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the Old Testament, * adversity is the blessing of the New, which carrieth the greater benediction, and the clearer revelation of God's favor. Yet even in the Old Testament, if you listen to David's harp, you shall hear as many hearselike airs as carols; and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath labored more in describing the afflictions of Job than the felicities of Solomon. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes; and adversity is not without comforts and hopes. We see in needleworks and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon a sad and solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground: judge, therefore, of the pleasure of the heart by the pleasure of the eye. Certainly virtue is like precious odors, most fragrant where they are incensed, or crushed: for prosperity doth best discover vice, but adversity doth best discover virtue.

OP STUDIES (1597). Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business: for expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshaling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar: they perfect nature, and are perfected by experience. For natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for

* The Old Testament laid more stress on temporal rewards; the New, on spiritual. To lose all earthly bles-ing for Christ's sake, to be in adrersity for him, was eventually the sonrce of the highest blessing. See Rev. vii.- Comforts and hopes.' So Paul " We glory in tribulations also." Rom. v.-Lively, bright, in gay colors.-Lightsome, of light or joyous aspect. ---Discover (Fr. dicouvrir, to dis Iose : from Lat. dir., denoting privation or nega. tion : co- or con-, together, completely; and operire, to cover), uncorer, rereal, make manifest: Divide this essay into paragraphs. See what improvement you can make in any sentences. Call out the thoughts, and rewrite the essay in your own language, to see if you can improve npon the original. Specify in writing the twelve labors of Hercules. Write out the legend of Prometheus.

Privateness, seclusion. See priry, Index.-Retiring (Lat re, back, Fr. tirer, to draw), freedom from busin 88 cares; withdrawal from society; modest leisure; unobtrusiveness. -General counsels, comprehensive counsels, plans embracing great and varied interests.Judgments, plans, opinions.-Natural plants, plants that growo wild.-Crafty (A. S. cräft, strength, art; Ger., Sw., and Dan. kraft, power; W. cref, strong) may here siguity of some craft, or skilled in some mechanical work; or it may be used in the sense of cunning. Which is preferable ?-Simple, unsophisticated.

Lirely work upon a sad and solemn ground = animated scenes and figures upon a dark and sober-looking ground. Other equivalents!

Hos' fragrant when they are incensed = moet grateful to the sense of smell when they are burning. Oiher equivalents!

Their chief ne for delight is in privateness = their principal use in giving pleasure is in privacy. Other equivalents?

To make jurginent = to give judgment = to make decisions. Other equivalents !

The humor of a scholar = the predominant inclination of a learned man = the unreasoning fapciful inclination of a man or books. Other equivalents !

granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; * and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man; conference, a ready man; and writing, an exact man: and, therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory: if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtile; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. “Abeunt studia in mores: nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting, for the lungs and breast; gentle walking, for the stomach; riding, for the head, and the like. So, if a man's wits be wandering, let him study.the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If bis wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are “Cymini sectores.” If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call upon one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt. +

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OF MARRIAGE AND SINGLE LIFE (1612; slightly enlarged 1625). He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men; which, both in affection and means,

* Curiously (Lat. cura, care), carefully, with cuger attention.-Arguments, subjects, courses of thought.-Else (genitive case of the root of Gr. árdos : Lat. alius, other; A. S. elles. See p. 20). in other cases, in other circumstances.-Conference (Lat. con, together; fero, Gr. dépw, to bring; Lat. conferentia, a bringing together for comparison; Fr. conférence), conversation.-Abeunt, etc., studies pass into habits, or manners.--Stand (or stond in some editione), disinclination to proceed.- Wit, intellect. - Wrought out, worked off removed.Schoolmen (Gr. o xoań, leisure; Lat, schola, a school ; Fr. école; Ger. schule). ** The school. men were philosophers and divines of the Middle Ages who adopted the principles of Aristotle, and spent much time on points of nice and abstract speculation. They were so called because they taught in the schools of divinity established by Charlemagne."-Cymini, etc., cumin-splitters, "hair-splitters." Cumin is a plant, also the seed of the plant, like anise and caraway.-- Apt (Lat. apius, fit), skillful, capable, able.--Beat over, scour, range over, drive over, go over with force and skill.--Receipt. recipe, formula prescribed for preparing medicine, etc.-Impediments (Lat. imperiimentum, hiüdrance ; perhaps from in, against, and pes, peuis, the foot).

But not curiously = but not with eager attention. Other equivalents !
But that would be = but that should be done. Other equivalents ?
Reading inaketh a full man = what? A ready man = what! in ecct man = what?

Seem to know that he doth not = seem to know that which he does not really know. Other equivalents ?

† This admirable essay on studies has rarely or never been enrpassed in concentration of thought. The rtudent may profitably write out illustrations and expansions of the points made. Rewrite the thoughts in your own words, and then compare your work with Bacon's.

have married and endowed the public. Yet it were great reason that those that have children should have greatest care of future times, unto which they know they must transmit their dearest pledges. Some there are, who, though they lead a single life, yet their thoughts do end with themselves, and account future times impertinences. Nay, there are some other that account wife and children but as bills of charges. Nay, more, there are some foolish, rich, covetous men, that take a pride in having no children, because they may be thought so much the richer; for perhaps they have heard some talk, “Such an one is a great rich man,” and another except to it, “Yea, but he hath a great charge of children;" as if it were an abatement to his riches. But the most ordinary cause of a single life is liberty; especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every restraint, as they will go near to think * their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, best servants, but not always best subjects; for they are light to run away; and almost all fugitives are of that condition. A single life doth well with churchmen; for charity will hardly water the ground where it must first fill a pool. It is indifferent for judges and magistrates; for, if they be facile and corrupt, you shall have a servant five times worse than a wife. For soldiers, I find the generals commonly, in their hortatives, put men in mind of their wives and children; and I think the despising of marriage among the Turks maketh the vulgar soldier more base. Certainly wife and children are a kind of discipline of humanity; and single men, though they be many times more charitable, because their means are less exhaust, yet, on the other side, they are more cruel and hard-hearted, good to make severe inquisitors, because their tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are commonly loving husbands; as was said of Ulysses, “Vetulam suam prætulit immortalitati." Chaste women are often proud and froward, as presuming upon the merit of their chastity. It is one of the best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the wife, if she think her husband wise; which she will never do if she find him jealous. Wives are young men's mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men's

* As they will go near to think, that they will almost think.-Light to run away, free from impediments lo running away. Light, nimble.--Hortatives (Lat. hortari, to excite), exhortations. --Vulgar soldier, common soldier. - Vetulam suam, etc. He preferred his little old woman (Penelope] immortality. This refers to the Ilomeric narrative, which represents the nymph Calypso, daughter of Allas, to have promised Ulysses immortality, if he wonld remain in the island of Ogygia. He chose to return to his aged wife, Penelope, after twenty years' absence.-Presuming upon, etc. This remark shows a keenness and depth of mental vision worthy of Shakespeare. Indeed, it has been argued, not without a degree of plausibility, that Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays !

Account future times impertinences = account (regard, consider, reckon) future times (coming ages, the future) things wholly irrelevant (of no account, quimportant). Other equivalents !

Bills of charges = bills of expense. Other equivalents ?

Humorous minds = fancy-ruled minds = minds under the dominion of some leading whim = minds

to some predominant inclination. Other eqnivalents? Whately suggests that hamorous may here mean self-conceited.

As they will go near to think = that they will almost think. Other grammatical equivalents! Light to run away. Give half a dozen equivalents.

Their means are less exhaust = their pecuniary resources are more abundant Other equivalents ?

For the form exhaust, see Abbott's Shakes. Grammar, 8 342, etc.

nurses; so as a man may have a quarrel to marry* when he will. But yet he was reputed one of the wise men that made answer to the question when a man should marry, “A young man not yet, an elder man not at all.” It is often seen, that bad husbands have very good wives; whether it be that it raiseth the price of their husbands' kindness when it comes, or that the wives take a pride in their patience. But this never fails if the bad husbands were of their own choosing, against their friends' consent, for then they will be sure to make good their own folly.

OF THE TRUE GREATNESS OF KINGDOMS AND ESTATES (1612; enlarged 1625). The speech of Themistocles, the Athenian, which was haughty and arrogant in taking so much to himself, had been a grave and wise observation and censure, applied at large to others. Desired at a feast to touch a lute, he said, “he could not fiddle, but yet he could make a small town a great city.” These words, holpen a little with a metaphor, may express two differing abilities in those that deal in business of estate. For, if a true survey be taken of counsellors and statesmen, there may be found, though rarely, those which can make a small state great, and yet cannot fiddle; as, on the other side, there will be found a great many that can fiddle very cunningly, but yet are so far from being able to make a small state great, as their gift lieth the other way; to bring a great and flourishing estate to ruin and decay. And, certainly, those degenerate arts and shifts, whereby many counsellors and governors gain both favor with their masters, and estimation with the vulgar, deserve no better name than fiddling; being things rather pleasing for the time, and graceful to themselves only, than tending to the weal and advancement of the state which they serve. There are also, no doubt, counsellors and governors which may be held sufficient, “negotiis pares,” able to manage afľairs, and to keep them from precipices and manifest inconveniences; which, nevertheless, are far from the ability to raise and amplify an estate in power, means, and fortune. But be the workmen what they may be, let us speak of the work; that is, the true greatness of kingdoms and estates, and the means thereof. An argument fit for great

* Quarrel to marry (Lat. queror, to complain ; querela, complaint, canse of complaint ; Fr. querelle), cause to marry. See Insiex. Wbately suggests that it may be from the Lat. quare, wherefore.

Themistocles (B, C..14-449), one of the most brilliant of Athenian statesmen. See Class, Dict, and Plutarch's Lives.-Had been. What mood ? Common form ?--Applied. What omission ?-Holpen (passive participle of the A, s. helpart; Ger. hilien. to help the -en in the A.S. is the ending of the past or perfect participle), helped. " He hath holpen his servant Israel." Luke i. 51.-Estate, in the old English writers, means the same as state. (sl denoies firmness, or stability: as in Gr. istnut; Lat stare, to stand; Eng, stick ; A. S. standan; Ger, strhen.) Those which, those who.--Cunningly (A. S. cunnan, to know, to be able. Hence cunningly is knowingly, ahly. See Index), «killfully. -As their gift, that (on the contrary) their gift.Estate, als hefore.-Governors which. Modernize the expression. Negotiis pares, equal to (i. e,, able to transact) business. -Which, nevertheless, who, nevertheles8.- Argument, theme, subject.

So as ? man may have a quarrel to marry = so that a man may have a reason for marrying. Other equivalents ?

Censurt, applied, at large, to others = judgment, if stated as a general principle, applicable to others. Other grammatical equivalents!

Fiddle very cunningly = play a lite very skillfully. Other equivalents ?

An argument fit for great and mighty princes to have in their hand = a subject appropriate for eminent and powerfnl monarchs to have in their intelligent consideration. Other equivalents!

These essays of Bacon, it is clear, are masterpieces of condensed thought. How say you of the verbal expression! Rewrite, in a more modern style, that on Marriage and Single Lifë.

and mighty princes to have in their hand; to the end, that neither by overmeasuring their forces they lose themselves in vain enterprises; nor, on the other side, by undervaluing them, they descend to fearful * and pusillanimous counsels.

The greatness of an estate, in bulk and territory, doth fall under measure; and the greatness of finances and revenue doth fall under computation. The population may appear by musters; and the number and greatness of cities and towns, by cards and maps; but yet there is not anything, amongst civil affairs, more subject to error than the right valuation and true judgment concerning the power and forces of an estate. The kingdom of heaven is compared, not to any great kernel, or nut, but to a grain of mustard-seed; which is one of the least grains, but hath in it a property and spirit hastily to get up and spread. So are there states great in territory, and yet not apt to enlarge or command; and some that have but a small dimension of stem, and yet are apt to be the foundation of great monarchies.

Walled towns, stored arsenals and armories, goodly races of horse, chariots of war, elephants, ordnance, artillery, and the like,-all this is but a sheep in a lion's skin, except the breed and disposition of the people be stout and warlike. Nay, number itself in armies importeth not much, where the people are of weak courage; for, as Virgil saith, “it never troubles the wolf how many the sheep be.” The army of the Persians, in the plains of Arbela, was such a vast sea of people as it did somewhat astonish the commanders in Alexander's army, who came to him, therefore, and wished him to set upon them by night. But he answered, “he would not pilfer the victory;” and the defeat was easy. When Tigranes, the Armenian, being encamped upon a hill with four hundred thousand men, discovered the army of the Romans, being not above fourteen thousand, marching towards him, he made himself merry with it, and said, “Yonder men are too many for an embassage, and too few for a fight:" but before

* Fearful, full of fear, timid.-Doth fall under measure. Modernize the expression. -May appear, may be clearly shown.--Cards, charts (Gr. xáprns, a leaf of paper; Lat. charta ; Fr. carte).

All the quarters that they know

l' the shipman's card.-Macbeth. Compared. See the parable, Matthew xiii.-Apt (Lat. aptus, fit), adapted, fit.-Stem foundation. Rhetorically incorrect. Why :-- All this is. Except, unless.-Importeth not much. Modernize. - Virgil. The great Roman poet, who lived B. C. 70-20. The allusion is said to be to the seventh Eclogue, where Virgil saye,

“We care as little for the cold as the wolf for the number (of the flock)." Arbela, a city of Assyria near the small river Zabatus (Zah), which is a tributary of the Tigris. In the plain of Gaugamela, n-ar Arbela, a decisive battle was fought between Alexander the Great and Darius, B. C. 331.-Alexander (B. C. 356-323), son o! Philip. In the battle of Arbela he commanded forty thousand infantry and seven thousand cavalry; to which Darius opposed one million infantry and forty thousand cavalry.-Tigranes, the self-styled King of Kings, was ron-in-law of Mithridates. He was defeated by the Roman general Lucullus, B. C. 69, near Tigrunocerta, the capital, which Lucullus captured, with eight thousand talents in ready moner. The student will do well to write out în detail the history of the events referred to in this paragraph, and to illustrate the point by more recent examples.

Yet are apt to be = yet are qualified to be = are, notwithstanding, fitted to be = are, never. theless, adapied to be. Other grammatical equivaleris!

Iin porreth not much. Give vix equivalent expressions.
Puljer the rictory = snatch the victory hy stealth. Other equivalents ?

Would all these are be better!

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