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Adam gave birth to Adamson, Adams, Adye, Addison.

Abrahms, Braham, Mabb, Mabbs, Mabbol.
Arthur , Atty, Atkins, Atkinson, Atcock.
Bartholomew , Batty, Batts, Bates, Batson, Bartlett, Batcock,
Christopher » Kister, Kitts, Kitson.
Edmund w Edmundson, Edmunds, Munn.

! Hugh gave birth to Hewson, Hurget, Huggins, Hugginson. John , Jolines, Jones, Johnson, Janson, Jennings,

Jenkinson, Jenkins, &c.
Peter , Peterson, Pierce, Pierson, Perkin, Per-

kinson, Parkins.
Timothy , Timms, Timmings, Timpson, Timpkins.

I annex a pedigree of a family which lived in Cheshire not long after the Conquest. It is interesting, because it affords examples of several of the methods in which person-names were formed before family names were fully established :

WILLIAM BELWARD, Lord of Malpas, in Cheshire, had two sons.

1. Dan DAVID of Malpas, called on

account of his scholarship le Clarke, the clerk, that is, scholar.


1. WILLIAM, called 2. PHILIP, called

DE MAL PAS, “Gogh," that
from his estate. is, red. His

took the name

3. DAVID took 1. THOMAS, called 2. WILLIAM, 3. RICHARD,

the name of DE COTGRAVE, DE OVER surnamed Lit.
GOLBORNE, from his estate. TON, from TLE, from his
from his

his estate. di minutive estate.


A SON, who took the name of GOCDMAN, or, rather, received it of others, from the excellence of his character.

1. A SON, called

that is, knowing


from his father's Christian name.

There lies before me an ancient Talliage Roll, a curious docu. ment, as exemplifying the origin and nature of local surnames. It is a list of the persons who in 1336 were in the town of Leicester* taxed one-tenth of their assessed substance. A few illustrative specimens may be here produced of surnames from Afinity.


Profession. Alicia, formerly the John of Shirford | Thomas the Rider

wife of John Norman | William of Kayham Robert the Palmer The wife of Reginald | Roger of Claybrook Janyn the Webster of Ecclcshall

Henry of Willoughby Matilda the Waterman The son of Peter, the Matilda of Thornton Ro, er the Forester Wright Robert Coventre

William the Saddler Jolm Hodinge3, Junior Richard of Boseworth Nicholas the Skinner The son of Willian of | Marion of Coventry Michael the Baxster Lincoln, Mercer John of Beverley

IIepry the Pedlar Adam, the son of William of Stanton William the Gardiner Edith Adam of Oke

Alicia the Fysshere Matilda, formerly An- | John'atte Hall

Robert the Taverner desmayden Roger of Blaby

Simon the Barber Thomas, the son of Jolino’the Waynhouse | Richard the Glover Thomas Wynger

John atte Walshalle Adap the Latcher


Place and Profession,


Various and Curious, Ralph of Frisley, | Isabel Melemaker John the Cat Tailor Nicholas Porke

Roger Pestell
Roger of Knighton, | John Lambe

Matilda Mikellove
William Sharp

Walter Fish
John Joyce, Mercer Johu Tebold

Thornas Deth John of Thurmaston John Sturdy

Richard the Large Tailor

William Goldsmith Andrew Six - and John of Ayleston, Henry Aldytch

twenty Chaplin

Matilda Moubray Roger the Bee Thomas of Beby, Mer Richard Kypping William Rough cer

Johanna Pontrell Richard Lefthand
William of Beby, Dra- | Roger Glyde

Adam Pestle
Walter Miles

Robert Pýk
Robert of Beby, Dra William Ace

Henry Underwode
William Page

John Sturdy
Robert o' the Wayn-

John Stole hous, Wheelwrighte William of Stoke,

Thakkere (thatcher) William Horn of Mel

John, the IIaywood

William of Ashby,

The process of abbreviation is illustrated in the same names in different stages of formation. Thus we find Nicholas the frereman and William Frereman (the friar's man or servant). Hence it is

• Thompson's History of Leicester, p. 451,


easy to see how" Alicia the mercer and John her son would be shortened into Alicia Mercer and Johnson. Roger Pestell (or Pestle) is clearly Roger Atte (at the sign of the) Pestle (and Mortar); Walter Miles is Walter the soldier. John o'the Waynhouse, is John of the weighbridge, abridged into John Weighbridge. The spelling is by no means correct, and in bad spelling both in spoken and written language is another source of proper names, « Stephen Bellzeter"--what is the derivation ? Write Bellzeter correctly, and you have Stephen the bell-setter, or the bell-hanger, which when curtailed would be Stephen Bellsetter. So the “ Hawis Boumaker” of the list is obviously Alice Bowmaker. Our ancestors indulged themselves in variety of spelling. Accordingly we have " Alicia the fysshere;" “ Adam °Ffyssh” and “William the Fisher ;” also “Geofrey Fish." " Robert the clerk,” that is Robert the clergyman, came to be Robert Clerk. So “Richard Norman” was originally Richard the Norman. As in the above list one man is called a Cat, and another a Stoat, so in the roll we bave a Bird, a Leveret, a Martin, and even a Boot. Some of the trades are singular. Of course we have cooks, coopers, sawers (sawyers) saddlers, porters, smiths, tailors ; but what are we to make of “Michael the Walker," "Power the Walker," “ John the Bouwer,” “Simon the Curreour," " Simon the Quarreour," “ Geoffrey the Lorimer," " John Kyng Sherman,” “ Henry the peyntour.” Some of these difficulties are removed by an orthographical resource. Thus do we obtain Henry the painter ; Simon the quarrier (or quarryman); also Simon the currier, and John the bower (bowmaker). By referring to the German we convert “ Williarn the Walker" from a personage distinguished for celerity of foot into plain Wiliam the fuller, and “ Geoffrey the Lorimer" is by the aid of the French made to assume his proper shape as Geoffrey the whitesmith.

Leicester in the fourteenth century wears a very material aspect. Its inhabitants seem to have been pretty much employed in providing for the body. Among them there was not a single artist or a single schoolmaster, in our sense of the term. There were two chaplains and two clerks, whose position cannot have been very enviable, unless it depended on something better than this world's goods ; for the four parsons among them possessed not so much property as “ Master John the Cook," with one exception the only personage of consequence enough to receive the worshipful title of master. The cooks appear indeed to have been in great request, for while there were in the town three drapers, four tailors, two taverners (tavern keepers) two barbers, and eight mercers, there were not fewer than seven public cooks. And in possessions the cooks could venture a comparison even with the gentry; among tradesmen they were clearly the most respectable, for while the average amount of property held by the mercers was eighteen shillings, and the average of the clergyman was twelve shillings, the cooks possessed on an average each thirty-three shillings.

“Nick names” may serve to throw light on the formation of names generally. Nick (from the German necken, to banter, to

teaze) names are names given to persons in the way of amusement, derision, or contempt.

The age of Charles II. was an age of nicknames--the king himself was known as “Old Rowley,” in allusion to an ill-favoured but famous horse in the royal mews. Nor was the cognomen at all disagreeable to him. Mrs. Holford, a young lady much admired by the king, was in her apartments singing a satirical ballad upon

Old Rowley the king,” when he knocked at her door. Upon her asking who was there, he, with his usual good humour, replied, “Old Rowley himself, madam.” Hobbes he called “ The Bear,'' “ Here comes the Bear to be baited,'' was his remark, as soon as he saw the great philosopher surrounded by the wits, who rejoiced in his conversation. A favourite yatch received from him the name of " Tubbs,” in honour of the Duchess of Portsmouth, who was plump and full in her person. The queen he called “a bat," in allusion to her short, broad figure, her swarthy complexion, and the projection of her upper lip from a protuberant foretooth.

THE ARTICLES. The word article, coming from the Latin artus, a joint, is in form a diminutive (articula), and according to its etymology or derivation signifies a little joint. The articles may have been called “little joints” because of their smallness as articulations, or because, being small, they, as limiting the application of nouns, are the points or pivots on which discourse turns.

The article the does not essentially differ from what is called the demonstrative pronoun this, for “ the man” and “this man” are phrases of kindred import. Indeed, the appears to be an abbreviated form of this (from the Saxon, thes, as in these) being softened down from this, into thic (thic is still common among the peasantry of the south), and thae Scotch into the. In the Anglo-Saxon, the article the is connected in origin as well as signification with this and thaet (that).

The article an (a before a consonant), the same with the German ein, the Greek en, the Latin unus, the French un, and the Scotch ane (ae), in all of which the n is a radical letter, denotes unity.

From these etymological statements we are led to the exact import of the articles. In English there are two articles. Of these the one, namely the, is called the definite article, the other, namely an, is called the icdefinite article. The indefinite article points out one object, as an apple, a man, thus limiting the noun to a single object of its kind. Such a limitation at first sight seems very definite; but an or a, while it indicates one, leaves it uncertain, that is un. determined (or indefinite), what one is meant. The office of deter. mining what object is meant belongs to the definite or determining article the, e. g. I saw a man." " What man?” The man whom you and I met yesterday."

A has the same origin as one. But a differs from one, "a man" and “ one man ” do not signify exactly the same. A man is one man as contrasted with the man, that is some particular man ; and one man is a man as contrasted with many men. A simply indicates

one of a class of objects, e. g., a book, a horse, a needle; one indicates a single object as the opposite of several. These statements may be illustrated in an example: “I bought a book.” “Yes, but not the book you wanted.” “I bought one book.” “Indeed! I thought you had bought many.“No, I bought but one."

The differs from this as being less demonstrative without being less definite. The declares, this points out; the is the declaration of the tongue, this is the declaration of the finger. “I have sold the table," " The table! what table?" The table you mentioned." “What! this table?” “Yes.”

The undergoes no change by inflection, remaining the same whether the noun is singular or plural, masculine or feminine, the subject or the object.

An, for the sake of euphony, drops the n before a consonant, or consonantal sound ; thus we say an empire and a kingdom.

By “a consonantal sound” I mean a sound which has more or less the force of a consonant. Thus h when aspirated as in horse, is a consonantal sound. U (pronounced you) as in university, is a consonantal sound. Consequently we say " á horse," "a univer. sity,” as well as “ a tiger," * a school.” I give a list of Words the initial letter of which has a consonantal sound. A European,

A use,
A ewer,

A useful (instrument),
A uniform,

A usual (hour),
A union,

A usurer,
A unit,

A usurper,
A unitarian,

A utilitarian,
A united (company),

A utopian (theory),
A universal (custom),

A humorous (story),
A university,

A humour,
A usage,

A horseman So we also say “such a one” and “a once beloved friend." An is required before what is called a silent h, that is h which is not aspirated; e. g.

An before words beginning with a silent h.
An heir,

An hour,
An herb ?

An honest (man),
An honour,

An humble (friend),
An hospital ?

An honourable (man),
An hostler,

An honorary (member) ? In regard to some of these words usage is not strict or uniform. In those that I have marked with a note of interrogation, the initial h is aspirated by some authorities ; whose practice in this particular seems to be increasing in prevalence. When the h is aspirated, of course not the full form an, but the shortened form a, is required.

The adjectives formed from some nouns in which the ħ is aspirated, drop the aspirate and so take an instead of a ; thus we say, is a history” but “an historical narrative;" "a heretic" but "an heretical book."

A common noun, when taken in its widest sense, admits no article;

e. 8. 66 The

" The proper study of mankind is man"-Pope.

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