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the English, rules to which no exception can be given are not easily laid down.

In the French language adjectives are used as nouns much more than in English. A slavish adherence to the French idiom in this particular on the part of ignorant translators, has led to the introduction of words for which no sufficient authority can be found, Les religieux is a French designation of monks and nuns. This has been literally rendered into “the religious," a phrase which in English, if it means anything, does not mean what is meant by its Gallic original. That word original is an instance of an adjective, which, while it retains the force of an adjective, has acquired the quality and the rights of a noun. Accordingly we can say “this original," " that original,” “the originals," --but only in certain peculiar significations. In such a case as this it is dangerous to yield to analogy, and usage must be rigidly followed. Even usage, however, is not to be obeyed, if it is not present usage, or has not the popular sanction. Consequently, the following from Steele (one of the writers in the Spectator) is not to be imitated “For such impertinents ;' " He is an ignorant in it."

With the aid of the logical terms, abstract and concrete, two other divisions of nouns are formed. Qualities may be considered under two aspects. They may be considered as belonging to some subject, us white paper; or they may be considered as altogether detached from any subject, as whitene88. In the former we regard the quality in question as concrete, in the latter as abstract. Hence whiteness is an abstract noun. Abstract nouns are numerous in English, being readily formed from their respective concrete adjectives by certain terminations, as black, blackness ; pure, purity.

If regard is had to the origin of nouns, we may be led to recoge nise another class, namely, verbal nouns. Verbal nouns are such as are formed from verbs; e. g., “ If the blood of bulls sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh.” (Heb. ix. 13). Here purifying is a noun derived from the verb to purify. The addition of the syllable ing, or the employment of the present participle as a noun, is a very prolific source of nouns. But observe, when a noun is thus formed, it has the attributes because it performs the functions of a noun. Now a noun is connected with another noun, when the one is dependent on the other, by the preposition of. Thus we say, " the purification of the temple.” In the same way we ought to say the purifying of the temple. But inaccurate writers, while they use verbal nouns as nouns, allow them to retain their qualities as participles or parts of verbs, and deprive them of their rights as nouns ; omitting the connecting of, and writing thus, “to the purifying the flesh ;' “ his handling the subject was good.”

NOUNS COMMON AND PROPER. Nouns are ordinarily divided into common and proper. This is the most general division of nouns. A common noun is a noun which is common to a whole class or kind. Tree is a common noun, for it may bo used of any tree, and of the whole class ; thus

used as a noun, by its being constructed as a noun; that is, by its having connected with it such particles as nouns commonly take. Now, nouns take before them the articles, the and a; and they have after them the preposition of. Consequently those words are nouns which have the or a before them, and of after them. Attend to these instances of

WORDS USED AS NOUXS. 1. Adjectives used as nouns: "The Blacks of Africa are bought and sold."-"The Ancient of Days did sit” (Dan. vii. 9).-" of the ancients.” (Swift).

2. Pronouns used as pouns: “ The nameless He whose nod is nature's birth.” (Young).-" I was wont to load my she with knacks." (Shaks speare).-" When I see many is in a page, I always tremble for the writer.(Cubbett).-“ Let those two try to do this with their whos and their whiches." (Spectator).

8. Verbs used as nouns. “The officer erred in granting a permit.""A may be of mercy is sufficient.(Bridge).-" To err is buman, to forgive divine." (Pope).

4. Participles used as nouns: “Neither regardeth he the crying of the driver.(Job. xxxix. 7).-"Reading, writing, and cyphering are neceseary parts of education.”-“Knowledge of the past comes next.” (Harris). -" I am my beloved's.” (Sol. Songs, vii. 10).

5. Adverbs used as nouns: “One long now."-"In these cases we examine the why, the what, and the how of things."-"'Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter.(Addison).

6. Conjunctions used as nouns: “None of your ifs." (Shakspeare).“Your if is the only peacemaker ; much virtue lies in a if.(Shakspeare).

7. Interjections used as nouns: “Will cuts him short with a What then p" (Addison).--" With hark and whoop and wild halloo.(Scott).

8. Other words used as nouns: Us is a personal pronoun.” (Murray).

"I and J were formerly expressed by the same character, as were U and V.” (Allen).-"Th has two sounds." (Murray).--" Let B. be a now or instant.(Harris).-“ Within this wooden 0.” (Shakspeare). “Here are eight ands in one sentence.” (Blair).

From the study of these instances you will learn the grounds of the rule given by Campbell, in his Rhetoric, "All words and signs taken technically (that is, independent of their meaning, and merely as things spoken of) are nouns; or rather are things read and construed (constructed) as nouns; as, 'For this reason I prefer contemporary to cotemporary. You will also see that adjectives, when they represent more than one, take s in the plural, as if they were ņouns; e. g., the ancients, the elders. Yet we do not say the wises, but the wise. The reason seems to be, that elder and ancient, though adjectives in form and import originally, have come to have a permanent force as nouns; as is seen in the fact that you can say “ an ancient," "an elder;' but you cannot Buy "a wise;" "a sage,” you can say, though, sage and wise are nearly the same in meaning, and though properly they are both adjectives. These remarks illustrate the extent to which usage prevails in language, and show that in a living language ga rich as

the English, rules to which no exception can be given are not easily laid down.

In the French language adjectives are used as nouns much more than in English. A slavish adherence to the French idiom in this particular on the part of ignorant translators, has led to the introduction of words for which no sufficient authority can be found. Les religieux is a French designation of monks and nuns. This has been literally rendered into “the religious," a phrase which in English, if it means anything, does not mean what is meant by its Gallic original. That word original is an instance of an adjective, which, while it retains the force of an adjective, has acquired the quality and the rights of a noun. Accordingly we can say “this original," " that original,” “the originals," —but only in certain peculiar significations. In such a case as this it is dangerous to yield to analogy, and usage must be rigidly followed. Even usage, however, is not to be obeyed, if it is not present usage, or has not the popular sanction. Consequently, the following from Steele (one of the writers in the Spectator) is not to be imitated “For such impertinents ;” “He is an ignorant in it."

With the aid of the logical terms, abstract and concrete, two other divisions of nouns are formed. Qualities may be considered under two aspects. They may be considered as belonging to some subject, as white paper; or they may be considered as altogether detached from any subject, as whiteness. In the former we regard the quality in question as concrete, in the latter as abstract. Hence whiteness is an abstract noun. Abstract nouns are numerous in English, being readily formed from their respective concrete adjectives by certain terminations, as black, blackness ; pure, purity.

If regard is had to the origin of nouns, we may be led to recognise another class, namely, verbal nouns. Verbal nouns are such as are formed from verbs; e. g., “If the blood of bulls sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh.” (Heb. ix. 13). Here purifying is a noun derived from the verb to purify. The addition of the syllable ing, or the employment of the present participle as a noun, is a very prolific source of nouns. But observe, when a noun is thus formed, it has the attributes because it performs the functions of a noun. Now a noun is connected with another noun, when the one is dependent on the other, by the preposition of. Thus we say, “ the purification of the temple.” In the same way we ought to say the purifying of the temple. But inaccurate writers, while they use verbal nouns as nouns, allow them to retain their qualities as participles or parts of verbs, and deprive them of their rights as nouns; omitting the connecting of, and writing thus, “to the purifying the flesh ;' “ his handling the subject was good.”

NOUNS COMMON AND PROPER. Nouns are ordinarily divided into common and proper. This is the most general division of nouns. A coinmon noun is a noun which is common to a whole class or kind. Tree is a common noun, for it may be used of any tree, and of the whole class ; thus

pe say a tree, and the tree. A proper noun is a noun which is proper or peculiar (proprium, Lat. peculiar) to an individual, as to a person, a place, a city, a nation. Thus Alfred is a proper noun ; so is Lancashire, and London, and England.

The distinction between common and proper is not very satisfactory. If tree is a common noun because the term tree is common to all trees, might not George be accounted a common noun because it is common to all the Georges ? And is not the name Tree as peculiar to the class Tree, as the name George is peculiar to the class of persons who bear this name? If, then, Tree is a noun peculiar to an individual and a class, and if George is the same, the distinction between common and proper does not appear determinate. In truth, the terms peculiar and common do not here essentially differ, for what is peculiar to each of a class, is common to all the members of that class.

The difficulty seems to arise from the multiplication of the objects which are considered as nouns proper. So long as there is but one London, the word London is strictly a proper or pecu. liar name. But let there be several cities so called, then a class is forined, and the original peculiarity is lost. What was once peculiar to an individual place, is now common to several places. Proper names, you thus see, pass into common names.

This want of fixedness and precision is an objection. Nevertheless, the classification of nouns as nouns common and nouns proper has so rooted itself in our grammar, that I think it better to retain it, than to propose another which might be scarcely free from exception.

Emerson has written a book on what he calls “ Representative Men." There are also representative nouns or names. Thus Solomon stands for a wise man, Crosus for a rich man, Judas for a traitor, Demosthenes for an orator, Cicero for the same, and Homer for a poet. Now mark how these are constructed. Shylock exclaims

"A Daniel come to judgment ! Yea, a Daniel.” And we also say of an eminent orator, “he is the Cicero of his age." Daniel and Cicero, in themselves, are proper nouns. lo virtue of the articles they become common.

As proper nouns become common, so common nouns become proper, under the influence of the article. In the latter case, however, it is the definite article which produces the effect. A Strand is a river's bank. The Strand is a thoroughfare in London, so called because it runs alongside the Thames. So we speak of the Channel, the Downs, the United States, the Netherlands. We also say the Harbour ; but the Harbour is not a proper name, except at Portsmouth, where the Harbour means the particular harbour that is there ; but the usage is local ; whereas it requires national usage to convert such a common noun into a proper noun. This fact is exemplified in the phrase the Lakes, which from national usage means the Lakes of Westmoreland. The Lakes, chercfore, has become the specific name for the whole district in

the North of England where certain lakes are found. After a similar manner we speak of the Highlands.

The figure termed Personification (ascribing personal qualities to inanimate objects) may give to a common noun the attributes of a proper noun. “Reason is the highest gift of God; may we, O Divine Reason, listen reverently to thy voice !” In the first member or part of the sentence, reason is a common noun; in tbe second, in consequence of being the object of a direct address, it is a proper noun.

We have already seen that common nouns may represent an individual or a class. Thus a pigeon is one bird, but the pigeon is the class of birds so denominated. Some common nouns in their essential import denote a number; such as a fleet, a navy, a flock. These nouns are called collective, or nouns of multitude. Singular in form, they are plural in import. Indeed, they denote a class. Thus a crowd is a number of individuals considered as forming one body; a council is a number of men met for consultation, forming the class councillor, in relation to some particular ocality. Thus we say, I am in the council; I am of the council; hat is, I am one of the class or body known under that general erm.

Proper nouns may be distinguished as names of places and names of persons. Names of places were originally descriptive; they described the places to which they were assigned. The Bible furnishes such names in abundance ; for instance, a place in the Wilderness of Sinai was denominated Kibroth-Hattaavah, that is, graves of lust, from an historical event recorded in the book of Numbers xi. 34. Names of places have, to the unlearned, ceased to be descriptive, because the terms have lost their meaning. Those who would know the meaning of the names in English topography must study the Teutonic and the Celtic languages, which contain the original elements out of which those names were formed. Some instances have been given-I add two or three. Orc, the name given to the Orkney islands in the Welsh Triads, signifies that which is extreme, so that Orkney is the extreme or last country, the ultima Thule, Ramsgate means the gate or pass leading into Ram, or Ruim, the British name for the Isle of Thanet. Canterbury is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon Cantwara byrig, the forts or strongholds of the Cantware, that is, the men of Kent. Cant itself comes from Caint, which, in Welsh, means a plain or open country; and it was probably the old Welsh name for the slip of open land lying between the Weald and the Thames. The word Winchester is a hybrid, that is a cross between the British and the Latin. Chester is the Latin Castra, a camp, and denotes a Roman station. It is frequent in our names of places; e.g. Manchester, Dorchester, Chester. The first syllable Win is the Welsh Gwent, which like Caint (probably the same word) signifies an open country. It seems to have been a name given to several districts in this island. Monmouthshire is still called Gwent by the Welsh, and was called Went by our English chroniclers as late as the 10th century. The

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