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SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF ELOCUTIONARY ANALYSIS AND SUG-
GESTIONS IN REGARD TO VOCAL EXPRESSION....
SKETCI OF MILTON'S LIFE
ODE ON TIE NATIVITY.
SKETCH OF BUNYAN'S LIFE...
FIRST PART OF PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
INDEX TO VOL. I....
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES.* The languages of the world are classified as follows: 1. The Chinese stock, spoken principally in China (sce p. 13). Of this
stock we remark that,
(1.) Every written character is an entire word.
than the representative of a sound.t
(3.) The languages are monosyllabic. II. The Shemitic stock, consisting principally of,
(1.) The Arabic, f including the Ethiopic,
(1.) Each root is dissyllabic and contains three consonants.
ten from right to left. III. The Indo-European stock. IV. The African stock, not including the Ethiopic. The Coptic, spoken by
the descendants of the ancient Egyptians, has much in common
with the Shemitic. V. The American stock, comprising the tongues of the aboriginal inhab
itants. VI. The Oceanic or Polynesian stock. (See note 2, p. 13.)
This is sometimes called the Japhetic, as the languages of Africa are called Hamitic, and those of Southwestern Asia, Shuemitic; but the name Indo-Europian is more generally adopted. The Indo-European stock comprises the following divisions :
* Let the student consult his atlas as he studies this subject. (See note 2, p. 13.) | Like an algebraic sigu, 1 The Koran is in this language.
1. Sanskrit, the language of the ancient Hindoos, and the parent of the
languages now spoken in Hindostan; viz., the Hindostanee, the Bengalee, the Pali-Mahratta, etc. The most ancient type of Sanskrit is found in the hymns of the Vedas. The word Sanskrit means
perfect, polished, or classical. 2. Persian or Iranian, the language of ancient Persia or Iran.
It was the sacred idiom of the Magi. In it Zoroaster, the founder of the sect of fire-worshipers called Ghebers, wrote the Zend-Avesta? The Old Persian, or language of the Achæmenian cuneiform (wedgeshaped) inscriptions, was a dialect of this language. It is the
mother of the languages now spoken in Persia. 3. Latin, the language of the ancient Romans. It is supposed to be
more ancient than the Greek, and is the parent of the Italian,
French, Provençal, Spanish, Portuguese, and Wallachian. 4. Greek, the language of ancient Greece, and the parent of the Romaic,
or modern Greek. 5. Çeltic, the language of the ancient Celts, who overspread the whole of
western Europe. From the ancient Celtic are derived two modern families. One is called Medo-Celtic or Gaelic; comprising the Gaelic proper, or Highland Scotch; the Erse, or Irish; and the Nanx, or dialect spoken by the inhabitants of the Isle of Man. The Manx is fast becoming extinct. The second family is called Perso-Celtic, Cambrian, or Cymric, including the Welsh and the Armoric (spoken in Brittany). The Cornish, or language of Cornwall, belonged to this family, but it became extinct about a hundred
years ago. 6. Gothic, the language of the ancient Goths, who, later than the Celts,
migrated to Western Europe. They occupied especially the island
the Danish, the Swedish, the Norwegian, and the
language of the Faroe islands.
Gothic (which is the oldest preserved type of the
7. Slavonic, the language of the Russians, Bulgarians, Servians, Croats,
Poles, and Bohemians. It closely resembles its mother tongue, the
ancient Sanskrit. 8. Lithuanian, the language of the peasantry in Lithuania. Of all the
European languages it approximates nearest to the Sanskrit.
LOW GERMANOR SAXON FAMILY.
This family includes the following dialects: (1.) The Frisian or Friesic; formerly prevailing in Friesland, north-east
of the Zuyder Zee, but now on the eve of extinction. (2.) The Dutch; spoken in Holland, and remarkable for the facility with
which it forms compound words. The oldest literary specimen is
from about the year 1280. (3.) The Platt Deutsch (i. e., Low German); spoken in northern Germany
by the common people, the descendants of the Old Saxons. The oldest specimen is Heliand (i. e., Saviour), a poem written in the
eighth or ninth century. (4.) The Anglo-Saxon; a dialect mixed of the idiom of the Angles and
that of the Saxons. The oldest poetical specimen extant probably the beginning of the Scripture paraphrase, by Cadmon, of the
seventh century. The Anglo-Saxon is the mother of the English, and, as such, is deserving of further attention from us.
From what has been stated, the genealogy of the English language will be traced as follows: It is the daughter of the Anglo-Saxon dialect, of the Low Germanic family, of the Teutonic branch, of the Gothic division, of the Indo-European stock. The following diagram exhibits this relationship: