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as male, passive and producing power is vierved as fernale. But the rule is not of universal application. What is more active and quickening than the sun? In English, the sun is masculine, but in German the sun is feminine. With us, too, agreeably to the rule, the moon is feminine, but with the Germans, contrary to the rule, the moon is masculine.
Little more in this case can be done than to study and follow usage. As an aid, I subjoin instances of what, as the latitude is chiefly taken by poets, may be called the poetic gender :-
Thunder The Elephant The Panther
Trees and Rivers
Poetic Gender.- Feminine. Affection Devotion Fortune Misfortune Reason Ambition Discord Freedom The Moon Religion Art Earth
Habit Morning Republic Astronomy Echo
Happiness Muse Science Autumn Envy
Hour Nature Soul Benevolence Experience Humility Necessity Spring Charity
England Justice Patience Summer Chastity France Law
Treason Commerce Fame
Truth Compassion Fancy
London Paris Conscience Fate
Virtue Contemplation Flattery Memory Pride
Vanity Darkness Folly
Prose Wisdom Ship is of the feminine gender; yet a ship, intended for warlike purposes, is called a man-of-war ; nevertheless, a man-of-war is spoken of as feminine.
The. gender of Greek and Latin proper names, and the poetic gender of other classical nouns, must be learnt from classical authorities ; thus l'enus, the goddess of beauty, is feminine, and Oceánus, the god of the sea, is masculine.
This poetic gender has its basis in what is called prosopopeia, or personification. These two words represent the same thing, the former indicating a direct address to an inanimate object as if it were animate, and the latter indicating the ascription to an inanimate object of personal qualities. Prosopopeia, called also apostrophé, does not, however, always convert the neuter into the masculine or feminine ; in the ensuing fine instance of apostrophé, stoord retains its natural gender :
“O thou sword of the Lord I how long will it be ere thou art quiet ? Put thyself up into thy scabbard, rest, and be still! How can it be quiet, seing that the Lord hath given it a charge against Askelon, and against the sea-shore ?"-Jer. xlvii. 6.
Personification is a figure of larger comprehension than apostrophé, for, in general, it is to be recognised wherever things are spoken of, or spoken to, as if they were persons or animals. In English, the employment of personification is easy, inasmuch as you have only to use a masculine or feminine pronoun instead of a pronoun in the neuter gender ; as,
“ Haste! haste! Death lies in wait; he's at the door." Being easy, this figure is apt to become common, and should be frugally, not to say sparingly, employed. Personification is the peril of young writers and young speakers, especially those who have aught of the poetic temperament.
I am now about to begin a series of exercises. These exercises are intended partly for parsing, and partly for practice in composition. One set of the examples will be complete; these may be considered as models ;-in another set, the examples will be incomplete ; these the student is to fill up according to the models, and according to the instructions in the several lessons. With these exercises I shall connect specimens of parsing, which, in his studies, the student should carefully meditate, making a point of parsing every sentence in every exercise. At first, the parsing can be only partial, for it cannot extend to points on which instruction has not been given ; but, expounding as we proceed, the parsing lessons will as a whole comprehend everything involved in a grammatical acquaintance with the English language.
EXERCISES.-COMPLETE. When the last trumpet sounds, then shall old father Ocean deliver up his dead. Love, the blind boy; never shall he enter the portals of this heart. The sun, with his vivifying rays, gives new light to the whole of sleeping nature. Time, with his bal. sam, heals all wounds. Stern winter comes tottering on, with his head covered with silvery snow. Art, like music, is very jealous of her votaries. O mother earth, when shall I again return to thy fond bosom! Dame Fortune showers her favours where least deserved. Necessity is the mother of invention. How sweet, how delightful is religion ; she always comforts those who seek her aid. The Prince and the Princess of Wales are heirs to the crown of England. How many gods and goddesses have the Hindoos? Many millions, for some of them worship tigers and tigresses, lions and lionesses. My father and mother, my uncle and aunt, together with my brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces, are going to the Isle of Man for sea-bathing. There were earls and countesses, monks and nuns, in the procession. Is Mr. Smith at home? No, Sir, but Mrs. Smith is. Do you know my cousin ? Yes, I know William Earnsworth. I mean my female cousin. O yes, she married my old college friend. As a class, authoresses are not the most gentle and loveable of their sex. My mother is in want of a chamber-maid and a man-cook. The voice of Xan. tippe, the wife of Socrates, was very shrill, resembling that of a shrew rather than that of a syren. Poetry and painting are sister arts:
EXERCISES.-INCOMPLETE. Experience is the-of wisdom. War broke lose from-chains, chose Napoleon for-general, and set the whole of Europe in flames. Folly, twin sister to shame, has many votaries in-train. My mother - tongue is the-. Dame memory, at all times treacherous, has withdrawn-presence from me. Fate has marked me for-own. Fame, with-hundred brazen tongues, delights in scandal. I have read the affecting story of the Abbot. Abelard, and the-Heloise, as written by Pope. There were at the ball four peers and six-, among whom were the-and, the Countess of Shrewsbury. He lived a-till he was forty years of age, and then married. I saw at Gretna Green a bride of sixteen years of age, and a-of sixty. I want to see Miss Williams, not-Williams. Female authors want the robust strength of-, -Sappho was a Greek. Look at this horse ; what a fine animal-iş. Have you seen the Crystal Palace ? Yes,-is a very fine structure. Time, the mightiest-of the earth, overcomes all things. Britannia sits on-invincible throne, the acknowledged-of the ocean.
SPECIMEN OF PARSING.
“Knowledge is proud that he has learn'd so much ;
Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.” Knowledge, a noun neuter, of Indo-Germanic* origin, being found
in the Latin nosco (Greek, gno), and the Teutonic know ; it
is the subject to the verb is. Is, a verb, part of the substantive verb to be, the copula between
the subject knowledge and the attribute proud. Proud, an adjective, of Saxon or Teutonic origin, forming with is,
the predicate to the subject knowledge. That, a conjunction, uniting the two simple sentences knowledge is
proud and he has learn'd so much. He, a personal pronoun, of the masculine gender, the subject to
the verb has learn'd. Has learn'd, a verb transitive, of the past time, from the Teutunic
lernen, to teach. So, an adverb of Teutonic origin. Much, a Teutonic adjective, singular number, neuter gender,
employed here as a noun, and being the object after the
transitive verb has learn'd. Wisdom, a Teutonic abstract noun, made up of the adjective wise,
and the termination dom. Is, a part of the substantive verb to be, the copula between wistioni
and humble. Humble, from the Latin humilis, low, being the attribute to wisdom,
and forming with is, the predicate to the subject (commonly
called the nominative case), wisdom. That, a conjunction, uniting the two simple sentences of which the
proposition or period consists. He, a personal pronoud, of the masculine gender, the subject to
the verb knotos.
* An Indo-Germanic word must be found in two classes of tongues, the Teutonic and the Greek or Latin. Teutonic is a general term for the class of languages which embraces the Anglo-Saxon thc Corman, the Dutch, &c.
Knows, a transitive verb (Indo-Germanic), of the present time or
tense. No, an adverb. More, an adjective (Teutonic), from much ; here with no, used as a
noun, being the object to the verb knows.
de, from, and via, away Devolve on, or upon,
de, down, and volvo, I roll Devote to,
de, down, and votum, a voro Dictate to,
dico, I say Die of a disease; by the sword or famine ; for another,
(a word of Saxon origin) Differ with a person; ini opinion, from a person or}
dis, in different directions, and sero thing, or some quality,
dis, not, and facilis, easy Disabled from,
dis, not, and able Disagree with, to,
dis, not, and agree
NUMBER. REGARD to number causes nouns to undergo a change. Num. ber relates to the question whether a noun indicates one object, or more objects than one. If a noun indicates one object, it is said to be in the singular number; if a noun indicates more objects than one, it is said to be in the plural number. The word singular comes from the Latin singularis, one only, and has its representative in our term single; as, a single star, a single city, a single act, e. g.,
“No single man is born with a right of controlling the opinions of all the rest.”
The word plural comes from the Latin plus, more, that is, more than one. The Greek, and some other languages, have what is called a dual number—a form, that is, which specifically signifies two.
The plural is formed by either a change in the noun, or by an addition to the noun.
1. Plural formed by a change in the noun. e. g., man, men; woman, women (pronounced wimmen). The changing of a in man into e in men, and the changing of o in wo into è in wi, are agreeable to the usages of the German idiom, which changes a, o, u, in the singular, into ä (æ), ö (a, e, i), ü (ue), in the plural; as, man, a man ; männer, men.
Words compounded with man, if of English origin, take men in the plural, e. g., Singular.
There are, however, some exotic (or foreign) words ending in man, which take their plural in 8, e. g., Singular.
Talismans The reason why these last-mentioned nouns change man into mans, and not into men, is, that in them man is not the noun man, but merely a terminating syllable. You may ascertain whether or not the man is a terminating syllable by sundering it from what precedes, and considering whether the part from which it is sundered is an independent word, that is, has signification in itself. If it is an independent word, then the plural form is men; if it is not an independent word, the plural form is mans ; e. g., the plural form of German is Germans, because ger gives no sense ; but the plural form of Frenchman, is Frenchmen because French has a meaning.
The following are other nouns which form their plural by a change in the body of the word, e. g., Singular. Plural.
dice Brethren has another form, namely, brothers; the former is employed in sacred subjects, the latter is employed on ordinary occasions.
Brethren is a double plural; one form is brether (now obsolete) (in German brüder), to this is added n, making a second form io brethren. A similar formation is found in children, thus : child, child-er (still in use in the north of England), child-er-n.
The termination n or en, occurring in oxen, brethren, children, was once common in English, and is still common in German and Anglo-Saxon. Ben Jonson, in his English Grammar, makes a separate (his second) declension of nouns which form their plural by taking n at the end. He gives, as examples, oxe, oxen ; hose, hosen. Other nouns had in his time the termination n, which, however, seems then to have been yielding to s, as he states that both forms were in use, namely, Singular
egen Shoo shoces shooen 2. Plural formed by addition to the noun.--Instances have already been given in which nouns form their plural by taking a letter or two letters at their end. Other instancese have been