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afated by the prepositise. This fact is broad y seen in the ap. pod z oi to os of to the verb to hezk; e. g., to petk ty, to speck of. Beads tie porse to speck in, we use the perse to speak with. The two beanies are beariy the same, ba: ta fueak ty is to adirest, and to spes: eith is to interehange renari, to correrse. Tbe usage you are to follor i present usare. la is TETY nature usage is a tarting thing. Of oid, to law hold u ras eorplored in the Fat of our to lay hold of. At present we say dagendent on, but independent of, yet the two ad. jecrises, as they difer only in the negatire is, would rataral require the same construction, and in former days on ras ased with independent as well as dependent.
"A being of dependent nature remains independent upon him."barth.
It is a rule that rerbs, compounds of the Greek, Latin, and Prench languages, take after then the same prepositions as those which enter into their structure; thus, we say sympathise sila, for the gym of sympatbise denotes with. In the same way we say adhere to; intervene between. Yet we say prefer to instead of prefer before (prae, Lat. before). We have also conformable with, and coaformable to.
" The fragments of Sappho give us a taste of her way of writing conformable with that character we find of her." - Addison.
" He gives a reason conformable to the principles.”- Arvutid. With, however, seems to denote a greater degree of resemblance or correspondence than to. According to the rule just enunciated aberse (a, from, and verto, I turn) would take from after it ; vet we say not averse from, but averse to. Exception (ex, out of: and capio, I take) would require out of or from; yet we say exception to.
" Pleade, in exception to all general rules,
Your taste of follies with our scorn of fools.” Pope. The elegance as well as the propriety of language much depends on a correct use of the prepositions, and, consequently, I shall make them the subject of a series of exercises in English composition.
PARSING. God made the little worm that crawleth on the ground. I saw a fly crawl up the window pane. Let us go forth into the green fields. John has gone down into the cellar. The buds come out on the trees. The cowslips hold up their heads; will the cowslips never hang their heads down ? The goslings are running on the green. They are now going down into the pond. The hen sits upon her nest. When the hen has broken the shell, the chicken will come out. The sheep can scarcely stand under their wool. The butter. flies flutter from bush to bush. The young animals of every kind sport about. The shepherd careth for his sheep, and bringeth them back to the fold. My son, take care of your aged mother, and sustain her in her weakness. Your mother brought you up on her knees. You lay in her bosom. She fed you with her own vital substance. Therefore, let her now, in her age, cleave to you, and, upheld by you, let her gently go down into her tomb.
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
apt, to fit
do, to give
Adjudge to, judec, a judge Questions: What is the difference between accord with, and accord to between accountable to, and accountable for ? between admit, and admit of? between address, and address to ?
In order that you may clearly see what I require, I give a sentence or two by way of example.
Such conduct draws upon him the abhorrence of all men. Such conduet subjects him to the wrath of God.
The former sentence is constructed on draws upon; the latter is constructed on subjects to. Suppose that I had given absence from and arrival at, as the germs of a sentence, then I perform what is demanded, thus :
Your absence from home has given your parents much pain. John's arrival at Portsmouth has inspired all the family with hope.
WORDS THAT ARE BOTH PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
Some of the words which we have treated of as uncom. bined suffixes, may also be regarded as uncombined prefixes. The same word stands before and after its stem. You may take, as an instance, to cast-down, and down-cast. In this instance, the meaning varies, but does not greatly vary ; to cast-down is used physically, and down-cast signifies dejected, sorrowful. Besides this difference, there is a difference also as to the function of the two words, for the former is a verb, the latter is an adjective. Rarely, perhaps, does the import remain the same, if the position of the adverb is altered. Make a prefix a postfix (or suffix), and in general you produce a greater or less modification of meaning. Indeed, some of the most delicate shades and hues of thought expressed in the English language are connected with, if not dependent on, the varied use of these moveable particles. It may, therefore, be proper to go into some little detail on the point.
* F. R. signifies Foreign Representatives, that is, the stem in the Latin, French, &c., which forms the root or substance of the word : in these stems, only the essential or radical letters are given.
It is not all the prefixes and suffixes that usage permits to take their stand before or after their principal word. Out enjoys the privilege, and makes free use thereof. Look at these examples :--cast-out
out-bid grow out
out-right An out.cast is one who undergoes the result and consequences of being cast-out. Corresponding with out-cast, is out-law. But though we may say to out-law, we cannot say to law-out. Outpost is again different from out-cast, for out-post does not make the idea of action so prominent as does out-cast. In this respect, out.cast is not unlike out-lay. Out-lay may be reversed ; thus, layout. But while the verb is lay-out, the noun is out-lay. To bidout, is to' bid with a clear, loud voice; but to out-bid, is to bid more than another. To grow-out is very different from to out-grow. A young brother, by becoming taller, out-grows an elder brother ; and the elder brother, who is thus surpassed, may be grown-out at the shoulders so as to be hump-backed. To do a person out of anything, is to cheat him ; but to out-do a competitor, is to excel him. If my children live-out the ceatury, they will out-live me. By crying-out lustily, boys make a great out-cry. That shameless man, by laughing-out so loud and so long, out-laughed all the com. pany. If you look-out at the window, you will have a pleasant out look, -, “We have taken all the out-lying parts of the Spanish monarchy.”— Temple
“But for public dormitories, how many a poor creature would have been obliged to lie-out of doors in the nights of the last severe winter." — Anon.
“O my lord,
The prince, my brother, hath out-grown me far." --Shakspear. “ Albert has grown-out of his clothes."-Anon.
“But breathe his faults so quaintly That they may seem the taints of liberty;
The flash and out-break of a fiery mind.” Shakspear, "A fire breaking-out in the cellar, consumed the whole house."-Anon.
« Nor they which use To out-drink the sea.”
“ You have drunk-out the cask. Children cannot well drink-out of goblets." --Anon.
" He looked and saw what numbers numberless
Milton. * Pour-out a glass of wine for the famished woman." - Anon.
"The workmen, in standing out for the wages, have out-stood the appointed time "-Anon.
“Sense and appetite out-vote reason.” "A large majority of the constituency voted the old member out." Anon.
“ Better at home lie bed-rid, idle,
Inglorious, unemploy'd, with age out-worn." Milton “ This reverent leccher, quite worn out
With rheumatisms, and crippled with his gout." Dryden.
Denham 6. Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined.”—Psalm i. 2. Over produces many combinations. look-over
over-ride You look-over your workmen and find faults that you cannot over-look. A bad tradesman reaches-over his counter and over.. reaches his customers. Cisterns over-run, and drivers run over. A river over-flows its banks, and the water flows-over the fields. You persuade an opponent over to your own party, and so over-persuade an associate that, he relinquishes your company. If you persuade a person over you cannot over-persuade him. In attempting to over-ride a competitor, take care you do not ride over him. The boy having run over his companion in the race easily over-run him.
Other particles are of less frequent use. But not less curious are they. To back-stitch differs from to stitch-back. By reckon. ing his income a man learns how much he has coming in. The vut-goings of a family should be regulated by its income. If I withhold my opinions I may continue to hold with you. He talks so inuch of bearing with me that I can hardly forbear to reprove mim." The poor man has been taken off as if he were the offscouring of the streets. That young girl was taken off at the early age of seventeen, being overtaken by disease. One general made an onslaught on the cavalry, while the other fell on the infantry.
“ Immediately the mountains huge appear,
Milton " Thou hast made my curdled blood run back, my heart heave up, my hair to rise in bristles.”-Dryden
Along side the cutter we coasted along the shore. The undertakings
of your father are under-paid. The understanding was that you stand under the spout. The undertaker receives funereal arrangements under his care.
“An under-plot may bear such a near relation to the principal design as to contribute towards the completion of it, and be concluded by the same catastrophe."-Spectator.
“In under praising thy deserts
Here find the first deficience of our tongue." Dryden. “ Under two conditions the poet engaged to coropose the eulogy."Anon.
“For this assembling all the peers
Whose counsels now must under-prop the throne." Drayton. He placed a line of props under the falling wall. An influx of gold causes bank-notes to flow out of circulation. The inlets are more numerous than the out-lets, consequently you will be compelled to let out the water by artificial means.
EXERCISES FOR PARSING. Our abodes out-last our bodies. Curtail your outlays if you wish for ease of condition. He laughed out-right. Let thine eyes look right on. You shall be driven out right forth. This way, right down to Paradise, descend. An over-much use of salt, besides that it occasions thirst and over-much drinking, has other ill effects. You have yourself your kindness over-paid. He gained a large
e over the counter. Parents too often overpraise their children. Come o'er the brook, Bessy, to me. With an over-running flood God will make an utter end of the place. Were it not for the incessant labours of this industrious animal, Egypt would be overrun with crocodiles. Milk while it boils, and wine while it works, run over the vessels they are in. I shall not run over all the particulars that would show what pains are used to corrupt children. Should a man run over the whole circle of earthly pleasures, he would be forced to complain that pleasure was not satisfaction. The zeal of bigotry runs out into all manner of absurdities. The zeal of many outruns their discretion.
COMPOSITION. As minds are differently formed and capacity varies with every successive individual, I am desirous of making another suggestion or two, which may possibly smooth tbe way to original composition for some whom the instructions previously given may have left in difficulty. I advise you then to accustom yourself to report as correctly as you can, to a child, something that has struck your attention, whether in what you have heard, what you have seen, or what you have read. I say report the substance by word of mouth. Endeavour to employ suitable words, to pronounce them correctly, and to put them together grammatically. At first you will commit errors; but, in time, perseverance will enable you to overcome all difficulties. Make your report to a child, say a younger brother or sister; I mention a child, because in speaking to a child you will speak readily and naturally. T'here is another ad
e: in order to gain a child's attention you must take a simple