and though properly they are both adjectives. These remarks illustrate ihe extent to which usage prevails in language, and show that in a living language so rich as