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In these facts we may learn something as to the-origin of prefixes, and of particles generally. Appropriately is the term particle applied, for these words are little or broken parts of nouns or verbs, which once existed as nouns and verbs in the languages with which they are now connected as particles.
I have given above the Greek, the Latin and the Saxon, as the sources whence our prefixes are derived. The French might have been added ; but the French is not an original source; words de. rived by us from the French may in general be traced back to the Latin as their parent.
A little attention may lead the student to suspect that there is some genealogical connexion between the three sources of our prefixes. By comparing particles together, he might be led to trace a resemblance between dia and dis; hemi and demi; hex and six ; hept and seven ; holo and whole; in and in; en and in; non and not, &c. In reality such a genealogical connexion does exist. The Greek, the Latin, and the Saxon (or Teutonic) are sister languages, being branches from the one stem called by linguists, the IndoGermanic or Indo-European stem, which comprises the Sanscrit, or the old sacred tongue of Hindostan, the Celtic, or parent of the Gaelic, the Erse, the Latin, the Welsh, the native Irish; and the Teutonic, the parent of the Greek, the German, the Dutch and the Saxon-English. This family of languages then extends, you see, with some exceptions, from the banks of the Ganges to the Western shores of Ireland. It extends also from the North Cape to the Straits of Gibraltar.
The epithet Indo-Germanic is in origin prior to the epithet IndoEuropean Indo-Germanic was intended to include two classes of languages, namely the Sanscrit (Indo), and the Germanic (Teutonic or Saxon), but when it had been ascertained that the Celtic was a kindred tongue, a more comprehensive epithet was required, and Indo-European was formed. But Indo-European errs somewhat in excess, since some dialects spoken in Europe are not of Indian, Celtic or Teutonic origin. That the English, as well as the Greek and Latin, is connected with the Sanscrit, may be seen by comparing together these numerals in the different tongues.
Sanscrit. Greek. German. English. Latin. Erse. Welsh. 1. eka hen ein
unus aen un 2. dwi duo
dau 3. tri treis drei three tres tri
tri 4. chatur tettar vier four quatuor keathair pedwar 5. panchan pente fünf five quinque kuig pump 6. shash hex sechs
chwech 7. saptan hepta sieben seven septem secht saith 8. ashtan okto acht eight octo ocht wyth 9. navan enneka neun nine novem
naw 10. dasan deka zehn ten decem deich deg
To you there may not seem the close resemblance among these words, severally, which is obvious to the student who is aware of the changes which letters undergo in allied tongues, from laws and influences peculiar to each separate language; but surely there
is enough in the tabular view just given to illustrate what I state as a fact ; namely, that the languages, of which specimens appear above, are kindred languages. Look, for instance, at the forms through which the numeral three passes, thus : tri, treis, drei, three, tres, tri, tri,
From these statements you will see that words which are found in the Sanscrit, the Greek, and the Latin ; or, in the Sanscrit, the Saxon, and the Erse, may be designated Indo-European, inasmuch as they exist in the three great branches of that stalk, I mean in the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the Teutonic.
Of these three,-namely, the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the Teutonic, the first may be considered as the most ancient tongue; the second stands next in age, and the third is the youngest.
You have been led to regard monosyllables as to a large extent of Saxon origin. But many words, commonly considered Saxon, are rather Indo-European, being found in Sanscrit, in Greek, and in Latin, or in one of these besides the modern English. Such words as know, lick, break, yoke, sit, are the common property of the Sanscrit, the Latin, the Greek, the German, and the English.
Had I space to exhibit the proofs of the relationship of these languages, I should dwell on the similarity which prevails in the modifications of number, person, case, tense, &c., which they severally undergo ; but I can, in addition, do nothing more than set down in different tongues the variations of a few words of uni. versal prevalence, which indicate a common origin. English, Sanscrit. Greek. Latin, Teutonic. Celtic. Father pitri (pader) pater
vater athair Mother matri meter mater mutter mathair Son sunu
sunu Daughter duhitri thugater
dauhtar dear Brother bhratri phrator frater brothar brathair Sister swarsi
soror swistar siur Man manu
homo mann Woman vamani
akshi okko oculus augo Nose nasa
Dase Tooth danta
dent thuntu dend Sun heli helio sol
sauil haul Moon masa
men mensi mena mios Water uda udat unda vato
mari marei muir Light loch (to see) leuko
licht EXERCISES FOR PARSING. It is September. Hark! somebody is letting off a gun. They are shooting the poor birds. Here is a bird dropped down just at your feet. It is all bloody. Poor thing! How it flutter. Its wing is broken. It cannot fly any further. It is going to die. What bird is it? It is a partridge. Are you not sorry, Charles ? It was alive a little while ago. Bring the ladder. Set it against the tree. Now bring a basket. We must gather apples. No, you cannot go up the ladder. You must have a little basket and pick up apples under the tree. Shake the tree. Down they come.
II. SUFFIXES. WORDS are affected in their import not only by particles set before them, but also by particles set after them. In presumable, you have a word, the meaning of which is affected by both a foregoing and an after-coming particle. It may be divided thus :PREFIX.
take The root of the word is the Latin sumo, I take. By the addition of pre, sum becomes presume, I take before ; that is, before positive proof. If you add able, then you form presumable, which signifies what may be presumed.
Having treated of prefixes, I pass on to suffixes, and shall give a list of the principal.
LIST OF ENGLISH SUFFIXES. Abel, from the Gothic abal, strength, found in the Latin habilis, fit for, and in the Latin termination bilis; as, amabilis, loveable. It is found, also, in our word ability. In the sense of power or capacity, it occurs in many English words ; as, reasonable, durable, &c. Sometimes it passes into the form ible ; as, comprehensible, visible, &c. When preceded by v, the a or i blends with the v into u, as in soluble.
" Where all life dies, death lives, and nature breeds,
Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things,
Abominable, inutterable.” Milton, “ Paradise Lost.” Ade (ado), coming into the English through the French, the Italian, and the Spanish, gives us such words as brocade, embroiderea silk; comrade (comes, Lat. & companion; or from camara, Spanish, a chamber); scalade (scala, Lat. a ladder ; escalar, Spanish, to climb); bravado, a boast, a boaster.
• What can be more strange than that we should, within two months, have won one town of importance by scalade, battered another, and overthrown great forces in the field ? "-Bacon.
Age, from the Latin termination, ago, as in imago (an image), through the Spanish azgo, and the French age (as in avantage, en advantage): it denotes a state of being.
“ That to the utmost of our ability, we ought to repair any damage we have done to others is self-evident.”—Beattie, “Moral Science.” The term average is from the low Latin averagium (from avera (habeo, I have), a man's moveable property), which denoted a tax or general quit-rent, paid primarily in labour by the tenant to the lord. From average, and the custom it denotes, come avercorne and aver penny in old legal documents.
“ Whether the small town of Birmingham alone doth not upon an average circulate every week, one way or other, to the value of £50,000.” -Berkeley, “ Querist.”
Al from the Latin al, as in animal, an animal, and animalis,
belonging to an animal. Al in Latin indicates personality ; thus anima is life, and animal one whɔ possesses life. Al, from alis, signifies belonging to.
“Mr. Monkhouse happening one day to pull a flower from a tree which grew in one of their sepulchral inclosures, an Indian, whose jealousy had probably been upon the watch, came suddenly behind him and struck him.”-Cook, “First Voyage.”
An, a suffix from the Latin adjective form anus ; as humanus, human, pertaining to a man; from humanus comes also human, kind, like a man, in which you see an in another form. From the termination of these Latin adjectives in the neuter plural ana is derived, tbe once favourite ana ; as in Jobnsoniana, the things of Johnson, that is, his lighter sayings and doings, what is sometimes called table-talk, from the German tisch-reden.
Ance or ancy, a substantive suffix from the Latin antia, as in constantia, constancy ; it denotes a condition; in constancy, the condition of being constant or firm. Ance sometimes passes into ence, as in condolence, the state of grieving (doleo, Lat. I grieve) with (con) another.
" She had so steadfast countenance,
So noble porte and maintenance.”' Chaucer. Ant and ent are connected with the Latin participles in ans and ens, as amans, loving; docens, teaching, &c. Adjectives ending in ant sometimes come to us through the French, as in dormant, sleeping; the present participle of dormio, I sleep, being dormiens, in French dormant.
" Logicians distinguish two kinds of operations of the mind; the first kind produces no effect without the mind; the last does. The first they call immanent acts, the second transitive."
Ar from the Latin substantive ending in ar, as calcar, a spur; and the Latin adjective ending in aris, as reguláris (regula, Lat. a rule), according to rule, regular. The ar having once become a recognised termination in English, was added to words of Latin origin, as similar (similis, like, from simia, Lat. an ape ; the likeness of the ape to man being such as to cause the same word to be applied to both ape and likeness ; so we use to ape, that is, to imitate).
“ You have heard how first they began of laymen onely, leading a straiter life from the society of other persons, who, then following the rule of S. Bennet (Benedict), were called regulars and yotaries.”—Fox.
Archy, a Greek termination, signifying chief, government, has been spoken of under the prefixes.
Ard (connected with the German art, kind manner), a substant've termination, signifies a permanent state; as, sluggard, the babit of being sluggish; drunkard, one whose habitual state is intoxication : a good man may be once drunk, but a good man cannot be a drunkard. The dull, in dullard, is allied to the German toll, mad,
But would I bee a poet if I might,
Ary, from Latin adjective termination ariis, as found in auxili. arius (auxilium, Lat. sid), auruary, tributary. This same arias gave rise to our termination in arious, as in gregariaus (gter, Lat. a flock), fiocking fagetker.
From Latin words ending in arius, we bare statuary (ars statuaria); lapidary lapis, Lat. a stone), a (precious stone-cutter; aviary, a place for keeping birds (aves, Lat. birds).
Aster, as in poetaster, which comes immediately from the French poétastre, a bad poet, is found in the Italian astro, a termination denoting contempt. The aster in disaster, a calamity, has nothing to do with the suffir. Disaster seems to be from wis and astron Gr. a star), and so signifies an ill-starred condition.
Ate is a verbal (derived from a verb) termination, the origin of wbich is found in the Latin passive participle, as congregatus; hence the verb to congregate. “The infuriate bill forth shoots the pillard flame."
Thomson,“ Summer." Ated, ted, or ed, are the terminations of the passive participle in English, equivalent to the same Latin participle ending in atus ; thus the Latin communicatus is in English communicated. In the same way we have adapted, devolved, affixed, imputed, &c. Participles in ed become adjectives by suppressing the d, as desolated becomes desolate.
Ce is an English representative of the Latin termination in tia, as gratia, favour, grace. Cy is sometimes used instead of ce,-e. g. clementia, clemency; that is, mercy.
In the older forms of the language words ending in cy were spelt cie. These nouns de note the abstract quality ; thus prudens means prudent, as a prudent man; but prudentia means prudence, in the abstract; that is, the quality is considered apart from any subject.
“But even that mightye loue of his great clemencie,
Gascoigne. Ch, a Saxon termination found in church, ditch, which, &c., and of old pronounced as a guttural, or at least like k, as in the Scotch whilk or quhilk, and the German ch or ich, as ich (ick), I; doch, yet; thus we have the Latin sic, and the English su h; the Scotch mickle, and the English much; the Scotch kirk, German kirche, and the English church. Ditch or dike is a thing that men produce by digging. The words run thus. dig, dike, ditch. Another form of dike and ditch is digue.
“The people ran into so great despair that in Zeland they gave over working at their digues, suffering the sea to gain every tide upon the country.''-Sir W. Temple.
Cle or le, a diminutive, formed after the manner of the Latin diminutive termination culus, masculine, and cula, feminine ; e. g., homunculus, a little man ; a mannikin; regulus (Lat. rex, a king), a little king; matercula, a little mother. The ending clo appears in particle, a little part; pellicle (pellis, Lat. skin), a little skin ; in muscle (musculus, Lat. a little mouse).