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result effect quality diminution greatness agency condition authority condition female result result condition diminution capacity belonging to pertaining to state according to quality condition result condition augmentive abundance like condition place, quality quality diminution privation likene38 quality a part direction manner quality to make he thou

24 en 25 int 26 ever 27 full 28 ic

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28 fy

5 ise 6 ish 7 ote

to make, do to make, do to make, do to make, do


SUMMARY Suffixes of Greek origin .... Suffixes of Latin origin .... Suffixes of French origin Suffixes of Saxon origin ...........

Total .........

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It is of little consequence in general whether the suffixes escribed to the French be ascribed to it or to the Latin, whence they originally come. If the eight French suffixes are added to the 28 Latin ones, then the Latin suffixes are nearly equal to those of Saxon origin. Adding all the foreign suffixes together we fira they amount to 43, and so out-number our native or Saxon suffixes.

UNCOMBINED SUFFIXES. The suffixes of which we have spoken enter into the structure of the words with which they are severally connected. Thus the ment in amendment forms an essential part of the term. If ment is sundered from amend, the word amendment ceases to exist; and instead of a noun, there arises a verb, the verb to amend.

Other words are appended to roots without entering into union with them. For instance, we say cast down and cast up. Here down and up form no part of cast. Cut off down and up, and cast remains the same. Yet down and up modify the meaning of cast, and they modify it in a very important way. And down and up come after cast. In some sort, then, they are suffixes. They perform the part of suffixes in regard to meaning, and they differ from suffixes chiedy in not combining with the root as do the suffixes already considered. Hence they appear to be uncorabined suffixes. Putting the two together, I'may designate suffixes, properly so called, combined suffixes, and those that do not enter into the composition of words, uncombined suffixes.

The uncombined suffixes down and up are adverbs. Adverbs form one class of uncombined suffixes. Another class consists of prepositions ; for instance, we say, I speak to, and I speak of. Here to and of are prepositions. These uncombined suffixes, you see, very materially modify the meaning of the verb to speak. Consequently, the right employment of prepositions as suffixes is a matter of great consequence.

If you carefully follow me in what immediately ensues, you will see reasorf to believe that the English is a very flexible and a very rich language, and that it owes these qualities largely to the existence in a free and uncompounded state of many of its words, Let me explain what I mean by "a free and uncompounded state." Suppose that fall and down had coalesced into one word : thus, to falldoun; then falldown would be a compound, and neither fall nor down would be free, being absorbed in the new term. Indeed we have in the shape of a noun this very compound, only the terms are inverted as in downfall. Now down and fall, thus combining, you cannot modify fall by using other prefixes ; you cannot, for instance, say outfall. But with down, as an uncombined prefix, you can say fall out equally well with fall down; and as you can say fall out, so can you also say fall in. Indeed the power of expression thus acquired is almost endless. The greater is the pity that some writers, ignorant of the treasures of the Saxon element of our language, and misled by false views of elegance, should have given nreference to Latinisms, and frowned on the idiomatic diction

h ensues from the employment of our uncombined suffixes.


He went


1. Adverbs. Abaok.

“ Away there ! lower the mizen yard on deck,"
He calls, and "brace the foremnost yards aback."

Fulconer, "Shipwreck,"
Abaft, on the aft or hind part.
“Let all hands go abaft.-Anon.
Aboard, on board ship.

“ Resolv'd, he said; and rigg'd with speedy care,

A vessel strong, and well equipp'd for war;
The secret ship with chosen men he stor'd,

And bent to die or conquer went aboard." The facility of combination afforded by those uncombined suffixes may be exemplified in this verb went." | abaft the binnacle

( amongst the scholars aboard the ship

before the picture aloft in a balloon

behind the door aback suddenly

into the house afar from his country

out of the church back in a carriage

upwards to the ceiling forward in good works

round the monument backward in morality

to see his friends sideward to avoid a nuisance out to take a walk sideways between the posts high in the air amidst the crowd

low in pocket belows the floor

along the highway above the roof

over the seas apart from the mass

across the meadow ashore from the boat

under the archway through the folding doors

to prove it on successfully

wrong in his mind off altogether

right into the theatre aright in all he undertook up the stairs I near the place intended within the enclosure

by the church Here are forty-one different acceptations of the word went. In no other language known to me is this multiplying power exceeded, if, indeed, it is equalled, even in the German; while in most languages, as in Latin, in French, and in Spanish, the facility of com. bination is very much less. .

So familiar, however, are Englishmen with the import and the application of the uncombined adverbs, that I have no need to go through them in detail. It may be more useful to give two or three instances of the way in which they modify the verb to which they are subjoined. VERBS. SUFFIXES. VERBS.


over, on down

across Run, Throw, 1 forwards | Run, Throw, I up Strike, Bring} in, into Strike, Bring) under along

out near


He went


Here are fifty-six words made out of four with the aid of suffixes, which being common property may enter into union with many other verbs. In Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, sixty-two different applications of the verb to cast are given and exemplified; and this variety is owing mainly to the efficacy of the uncombined suffixes. The diversity of meaning given by these suffixes is no less remarkable. To run up an account is a very different matter from running down an enemy's vessel. By blow ing up a citadel, a revolt may be put down. You may enter into a cave, and you may enter into Milton's Conception of Samson Agonistes. If you have money, you may set up a shop; if you are rich, you may set up your carriage; if you are liberal, you may, at the same time, set up a friend; and if you have also a proper spirit, you will not fail to set down the impertinent. Edgar having run through his fortune, enlisted as a common soldier, and was run through in battle. To laugh with one's friends is agreeable; to be laughod at by them is very unpleasant.

"So long as nature Will bear up with this exercise, so long I daily vow to use it.”

Shakspear. “ It shows a greatness of soul for persons in distress to bear up against the storms of fortune."-Broome.

"They are content to bear with my folly," Sidney, “With such alacrity they bore away." : Dryden." “Whose navy like a stiff-stretch'd cord did shew,

Till he bore in, and bent them into flight." Dryden. “ As a lion bounding in his way

With force augmented bears against his prey." Dryden.:11 " The weight of the body doth bcar most upon the knee jointe.”Wilsins.

"I doubted whether that occasion could bear me out in my confidence.” Temple,

" An eagle fluttereth over her young, and beareth them on her wings.(Deut. xxxii. 11.)

“Do you suppose the state of this realm to be so feeble, that it cannot bear off a greater blow than this?”-Hayward,

"And bears down all before it with impetuous force." Dryden. i 19 And ebbing tides bear back upon th’ uncertain sand.” Dryden.'. iv? ** Cæsar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus." Shakspear.

“Give but the word, we'll snatch his damsel up, tiesiog And bear her off.

*. Cato, To this list nautical phrases would add to bear down on an enemy, and to bear up against the wind ; to bear round a headland, and bear over a sea; to bear by an island, and bear through a strait. What variety of meaning arises from these uncombined suffixes may be seen by taking a single thing as their object. Let be first be a river and the second a bridge,

To go near a river

To go wear a bridge
To go along a river

To go along a bridge
To go into a river

To go over a bridge
To go through a river

To go across a bridge
To go over a river

To go under a bridge
To go under a river

To go upon a bridge
To go upon a river

To go abore a bridge On a tempestuous night a horsemad, fatigued with a long day's journey, in attempting to go across a dilapidated bridge, was blown over it into the river. If you go through the Thames you will probably be drowned; if, by means of the Tunnel, you yo under it, you will not wet the sole of your foot. A balloon will carry you voer the Thames, and you may cross the river in a wherry. I sauntered along the river, and at length went upon its tranquil bosom. ousin walked under the bridge, while I was above it in the balloon, and we both saw the sheep go into the river.

These adverbial suffixes must not be confounded with ordinary adverbs. They are only a small portion of ordinary adverbs, Their connexion with their verbs is more intimate than is the con. nexion of ordinary adverbs, for though uncombined they form a part of the verb in each case, and are essential to its signification. The office of the ordinary adverb is not to change the import of a verb, but to denote the manner of its action. In to bear patiently, the adverb patiently does nothing more than mark the way in which the eril is borne ; it is borne patiently, not impatiently, not peevishly, not complainingly. But to bear through, as, “the admiral bore through the enemy's line,” is in the primitive sense of the term not to bear at all, nor in the derivative sense to endure, but to sail or direct a ship. Besides, ordinary adverbs may be connected with these adverbial suffixes; e. g." the admiral boldly bore through the enemy's line.”


2. Prepositions. I have termed the uncombined suffixes of which I have spoken adrerbs and adverbial suffixes. In doing so I have, in regard to such as into, through, &c., considered them in their connexion with their several verbs. Thus viewed, they in construction are taken as parts of their verbs. In consequence the verbs become compound, and in their compound state govern their objects. But through, into, and others may be viewed as prepositions. When so considered they are connected not so much with the verb as with the noun; which in that case is governed not by the verb but by the preposition; in other words, the noun is directly dependent on the preposition rather than on the verb. I may illustrate my meaning by an example of 1. A Verb Compounded with 2. A Preposition Connected with a Suffix.

a Noun. He went-under the bridge.

He went under the bridge. The boat sailed-down the river. The boat sailed down the river. · In the use of prepositions in connexion with verbs, special regard must be paid to usage. The power of the verb is materially

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