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[Edin. 1802.) his most active adherents, after they had ineffectually From the remote period, when the Roman Pro- exhorted him to commit his fate to the issue vince was contracted by the ramparts of Severus, of a battle. The Border chiefs, who longed

1453 until the union of the kingdoms, the Borders of for independence, showed little inclination to follow Scotland formed the stage, upon which were pre- the declining fortunes of Douglas. On the sented the most memorable conflicts of two gallant contrary, the most powerful class engaged and

1465 nations. The inhabitants, at the commencement defeated him at Arkinholmc, in Annandale, when, of this era, formed the first wave of the torrent, afler a short residence in England, he again endeawhich assaulted, and finally overwhelmed, the bar- voured to gain a footing in his native country.t piers of the Roman power in Britain. The subse. The spoils of Douglas were liberally distributed quent events, in which they were engaged, tended among his conquerors, and royal grants of his forLitle to diminish their military hardihood, or to feited domains effectually interested them in exclumoncle them to a more civilized state of society, ding his return. An attempt on the East Borders by We have no occasion to trace the state of the Bor the Percy and the Douglas both together," ders during the long and obscure period of Scottish was equally unsuccessful. The Earl, grown

1475 history, which preceded the accession of the Stuart old in exile, longed once more to see his native family. To illustrate a few ballads, the earliest of country, and vowed that, upon St. Magdalen's day, which is hardly coeval with James V., such an he would deposit his offering on the high altar inquiry would be equally difficult and vain.

1483 If we at Lochmaben. Accompanied by the banished may trust the Welsh bards, in their account Earl of Albany, with his usual fortune he entered

of the wars betwixt the Saxons and Danes of Scotland. The Borderers assembled to oppose him, Deira and the Cumraig, imagination can hardly and he suffered a final defeat at Burnswark, in form any idea of conflicts more desperate, than Dumfries-shire. The aged Earl was taken in the were maintained, on the Borders, between the an- fight, by a son of Kirkpatrick of Closeburn, one of cent Brush and their Tuetonic invaders. Thus, his own vassals. A grant of lands had been offered the Gododine describes the waste and devastation for his person : "Carry me to the king !" said Douof mutual havoc, in colours so glowing, as strongly glas to Kirkpatrick :' "thou art well entitled to to recall the words of Tacitus; "Et ubi solitudi- profit by my misfortune ; for thou wast true to me, Bem faciunt, pacem appellant.

while I was true to myself." The young man Ai a later period, the Saxon families who fled wept bitterly, and offered to fly with the Earl into from the exterminating sword of the Conqueror, England. But Douglas, weary of exile, refused his with many of the Normans themselves, whom dis- proffered liberty, and only requested, that Kirkpacontent and intestine feuds had driven into exile, trick would noi deliver him to the king, till he had began to rise into eminence upon the Scottish Bor- secured his own reward. I Kirkpatrick did more: ders. They brought with them arts, both of peace he stipulated for the personal safety of his old masand of war, unknown in Scotland; and, among ter. His generous intercession prevailed ; and the their descendants, we soon number the most powerful Border chiefs. Such, during the reign of man of Douglas, communded the royal forces; and the difference

+ At the battle of Arkinholme, the Earl of Angus, a near kinsthe last Alexander, were Patrick Earl of March of their complexion occasioned the saying that the Black

Douglas had put down the Red." The Maxwells, the Johnstones, and Lord Soulis, renowned in tradition; and 1949

such were also the powerful Comyns, who and the Scotts, composed his army. Archibald, Earl of Murray, early acquired the principal sway upon the Scottish brother to Douglas, was plain in the action ; and Hugh,

Eart": 1300

Marches. In the civil wars betwixt Bruce tors, Lord Carlisle, and the Baron of Johnstone, were rewarded

and Baliol, all those powerful chieftains es with a grant of the lands of Pittinane, upon Clyde.--GODSCROFT, poused the unsuccessful party. They were forfeited vol. 1, p. 375.--BALFOUR's M$. in the Advocate's Library, Edin and exiled; and upon their ruins was founded the lion. --The other chiefs were also distinguished by royal favour. formidable house of Douglas. The Borders, from By a charter, upon record, datod @th February, 1548, the king sea to sea, were now at the devotion of a succes grants to Walter Scott of Kirkuri, ancestor of the house of BucSon of mighty chiefs, whose exorbitant power sleuch, the hands of Abingtown, Phareholm, and Glentonan Craig.

Pro suo fideli servitio nobis impenso, et pro threatened to place a new dynasty upon the Scot- quod in!erfuil in conflictú de Arkinhoue in occisione et captish throne. It is not my intention to trace the tione nostrorum rebellium quondam Archibaldi et Hugonis

de dazzling career of this

race of heroes, whose exploits Douglas olim Comitum Moravic ct de Ormond et aliorum rewere alike formidable to the English and to their rum et interfactorum." Similar grants o' land were made to own sovereign.

Finnart and Arran, the two branches of the house of Hamilton The sun of Douglas set in blood. The murders to the chief of the Battisons ; but above all to the Earl of Angus, of the sixth earl, and his brother, in the Castle of who obtained from royal favour a donation of the Lordship of Edinburgh, were followed by that of their succes- representative. There appears, however, to be some doubt, whe$or poniarded at Stirling by the hand of his prince. ther, in this division, the Earl of Angus received more than his na: His brother, Earl James, appears neither to have tural right. Our historians, indeed say, that William, ist Earl

of possessed the abilities nor the ambition of his an

Douglas, had three sons: 1. James the 2d Earl, who died in the

field of Otterburn; 2. Archibald the Grim, 3d Earl; and, 3. George, cestors. He drew, indeed, against his sovereign, in right of his mother, Earl of Angus.. Whether, however, this the formidable sword of Douglas, but with a timid Archibald was actually the son of William, scems very doubtful ; and hesitating hand. Procrastination ruined his and Sir David Dalrymple has strenuously maintained the contra cause; and he was deserted, at Abercorn, by the Bouglas without being a son of that family, it follows that the Knight of Cadyow, chief of the Hamiltons, and by house of Angus, being kept out of their just rights for more than * In the spirited translation of this poem, by Jones, the follow- holme. Perhaps this may help to account for the eager interest

a century, were only restored to them aller the battle of Arkining verses are highly descriptive of the exhausted state of the vic

taken by the Earl of Angus against his kinsman.*-Sec Remarks At Madoc's lent the clarion sounds,

on the flistory of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1773, p. 121.

1 A grant of the King, dated ad October, 1484, bestowed upon With rapid clangour hurried far: Each echoing dell the note resounds

Kirkpatrick, for this acceptable service, the lands of Kirmichael. But when return the sons of war!

[The connexion between the house nf Angus and the old line of Donglas Thou, born of stern Necessity,

has al length, it is believed, been settled by the researches of the learned Dull Peace! the desert yields to thee,

John Riddell. The first Douglas of Angus was, according to this authoAnd owns thy inelancholy sway.

rity, a natural son of the first Earl of Douglas. -Ed.)

His cap:

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last of the Douglasses wno permitted to die, in mo- | capitally punished, many imprisoned, and the rest nastic seclusion, in the Abbey of Lindores. dismissed, after they had given hostages for their

After the fall of the house of Douglas, no one future peaceable demeanourit chiestain appears to have enjoyed the same exten The hopes of Scotland, excited by the prudent sive supremacy over the Scottish Borders. The and spirited conduct of James, were doomed to a various barons, who had partaken of the spoil, sudden and fatal reverse. Why should we recapicombined in resisting a succession of uncontrolled tulate the painful tale, of the defeat and death of a domination. The Earl of Angus alone seems to high-spirited prince? Prudence, policy, the prodihave taken rapid steps in the same course of ambi- gies of superstition, and the advice of his most extion, which had been pursued by his kinsmen and perienced counsellors, were alike unable to subdue rivals, the Earls of Douglas. Archibald, sixth Earl in James the blazing zeal of romantic chivalry. of Angus, called Bell-the-Cat, was, at once, War- The monarch, and the flower of his nobles, preciden of the East and Middle Marches, Lord of Lid- pitately rushed to the fatal field of Flodden,

1513 desdale, and Jedwood forest, and possessed of the whence they were never to return. strong castles of Douglas, Hermitage, and Tantal The minority of James V. presents a melancholy lon. Highly esteemed by the ancient nobility, a scene. Scotland, through all its extent, felt the faction which he headed shook the throne of the truth of the adage, that "the country is hapless, feeble James III., whose person they restrained, whose prince is a child.". But the Border counties, and whose minions they led to an ignominious exposed from their situation to the incursions of the death. The king failed not to show his sense of English, deprived of many of their most gallant these insults, though unable effectually to avenge chiefs, and harassed by the intestine struggles of them. This hastened his fate : and the field of the survivors, were reduced to a wilderness, inBannockburn, once the scene of a more glorious habited only by the beasts of the field, and by a few conflict, beheld the combined chieftains of the Bor- more brutal warriors. Lord Home, the chamberder counties arrayed against their sovereign, under lain and favourite of James IV., leagued with the the banners of his own son. The king was sup- Earl of Angus, who married the widow of his soported by almost all the barons of the north ; but vereign, held, for a time, the chief sway upon the the tumultuous ranks of the Highlanders were ill East Border. Albany, the regent of the kingdom, able to endure the steady and rapid charge of the bred in the French court, and more accustomed to men of Annandale and Liddesdale, who bare spears wield the pen than the sword, feebly endeavoured two ells longer than were used by the rest of their to control a lawless nobility, to whom his manners countrymen. The yells with which they accom- appeared strange, and his person despicable.

1516 panied their onset, caused the heart of James to It was in vain that he inveigled the Lord quail within him. He deserted his host, and fled Home to Edinburgh, where he was tried and exe

towards Stirling; but, falling from his horse, cuted. This example of justice, or severity, only 1483 he was murdered by the pursuers.

irritated the kinsmen and followers of the deceased James IV., a monarch of a vigorous and energe- baron: for though, in other respects, not more tic character, was well aware of the danger which sanguinary than the rest of a barbarous nation, the bis ancestors had experienced from the preponde- Borderers never dismissed from their memory a rance of one overgrown family. He is supposed to deadly fend, till blood for blood had been exacted have smiled internally, when the Border and High- to the uttermost drachm.. Of this, the fate of land champions bled and died in the savage sports Anthony d'Arcey, Seigneur de la Bastie, affords a of chivalry, by which his nuptials were solemnized. melancholy example. This gallant French cavaUpon the waxing power of Angus he kept a wary lier was appointed Warden of the East Marches by eye; and, embracing the occasion of a casual Albany, at his first disgraceful retreat to France. slaughter, he compelled that earl and his son to Though De la Bastie was an able statesman, and exchange the lordship of Liddesdale, and the castle a true son of chivalry, the choice of the regent was of Hermitage, for the castle and lordship of Both- nevertheless unhappy. The new warden was a well.* By this policy he prevented the house of foreigner, placed in the office of Lord Home,

1517 Angus, mighty as it was, from rising to the height as the delegate of the very man who had whence the elder branch of their family had been brought that baron to the scaffold. A stratagem, burled.

contrived by Home of Wedderbum, who burned to Nor did James fail in affording his subjects on avenge the death of his chief, drew De la Bastie the Marches marks of his royal justice and protec- towards Langton in the Merse. Here he found

tion. The clan of Turnbull having been himself surrounded by his enemies. In attempting, 1510

guilty of unbounded excesses, the king came by the speed of his horse, to gain the castle of Dunsuddenly to Jedburgh, by a night march, and exe- bar, the warden plunged into a morass, where he cuted the most rigid justice upon the astonished was overtaken, and cruelly butchered.' Wedderoffenders. Their submission was made with singu- burn himself cut off his head; and, in savage lar solemnity. Two hundred of the tribe met the triumph, knitted it to his saddle-bow by the long king, at the water of Rule, holding in their hands towing hair, which had been admired by the dames the naked swords with which they had perpetrated of France.--Pitscottie, cdil. 1728, p. 130. Pintheir crimes, and having each around his neck the KERTOx's History of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 169.9 halter which he had well merited. A few were The Earl of Arran, head of the house of Hamil* Spens of Kilspindie, a renowned cavalier, had been present

ton, was appointed to succeed De la Bastie in his in court, when the Earl of Angus was highly praised for strenenti perilous office. But the Douglasses, the Homes, and valour. It may be," unswered Spens. "if all be good that and the Kerrs, proved too strong for him upon the is upcome;" insinuating that the courage of the Earl might not Border. He was routed by those clans, at answer the promise of his person. Shortly after, Angus, while Kelso, and afterwards in a sharp skirmish,

1520 hawking near Borthwick, with a single attendant, met Kilspin-fought betwixt his faction and that of Angus, in the dic. tion of my manlwod ? thou art a tall follow, and so aml; and by High Street of the St. Bride of Douglas, one of us shall pay for it!"--"Since it may be no better," answered Kilspindie, I will defend myself against + Holingshed's Chronicle.--LESLY. the best carl in Scotland." With these words they encountered : The statute 1594, cap. 231, ascribes the disorders on the Border fiercely, till Angus, with one blow, severed the thigh of his an in a great measure to the counselles, directions, receipt, and tagonist, who died upon the spot. The Earl then adiressed the partaking of chieNains principalles of the branches, and houseattendant of Kilspindic: "Go thy way: tell my gossip, the king, halders of the saids surnames, and clannes, qubilkis bean quarrel, that here was nothing but fair play, I know my gossip will be of and secks revenge for the least hurting or slauchter of ony ane ot fended; but I will get me into Liddesdale, and remain in my cas. their unhappy race, although it were ordour of justice, or in restle of the Hermitago till his anger be abatoil."--GODScrorr, vol. cuing and following of true mens geares stollen or rent." ii. p. 59. The price of the Earl's pardon secms to have been the exchange mentioned in the text. Bothwell is now the residence | Home, must have been the subject of a xong, the first two lines of

$ This tragedy, or, perhaps, the preceding execution of Lord of Lord Douglas. The sword with which Archibald Bell-the Cat which are preserved in the Complaint of Scotlandwew Spens, was, by his drecendant, the famous Earl of Morton,

God sen' the Duc hed byudin in France, presented to Lord Lindesay of the Byres, when about to engage

And De la Bate had never come hame. in single combat with the noted Earl of Bothwell, at Carbery. bill. --GODSCROVT, vol. ii. p. 175.

P. 100, Edin. 1801. 1 The particulars of this encounter are interesting. The Hamil

The return of the regent was followed by the had slept at Melrose; and the clans of Home and banshment of Angus, and by a desultory warfare Kerr, under the Lord Home, and the Barons of with England, carried on with mutual incursions. Cessford and Fairnihirst, had taken their leave of Two gallant arinies, levied by Albany, were dis- the King, when, in the gray of the morning, Bucmissed without any exploit worthy notice, while cleuch and his band of cavalry were discovered Surrey, at the head of ten thousand cavalry, burnt hanging, like a thunder-cloud, upon the neighbourJeiburgh, and laid waste all Tiviotdale. This ge-ing hill of Haliden.I A herald was sent to demand peral pays a splendid tribute to the gallantry of the his purpose, and to charge him to retire. To the Border chiefs. He terms them, “The boldest men first point he answered, that he came to show his

and the hottest, that ever I saw in any na-clan to the King, according to the custom of the 1523 tion."

Borders; to the second, that he knew the King's Disgraced and detested, Albany bade adieu to mind better than Angus.-When this haughty anScotland for ever. The queen-mother and the swer was reported to the Earl, Sir," said he to Earl of Arran for some time swayed the kingdom. the King, “ yonder is Buccleuch, with the thieves of But their power was despised on the Borders, Annandale and Liddesdale, to bar your grace's where Angus, though banished, had many friends. passage. I vow to God they shall either fight or Scott of Buccleuch even appropriated to himself ilee. Your grace shall tarry on this hillock with domains belonging to the queen, worth 400 merks my brother George; and I will either clear your yearly; being, probably the castle of Newark, and road of yonder banditti

, or die in the attempt." The her jointure lands in Ettrick forest. This chief, Earl

, with these words, alighted, and hastened to with Kerr of Cessford, was committed to ward, the charge; while the Earl of Lennox (at whose

from which they escaped, to join the party of instigation Buccleuch made the attempt) remained

the exiled Angus. Leagued with these, and with the King, an inactive spectator. Buccleuch other Border chiefs, Angus effected his return to and his followers likewise dismounted, and received Scoland, where he shortly after acquired posses- the assailants with a dreadful shout, and a shower sion of the supreme power, and of the person of the of lances. The encounter was fierce and obstinate; youthful king. "The ancient power of the Pou- but the Homes and Kerrs, returning at the noise of gloszes," says the accurate historian whom I have the battle, bore down and dispersed the left wing of S often referred to, seemed to have revived; Buccleuch's little army. The hired banditti fled on and, after a slumber of near a century, again to all sides; but the chief himself, surrounded by his thrtaten destruction to the Scottish monarchy.” clan, fought desperately in the retreat. The Laird PIXKEBTOS, vol. ii. p. 277.

of Cessford, chief of the Roxburgh Kerrs, pursued In fact, the time now returned, when no one durst the chase fiercely; till, at the bottom of a steep strive with a Douglas, or with his follower. For, path, Elliot of Stobs, a follower of Buccleuch, turnalthough Angus used the outward pagcant of con- ed, and slew him with a stroke of his lance. When ducing the King around the country, for punishing Cessford fell, the pursuit ceased. But his death, theses and traitors, "yet,” says Pitscottie, none with those of Buccleuch's friends, who fell in the were found greater than were in his own company."

;" action, to the number of eighty, occasioned a deadly The high spirit of the young King was galled by the feud betwixt the names of Scott and Kerr, which ignominious restraint under which he found him-cost much blood upon the Marches.ll-See Pitsself; and, in a progress to the Border, for repressing COTTIE, LESLY, and GODSCROFT. the Armstrongs, he probably gave such signs of Stratagem at length effected what force had been di-satisfaction, as excited the Laird of Buccleuch to unable to accomplish ; and the King, emanci

1528 attempt his rescue.

pated from the iron tutelage of Angus, made This powerful baron was the chief of a hardy the first use of his authority, by banishing from the 15:26

clan, inhabiting Eurick forest, Eskdale, Ews- kingdom his late lieutenant, and the whole race of dale, the higher part of Tiviotdale, and a portion of Douglas. This command was not enforced withLiddesdale. In this warlike district he casily le-out difficulty; for the power of Angus was strongly vid a thousand horse, comprehending a large body rooted in the East Border, where he possessed ihe of Elliots, Armstrongs, and other broken clans, castle of Tantallon, and ihe hearts of the Homes over whom the Laird of Buccleuch exercised an ex- and Kerrs. The former, whose strength was protensive authority; being termed, by Lord Dacre, verbial, 1 defied a royal army; and the latter at the

chief maintainer of all misguided men on the Pass of Pease, baffled the Earl of Argyle's attempts Borders of Scotland."-Letter to Wolscy, July 18, to enter the Merse, as lieutenant of his sovereign. 1525. The Earl of Angus, with his reluctant ward, On this occasion, the Borderers regarded with won

der and contempt the barbarous array and rude tons were the most numerous party, drawn chiefly from the west equipage of their northern countrymen. Godscroft em corupties. Their leaders met in the palace of Archbishop has preserved the beginning of a scoffing rhyme, Ben!00, and resolved to apprehend Angus, who was come to the made upon this occasion :ery to attend the Convention of Estates. Gawin Douglas, Bishop of Dapkeld, a near relation of Angus, in vain endeavoured to me. diale betwixt the factions. He appealed to Beaton, and invoked

vas put in the Castell of Edinbrouh, the Erl of Lenncas hath past ht» assistance to prevent bloodshed. “On my conscience," an hyz vny vythout lycyens, and in despyt; and thynkyth to make the

spread the Archbisbop. “I cannot help what is to happen. As brek that he may, and to solyst other lordis to tak hyz part ; for bulabiis land upon his breast, at this solemn declaration, the the said Lard of Bavklw vas hyz map, and dyd the gretyst ewelyz feat-rk, concealed by his rochet, was heard to clatter : "Ahi that myght be dwn, and twk part playnly vyth theflyz as is well mnv burd!" retorted Douglas, your conscience sounds hollow." He known."-Col. MSS. Calig. B. I. thecaespostulated with the secular leaders, and Sir Patrick Hamil 1 Near Darnick. By a corruption from Skirmish-field, the spot ton, brother to Arran, was convinced by his remonstrances; but is called the Skinnerstield. Two lines of an old ballad on the subEu Janins, the natural son of the Earl, upbraided his uncle'with ject are sull preserved : rebrortance to fight. “False bastard!" answered Sir Patrick, "I vill fight to day where thou darest not be seen." With these

" There were sic belts and blows, wants they rusbol tumultuously towards the High Street, where

The Mattous burn ran blood." Arzus, with the Prior of Coldinghame, and the redoubted WedOrrani, wted their assault, at the head of 400 spearmen, the (Another part of the field is still called the Charge Law.--En.) Baer of the East Marches, who, having broke down the gate of $ (Sir Walter Scott lived to be proprietor of the ground on the vahetus, baui arrived just in time to the Earl's assistance. which this battle was fought; anul a stone seat, on the edge of The advantage of the ground, and the disorder of the Hamiltons, Kaside, about half a mile above the house of Abbotsford, marks Soo ease the day tw Angus. Sir Patrick Hainilton, and the the spot, called “Turnagain," where Stobs halted, and Cessford Master of Montgomery, were slain. Arran, and Sir Jane died.-ED) Hamaltoa, eraud with difficulty; and with no less difficulty Buccleuch contrived to escape forfeiture, a doom pronounced was the mitary plate of Glasgow rescued from the ferocious against those nobles, who assisted the Earl of Lennox in a subxe. Perbers, by the generous interption of Gawin Douglas. The quent attempt to deliver the King, by force of arms. The laird of skirmieb was long remembered in Edinburgh, by the name of Bukcleugh has a respecte, and is not forfeited ; and will get his * Clean the Causeway." - PINKERTOX'S History, vol. ii. p. 181. pece, and wils in Lcthquo, both Sondaye, Mondaye, and Tewis -PITSCOTTIE, Etu. 1723, p. 120.–Life of Gawain Douglas, day last, which is grete displeasure to the Cares." --Letter from Prefized to his tirgu.

Sir C. Dacre to Lord Dacre, December, 1526. • A curious letter from Surrey to the King is printed in the T "To ding down Tantallon, and make a bridge to the Base,' Appendix No. 1

was an adage expressive of impossibility. The shattered ruins * la a letter to the Duke of Norfolk, October, 1524, Queen Mar of this celebrated fortress still overhang a tremendous rock on partt says, “Sen that the Lard of Sessford and the Lard of Baclw the coast of East Lothuan.





The Earl of Argyle is bound to ride

abode of Buccleuch, the hereditary enemy of the From the border of Edgebucklin brae ;* And all his habergeons him beside;

English name. Buccleuch, with the Barons of Each man upon a sonk of strae.

Cessford and Fairnibirst, retaliated by a raid into

England, where they acquired much spoil. On the
They made their vow that they would slay....

Eust March, Fowberry was destroyed by the
GODSCROFT, vol. ii. p. 104, Edit. 1743.
Scotts, and Dunglass Castle by D'Arcy, and

The pertinacious opposition of Angus to his doom the banished Angus.
irritated to the extreme the fiery temper of James,

A short peace was quickly followed by another and he swore, in his wrath, that a Douglas should war, which proved fatal to Scotland, and to her never serve him; an oath which he kept in circum- King. In the battle of Haddenrig, the English, stances, under which the spirit of chivalry which he and the exiled Douglasses, were defeated by the worshippedt should have taught him other feelings. Lords Huntly and Home; but this was a transient While these transactions, by which the fate of

gleam of success. Kelso was burnt, and the BorScotland was influenced, were passing upon the ders ravaged, by the Duke of Norfolk; and Eastern Border, the Lord Maxwell seems to have finally, the rout of Solway Moss, in which ten exercised a most uncontrolled domination in Dum- thousand men, the flower of the Scottish army, fries-shire. Even the power of the Earl of Angus were dispersed and defeated by a band of five hun was exerted in vain against the banditti of Liddes- dred English cavalry, or rather by their own disdale, protected and bucklered by this mighty chief. sensions, broke the proud heart of James; a death Repeated complaints were made by the English re

more painful, a hundred-fold, than was met by his dations of the Elliots, Scotts, and Ármstrongs without wounds, and without renown, the principal sidents, of the devastation occasioned by the depre- father in the field of Flodden.

When the strength of the Scottish army had sunk, connived at and encouraged by Maxwell, Buccleuch, chiefs were led captive into England. 'Among these and Fairnihirst. At a convention of Border commissioners, it was agreed that the King of England, was the Lord Maxwell, who was compelled, by the in case the excesses of the Liddesdale freebooters menaces of Henry, to swear allegiance to the Eng. were not duly redressed, should be at liberty to lish monarch. There is still in existence the spirited issue letters of reprisal to his injured subjects, grant- instrument of vindication, by which he renounces

power to invade the said inhabitants of Lid- his connexion with England, and the honours and desdale, to their slaughters, burning, herships, rob- estates which had been proffered him, as the price bing, reifing, despoiling, and destruction, and so to

of treason to his infant sovereign. From various continue the same at his Grace's pleasure," till the bonds of manrent, it appears that all the Western attempts of the inhabitants were fully atoned for. Marches were swayed by this powerful chieftain. This impolitic expedient, by which the Scottish Witle Maxwell, and the other captives, re

1543 Prince, unable to execute justice on his turbulent turned to Scotland the banished Earl of Angus, subjects, committed to a rival sovereign the power and his brother, Sir George Douglas, after a baof unlimited chastisement, was a principal cause of nishment of fifteen years. This powerful family rethe savage state of the Borders. For the inhabit- gained at least a part of their influence upon the ants, finding that the sword of revenge was substi- Borders; and, grateful to the kingdom which had tuted for that of justice, were loosened from their afforded them protection during their exile, became attachment to Scotland, and boldly threatened to chiefs of the English faction in Scotland, whose carry on their depredations, in spite of the efforts of object it was to urge a contract of marriage betwixt both kingdoms.

the young Queen and the heir-apparent of England. James V., however, was not backward in using The impetuosity of Henry, the ancient hatred bemore honourable expedients to quell the banditti on

twixt the nations, and the wavering temper of the the Borders. The imprisonment of their chiefs, Governor, Arran, prevented the success of this

and a noted expedition, in which many of the measure. The wrath of the disappointed monarch principal thieves were executed, (see introduction to discharged itself in a wide-wasting and furious inihe ballad, called Johnie Armstrong,) produced vasion of the East Marches, conducted by the Earl such good effects, that, according to an ancient of Hertford. Seton, Home, and Buccleuch, hang. picturesque history, thereafter there was great ing on the mountains of Lammermoor, saw, with peace and rest a long time, wherethrough the King ineffectual regret, the fertile plains of Merse and had great profit; for he had ten thousand sheep go-Lothian, and the metropolis itself

, reduced to a ing in the Ettrick forest, in keeping by Andrew Bell, smoking desert. Hertford had scarcely retreated who made the King so good count of them as they with the main army, when Evers and Latoun laid had gone in the bounds of Fife.”—PITscottie, p. 153.

waste the whole vale of Tiviot, with a ferocity of A breach with England interrupted the tranquillity mode of wooing," being pursued during the mino

devastation hitherto unheard of t The same " lion of the Borders. The Earl of Northumberland, a

formidable name to Scotland, ravaged the rity of Edward VI., totally alienated the affections

Middle Marches, and burnt Branxholm, the even of those Scots who were most attached to the * Edgebucklin, near Musselburgh.

English interest. The Earl of Angus, in particular, I allude to the affecting story of Douglas of Kilspindie, uncle united himself to the Governor, and gave the Eng. to the Earl of Angus. This gentleman had been placed by Angus lish a sharp defeat at Ancram Moor, a partiabout the king's person, who, when a boy, loved him much on accular account of which action is subjoined to

1545 count of his singular activity of body, and was wont to call him the ballad, entitled, The Ere of si. John. Even his Graycteil, atter a champion of chivalry in the romance of Sir the fatal defeat at Pinkey, which at once renewed and for many years served in France. Weary at length of exile the carnage of Flodden, and the disgrace of Solthe aged warrior, recollecting the King's personal attachment to way, served to prejudice the cause of the victors. him, resulved to throw himself

on his clemency. As James re: The Borders saw, with dread and detestation, the turned from hunting in the park of Stirling, he saw a person at a distance, and, turning to his nobles, exclaimed, “Yonder is my

ruinous fortress of Roxburgh once more receive an Graysteil, Archibald of Kilspindie!". As he approached, Douglas English garrison, and the widow of Lord Homo threw himselt on his knees, and implored permission to lead an driven from his baronial castle to make room for

But the name of Douglag war an amulet, which steel'd the King's heart against the influence of

the Southern Reirers.". Many of the bacompassion and juvenile recollection. He passed the suppliant rons made a reluctant submission to Somerwithout an answer, and rode briskly up the steep hill towards the Kilspindie, though loaded with a hauberk under his

1 In Hayne's Stute papers, from p. 43 to p. 61. is an account of clothes, kept pace with the horse, in vain endeavouring to catch

these destructive forays. One list of the places burnt und destroyed a glance from the implacable monarch. He sat down at the gate, weary and xbausted, and asked for a draught of water. Even

Monasteries and Freerehouses, this was refused by the royal attendants. The King afterworld

Castles, toutes, and piles, blained their discourtesy; but Kilspindie was obliged to return to France, where he died of a broken heart: the same disease which

Villages, allerwards brought to the grave big unrelenting sovereign. Even the stern Henry VII. blamed his nephew's conduct, quoting the

Spytelis and hospitals, generous paying, “A King's face should give grace."--GODS. See also official accounts of these expeditions, in DALYBLL'S CROFT, vol. ii. p. 107




Exer and Sir Grime.

obxcure life in his native land.




Market townes,


5 243 13 3


set; but those of the higher part of the Marches slain, the Scottish, with an unextinguishable thirst remained among their mountains, meditating re- for blood, purchased those of the French; parting reze. A similar incursion was made on the West willingly with their very arms in exchange for an Borders by Lord Wharton, who, with five thousand English captive. I myself," says Beaugue, with men, ravaged and overran Annandale, Nithsdale, military sang-froid, "I myself sold them a prisoner and Galoway, compelling the inhabitants to receive for a small horse. They laid him down upon the the yoke of England.*

ground, galloped over him with their lances in rest, The arrival of French auxiliaries, and of French and wounded him as they passed. When slain, aula rendered vain the splendid successes of the Eng. they cut his body in pieces, and bore the mangled Esh. One by one, the fortresses which they occu-gobbets, in triumph, on the points of their spears. I PÅ Fere recovered by force, or by stratagem; and cannot greatly praise the Scottish for this practice. ise biodietive cruelty, of the Scottish Borderers But the truth is, that the English tyrannized over made dreadful retaliation for the injuries they had the Borders in a most barbarous manner; and I sustained. An idea may be conceived of this horri- think it was but fair to repay them, according to We warfare from the Memoirs of Beaugué, a French the proverb, in their own coin."-Campagnes de ett, serving in Scotland.

Beaugué,+ (livre üi. chap. 13.) The Casue of Fairnihirst, situated about three A peace, in 1551, put an end to this war; the most nila abore Jedburgh, had been taken and garrison- destructive which, for a length of time, had ravaged doy the English. The commander and his follow- Scotland. Some attention was paid by the governor ers are accused of such excesses of lust and cruelty, and queen mother, to the administration of justice * as would,” says Beaugué,“ have made to tremble on the Border; and the chieftains, who had distinthe most savage Moor in Africa." A band of French- guished themselves during the late troubles, renen, with the Laird of Fairnihirst, and his Border-ceived the honour of knighthood.'' ers, assaulted this fortress. The English At this time, also, the Debateable Land, a

1552 archers showered their arrows down the steep tract of country, situated betwixt the Esk and ascent leading to the castle, and from the outer wall | Sarke, claimed by both kingdoms, was divided by which it was surrounded. A vigorous escalade, by royal commissioners, appointed by the two however, gained the base court, and the sharp fire crowns. By their award, this land of contention of the French arquebusiers drove the bowmen into was separated by a line, drawn from east to west, the square keen, or dungeon, of the fortress. Here betwixt the rivers. The upper half was adjudged the English defended themselves, till a breach in to Scotland, and the more eastern part to England. the wall was made by mining. Through this hole Yet the Debateable Land continued long after to be be commandant creeped forth; and, surrendering the residence of thieves and banditti, to whom its bimself to De la Mothe-rouge, implored protection dubious state had afforded a desirable refuge.S from the vengeance of the Borderers. But a Scot In 1557, a new war broke out, in which rencountash Marchman, eyeing in the captive the ravisher ters on the Borders were, as usual, numerous, and of his wife, approached him ere the French officer with varied success. In some of these, the too-facould guess his intention, and, at one blow, carried mous Bothwell is said to have given proofs of his his head four paces from the trunk. Above a hun- courage, which was at other times very questioncred Scots rushed to wash their hands in the blood able.ll About this time the Scottish Borderers seem of their oppressor, bandied about the severed head, to have acquired some ascendency over their southand expressed their joy in such shuts, as if they ern neighbours.-STRYPE, vol. ii.-In 1559, peace had stormed the city of London. The prisoners, was again restored. who fell into their merciless hands, were put to The flame of reformation, long stifled in Scotland, death, after their eyes had been torn out; the victors now burst forth with the violence of a volcanic contending who should display the greatest address eruption. The siege of Leith was commenced by a severing their legs and arms, before inflicting a the combined forces of the Congregation and of Engtal wound. When their own prisoners were land. The Borderers cared little about speculative

points of religion, but they showed themselves much * Patten gives us a list of these East Border chiefs who did ho- interested in the treasures which passed through ar to the Duke of Somerset, on the 24th of September, 1547 ; rady, the Lairds of Cessforth, Fernyherst, Grenehead, Hunt their country, for payment of the English forces at

, Handels, Makerstone, Bymerside, Bounjedworth, Orines. Edinburgh. Much alarm was excited, lest the La Mellestaines, Warmesas, Synton, Egerston, Merton, Mowe, Marchers should intercept these weighty Protestant bota

! Jhon Haliturtoo, Robert Car, Robert Car of Greyden, Adam arguments, and it was, probably, by voluntarily imExton Andrew Mether, Saunders Purvose of Erleston, Mark Car parting a share in them to Lord Home, that he betop Lighdean, George Car of Faldenside, Alexander Mackdowal, came a sudden convert to the new faith. T Charles Ratherford, Thomas Car of the Yere, Jhon Car of Meyn. Upon the arrival of the ill-fated Mary in her nato. Clientom. Walter Haliburton, Richard Hangansydle: tive country, she found the Borders in a state of in Geoege Hoppringle, William Ormeston of Emerden, John great disorder. The exertions of her natural brother Grylowe. PATTEN, in DALYELL'S Fragments, p. 87. (afterwards the famous Regent Murray) were ne

Ua the West Border, the following barons and clang submitted, cessary to restore some degree of tranquillity. He 101 ave pledges to Lord Wharton, that they would serve the King of England, with the number of followers annexed to their + [The Maitland Club of Glasgow printed, in 1830, a beautiful

edition of the “Histoire de la Guerre d'Ecosse, par lan de Aenerdele-Laird of Kirkmigbel, 222 ; Laird of Rose, 165; Beaugué, gentilhomme Francois."-ED.) Laird of Hempsfield, 163 ; Laird of Home Ends, 162; Laird of 1 These were the Lairds of Buccleuch, Cessford, and Fairni. Kanfrey, 102; Laird of Dunwoddy, 44; Laird of New by and hirst, Littleden, Grenelied, and Coldingknows. Buccleuch, whose Gatv7.12 Laird of Tinnel Tinwald.) 102; Patrick Murray, gallant exploits we have noticed, did not long enjoy his new ho90; Christis Crwin (Irving) of Coveshawe, 102; Cuthbert Ur. Howas murdered in the streets of Edinburgh by his horeen of Robball, 34; Urwens of Bennersack, 40; Wat Urwen, ditary enemies, the Kerrs, anno 1552.

Jeffrey Crüen, $3 ; T. Johnaton of Crackburn, 64; James $ The jest of James VI. is well known, who, when a favourite Jaéraun of Coites, 162; Johnstons of Craggyland, 37; Johnstons cow had found her way from London, back to her native country of Dreadell, 15 ; Johnstons of Malinshaw, 65 ; Gawen Johnston, of Fise, observed, " that nothing surprised him so much as her 31; ] Johnston, the laird's brother, 110: Robin Johnston of passing uninterrupted through the Debateable Land !" Lochmaken, 67; Laird of Gillersbie, 30; Moffits, 24 ; Bells of !! Ho was Lord of Liddesdale, and keeper of the Hermitage Taxtints, 142 : Pells of Tindills, 222 ; Sir John Lawson, 32 ; Town Castle. But he had little eflective power over that country, and of Annan, B; Roomes of Tordephe, 32. - Nithsdale. -Mr. Max was twice defeated by the Armatronga, ita lawless inhabitants.-well and more, 1000; Laird of Closchurn, 403; Laird of Lag, 202 ; Border History, p. 584. Yet the unfortunate Mary, in her fa. Laird of Cransfield. 27; Mr. Ed. Creighton, 10; Laird of Cowhill, 91: Maxwells of Brackenside, and Vicar of Carlaverick, 310.

mous Apology, says, " that in the weiris against Ingland, he gaif Anzerddle and Galuray.-Lord Carlisle, 101.-Annerdale and him especially for subjugating the rebellious subject is inhabiting

proof of his valyentnes, courage, and gude conduct and praises Clidedale --Laird of Applegirth, 242-Liddesdale and Debateable the cuntreis lying cwest the marches of lpgland."--Keith, p. 388. Land. - Armstrongs, 300; Elwoods (Elliots,) 74; Nixons, 32. - Ho appears actually to linve defeated Sir Henry Percy, in a skir Galimsay-Laird of Dawbaytie. 41; Orcherton, 111; Carlisle, mish, called the Raid of Haitwells wire.

; Loughenwar, 45 ; Tutor of Bombie, 140; Abbot of Newab 91 This nobleman hud, shortly before, threatened to spoil the bey, 141, Town of Dumfries, 201; Town of Kircubrie, 36.-Ti. English East March : "but," says the Duke of Norfolk, we have ridale -- Laird of Drumlire, 361 ; Caruthers, 71 : Trunbells, 12. - provided such sauce for him, that I think he will not deal in such Eerdale-Battisons and Thomsons, 166.- Total, 7008 men under matter; but, if he do fire but one hay-goff, he shall not go to Englizh assurance.-Nicolson, from Bell's MS. Introduction 10 Home again without torchlight, and, peradventure, may find a Lutory of Cumberland, p. 65.

lanthor at his own house."


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