Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England
Astrology, witchcraft, magical healing, divination, ancient prophecies, ghosts, and fairies were taken very seriously by people at all social and economic levels in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. Helplessness in the face of disease and human disaster helped to perpetuate this belief in magic and the supernatural. As Keith Thomas shows, England during these years resembled in many ways today's "underdeveloped areas." The English population was exceedingly liable to pain, sickness, and premature death; many were illiterate; epidemics such as the bubonic plague plowed through English towns, at times cutting the number of London's inhabitants by a sixth; fire was a constant threat; the food supply was precarious; and for most diseases there was no effective medical remedy.
In this fascinating and detailed book, Keith Thomas shows how magic, like the medieval Church, offered an explanation for misfortune and a means of redress in times of adversity. The supernatural thus had its own practical utility in daily life. Some forms of magic were challenged by the Protestant Reformation, but only with the increased search for scientific explanation of the universe did the English people begin to abandon their recourse to the supernatural.
Science and technology have made us less vulnerable to some of the hazards which confronted the people of the past. Yet Religion and the Decline of Magic concludes that "if magic is defined as the employment of ineffective techniques to allay anxiety when effective ones are not available, then we must recognize that no society will ever be free from it."
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'That which we call fortune', wrote the Elizabethan bishop, Thomas Cooper, 'is
nothing but the hand of God, working by causes and for causes that we know not.
Chance or fortune are gods devised by man and made by our ignorance of the ...
'It was our bishop's opinion,' wrote the biographer of John Hacket, the Restoration
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 'that the spirit of prophecy was not quite dried
up, but sometimes pro hie et nunc God gave mankind still a knowledge of future ...
These offences were subsequently enquired after by the bishops and
archdeacons in their visitation articles, so that those guilty of them might be
hauled up before the ecclesiastical courts. The types of magic most commonly
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This is a mighty big book! I don't remember when I started it... probably a couple years ago. I would generally read one chapter at a time, then read another book or two before reading the next ... Read full review
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"The real question at issue here is what enables us to read a source ‘against the grain’, and here theory does indeed come in. Theory of whatever kind, whether it is a general set of theses about how ... Read full review
The Magic of the Medieval Church
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