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Moraunt seyd that tide,
Togider tho thai yede, -"Tristrem, whi dostow Bo?
And hewen on helmes bright,
Saun fayl :
Tristrem as a knight,
Faught in that batayle.
Moraunt of Yrland smot
Tristrem in the scheld,
That half fel fram his hond,
Ther adoun in the feld;
Tristrem ich understond,
Anon the stroke him yeld;
With his gode brond
Moraunt neighe he queld,
Marke the batayl biheld,
And wonderd of that fight.
Moraunt was vnfayn,
And faught with al' his might,
That Tristrem were y-slayn,
He stird him as a knight:
Tristrem smot with mayn,
His swerd brak in the fight,
And in Morauntes brain,
Bileued pece bright;
And in the haunche right,
Tristrem was wounded sare.
A word that pended to pride,
Tristrem tho spac he,
-"Folk of Yrland side, And lepe opon his stede,
Your mirour ye may se,
Mo that hider wil ride,
Thus graythed schul ye be.'
With sorwe, thai drough, that tide,
Moraunt to the se,
With ioie Tristrem the fre
To Marke his em gan fare.
His swerd he offred than,
And to the auter it bare ;
For Markes kinsman,
Tristrem was loued thare.
A forward thai bigan,
Ther to thai alle sware,
For that lond fre he wan,
That King he schuld be thare; nenge le bastel en l'eaue, si que il fut, en peu d'heure, eslougne
And arme greene: whose name de Pale Morisult dist å Tristran, pourquoy il avoit ce fait !
Might seem to signifie, in truthe,
Each mighty enterprise, Pour ce, dezet il, se tu me occis, tu te mettras en ton bastel ; et
A prey most t for his courage, jele vecis, je te y mettray aussi, et te porteray en ton pays."
Ås is the Irish guise." Tus is an allusion to the armonial bearing of Sir Tristrem, which, according to all authorities, was a lion rampant, corres.
The Duke of Roxburghe's MS., already quoted, nearly agrees
with Robison, as to Moraunt's arins. Portoit en sex armes pardug to the name of his country, Liones, and also to his own da cositum. Foc, according to Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, d'argent une fesse de cing pieces d'azur, et dessus le tout ung *The lyon is callet king of beastis, and, as Isodore sayes, in his lyon a gueules armi di sinople.". To conclude a subject, which si buk of Bestiall, in all parellis he schawis him ryght glorious the preus chevalier himselt would have deemed of the last imand right valiant ; for. quhen he is pursewit with the hunter and portance, I observe, that in the corresponding drawing in the MS., the trudi, he fleis not nor hydis him not, bot sitter in the field, the lion is armed reri, as according to Rubison, and not sinople, qular he may be seine, and puttes him to ane defens. And his
as in the text. Datire is. quhen he is hurt be ony person, throw all the leif he will
The prose folio, which rarely improves the simple tale of christina, and revenge him, suld he de: and he is ane right sweit Thomas of Erceldoune, makes Moraunt finally disgrace his
"Quand Morhoult se sept nause a mort, il gecte best, and tattood to theme that dois him gude: and, as Aristotle knightly fame. sayis, the banis of the lyon ar sa hard, that, quhen thai strike on
jus son escu et son cspee, et soy retourne fuyant, et entre en son theme the fire fieis, as it does quhen thai strik on ane hard stane.
bastel." And of himself is sa curtes, that quhen he hes tane his prey. he
The sword of Sir Tristrem was broken in the engagement. It skartlie eittia ii alane, bo: callis company ta cit it, or leiles a part will be presently sen, that he continued to wear the same weato theme Therefor, thai that bure first the lion in their armes, pon, and was recognised by it in the court of Ireland. Although, and pesantly beires, suld be hardy, vaillant, stark, and assurit, therefore, in imitation of David, in Scripture, he had hallowed, and traueua amang their compaignionis."-"MS. on Heraldry, or offered it to the altar, it would seem he had redeemed it by an Adrocales Library.
oblation of a more current nature. This was a usual compromise, The dragon like the lion, had his typical signification in hesuiting both the warrior and the clergy better than the actual de raldry, deris+d from the supposed conditions of that fabulous ani-posit of a sword, of inestimable value to the former, to the latter Dragone, serpent, or yvre, (wyvern.) has a lyk signi.
a useless trophy in the creation of Knights of the Bath, someficating, and ar mekle beistis, ardante and scellouse, that skant thing of this kind make part of the ceremony.-STOWE's Annals, lie may be fillu of watter; and, therefore, thai opin their mouthis p. 856. It would seem, from the following extract, that an an. to the wind, that thai may sloken their byrning. Quhairof men
cient king of the Lombards had boasted the possession of Sir may say, be that bure them first, wes ryght desyrand to conquest, | Tristrem's sword. and was ane inan of grit vailliance, and desyrand to have grit do
“Eodem anno (rc. 1339) sub castro Soprii in monasterio de tinentatioun ; and it is convenient to be borne with men of grit Torbeth, tante quodam vento terribili quadam magna arbor divipulor."-B18 DAVID LINDSAY'S M3. Later authorities differ nitus est evulsa rodicitus, subque inventa fuit sepultura ex marfron Thomas of Erceldoune, assigning to Moraunt of Ireland, in: more multæ pulchritudinis. In hoc sepulcro jacebat Rex Guldastred of the dragon, a shield, thus blazoned by Richard Robison,
nus de Turbet, Rex Longobardorum, in cujus capite erat corona citizen of London, in his Booke of Armes and Archerie :
ex auro, in qua erant tres lapides pretiosi, scilicit Carbunculus "In silver shiell, on fense of per
pretii Il miilia florenorum, et unus Achates pretii D. florenorum. Cee five, throughout the same,
in manu sinistra habebat unum pomum aureum, a latere erat H. Mn loa amp4nt
unus ensis habens dentem in acie satis magnum, qui fuerat Tris
fire” in such abundance as to consume all the knight's ammour. Yif he oliue ware,
but is at length slain. The victor cuts out the dragon's tongue.
34. 35.-Having put the tongue of the animal into his hose." After Sir Markes day.
Tristrem attempts to return; but is deprived of his senses by the CII.
subtle operation of the poiron. Meanwhile, the King's steward.
chancing to pass by, cuts off the dragon's head, and carryine it Thei Tristrem light thenke,
to court, assumes the merit of the victory, and comanda the hand He is wounded ful sare,
of the Princess. Ysonde and her mother, not giving credit to the Leches with salue and drink,
steward, resolve to visit the place where the battle hitel ten Him cometh wide whare;
fought. 36. 37. 38. 29. --They find the steed and arms of 'Tritrem,
and at length the knight himself. Being restored by the appie Thai lorn al her swink,
cation of treacle, he vindicates his right to the victory, and pro. His pain was ay the mare,
duces the dragon's tongue: offering, at the same time, his slip No man no might for stink
and cargo in pledge, that he would make good his story upon the
person of the steward, in single combat. Ag he calls himself a Com ther Tristrem ware,
merchant, Ysonde expresses her rourt that he is not a knicht. Als than :
Stanzas 40. 41. 42. 43.-The Queen and Ysonde, admiring the Ich man for soke him thare,
bravery and bandsome figure of Tristrem, conduct him in prson
to a bath. The Queen goes to fetch a drink of " main." Vieare Bot Gouernayl his man.
while, Ysonde becomes suspicious that the strange was 'XT former preceptor, Tramtris. In searching for something to corfirm this conjecture, she examines his sword, which she finds to be broken. By comparing the breach with the fragment which
had been taken out of the skull of Moraunt, Yxou de discover FYTTE SECOND.
that the owner of the weapon has slain ber kinsman. She up
braids Tristrem with his slaughter, and rushes upon him with his ARGUMENT.
Her mother at this instant returns, and participates
in Ysonde's resentment, as soon as she learns that it is Tristrim Stanzas 1. 2. 3.-Tristrem, forsaken by every one, asks from she beholds. The arrival of the King saves Tristrem from being King Mark a ship, that he might leave the country of Comwall. Blain in the bath. 41. 45.- Tristrem defends himself, as having Mark reluctantly grants his request, and he embarks with Gou. slain Moraunt in fair fight; and, smiling upon Ysonde, tells her, vernayl. his sole attendant, and his harp as his only solace. She had many an opportunity of slaying him while he was her 4. 5.- Tristrem sets sail from Carlioun, and continues nine weeks preceptor Tramtrs. He pleads his services towards her in that at sea : the wind at length drives him to the haven of Dublin, in character, as well as the good report he had made of her charms Ireland. To the sailors, who come in boats from the harbour, he to King Mark; and, finally, he opens lisembussy. 46. 47.- Cn says, he has been wounded by pirates. 6.- Tristrem, learning the engagement of Tristrem, that bis uncle should marry Yronde, that he was in Ireland, and recollecting that Morannt, whom he it is agreed she whall be sent under his escort to Cornwall,
The had slain, was brother to the Queen of that country, again as: ste seard having relinqushed his claim, as soon as be understands sumes the name of Tramtris. 7. 8. - The wounded man's skill that his antagonist is the redoulsted Tristrem, is thrown into priin minstrelsy is reported to the Queen, a lady celebrated for her son at the request of the Princess. skill in medicine. 9. 10. 11.-The Queen comes to visit Tristrem, Slanzas 49. 49. 50. 51. 52. ---At their departure, the Queen gives who maintains his assumed name, and the character of a mer to Brengwain, a lady who attended upon Ysonde, a powerful chant, plundered and robbed by pirates. His skill in music and at philtre, or love potion, with directions, that Mark and his bride chess, and tables, astonishes the Queen and the bystanders, who should partake of it on the evening of their marrase. While at swear by Saint Patrick, that his like was never seen in Ireland. rea, the wind becomes contrary, and they are forced to have reThe Queen undertakes his cure; and, by a medicated bath, re course to their onrs. Tristrem exerts himself in rowing, and stores him to the use of his limbs, 12. 13. 14. - Tristrem's cure Y sonde calls for drink to refresh bim when fatigud. Drengwain advances through the precious remedies of the Queen. His skill inadvertently presents the cup which contains the futal litior, of in music, and in games, occasions his being frequently called to which Tristri and Yoonde unwittingly partake. A favourite court; and he becomes the instructer of the Princess Yeonde, dog, called Hodain, licks the cup. The consequence of this who was attached to the studies of minstrelsy and poetry. He draught is, a tatal and criminal passion betwixt Ysonde and instructs her in those arts, as well as in chess, and other games, 'Tristrem, which proves the source of all their misfortunes. 53. till she has no equal in the kingdom. excepting her preceptor, the 54. 55.- The ship arrives in England, after a furtnight's sail. inventor of those elegant anusements.
Ysonde is married to King Mark ; but, to conceal her guilty inStanzas 15. 16. 17. --Sir Tristrem's health being restored, and tercourse with Sir Tristrem, she substitutes her attendant, Brcng. the education of Yvonde completed, our hero becomes desirous wain, in her place, on the first night of hier nuptials. of returning to Britain. The Queen unwillingly grants his request, Sianzas 56. 57. 58.-- Suspicion, the natural consequence of with some reflections upon the ingratitude of forcigner. He is guilt, takes possession of Ysonde's mind. She betone fearful loaded with gitis, and gets sail, with Gouvernayl, for Carlioun, Test Brengwain should betray the important secret with which where he arrives in safety, to the joy and astonishment of the she was intrusted ; to prevent which, she hiren two ruffians to Cornish. 18. 19. 20. --Mark receives his nephew joyfully, and in despatch ber faithful attendant. 59. 60. 61. 62 - Brengwain is quires how his wound had been cured. *Tristrem informs the conducted by the assassins into a dismal glen, where they preKing of the kindness of the sister of Moraunt, and is lavish in pare to execute their bloody mandate. The prayers of the dam encomium upon the beauty and accomplishinents of Ysonde. sel, however, induce them to spare lier life, as slie protests, that The King, struck by this panegyric, offers to make Tristrem bis her only crime was having lent to Ysonde a clean night dress heir, if he will bring Y sonde to Comwall. 21. 22. 23. -The ba- upon the night of her nuptials, when that of the Queen had been rons, jealous of Tristrein's power, persuade the King that it accidentally sullied. Her intended exccutioners report this to would be an easy matter for his nephew to procure Ysonde for the Queen, as Brengwain's last words; and Ysonde, perceiving the royal bride. Tristrem points out the folly of such an enter the fidelity of her attendant, laments her loss, and vous verr prise; but adds, that he would undertake it, as he knew the no geance on her supposed murderers. Brengwain is then procluced, bility ascribed the opinion, which he had delivered to the selfish and reinstated in full favour. view of keeping the King unmarried. He demands an attendance Stanzes 63. 64. 65.--An Irish Earl, a former admirer of Ysonde, of fifteen knights. 24. 25. 26. -Tristrem walls to Dublin, with a arrives at the court of Cornwall, disguised as a minstrel, and select body of knights, in a vessel richly laden. Without an. bearing a harp of curious workmanship. He excites the curiosity nouncing their errand, they send rich presents to the King, the of King Mark, by refusing to play upon this beautiful instrument Queen, and the Princess. The messengers return, till of the all he shall grant him a bcon. The King having pledged his praises of Yeonde's beauty, and relate that the people of Dublin kmiglihood to sati fy his request, he sines in the harp a lay, in were in great alarm.
which he demands Ysonde as the promised gift. 66. 67. 65.Stanzax 27. 28. 29.---The cause of the terror of the Irish is ex Mark, having pletlued his honour, has no altemalive but to becone plained, being the approach of a monstrous dragon, which had a forsworn knight, or deliver his wife to the harper; and be done so much damage, that proclamation had been made, ofliring choo or the latter. Tristrem, who had been absent on a hurung the land of the Princess to him who should slay the monster. expedition, arrives just as the adventurous Earl carried of his 'Tristrem proposes the adventure to his knights, who decline to fnir prize. He upbraic's the King (and not without reason) for undertake it. He goes on shore lumself, well mounted and armed, his extravagant generosity to minstrels. Tristrom the size's le and comes in sight of the fiery dragon. 30. 31. 32. 33. - Tristrem rote; and, hastening to the shore, where Ysonde had embarked, breaks his spear on the impenetrable hide of the monster, loses begins to play upon that instrument. The sound deeply atlerts bis horse, and after praying to God, renews the battle on fout. Yoonde, who becomes so much indisposed, that the Earl, her He smites off the dragon's jaw: the enraged animal "throws lover, is induced to rerum with her to land. 63. 70.71.-Ysonde
pretends that the music of Thatram's role is necessary to bette tantie de Lyonog cum quo interficerat Lamoranth Durlanth.
covery; and the Earl, to whom Tristrem was personally un Unde in pomo envix sic erat scriptum, Cel est l'espee de Meser known, proposes to him to go in his train to Irland. Ysonde Tristant, ar il orcixi l'Amoroyl de Yrlant.
reviving at the sound of her lover's music, the Carl prepares to * In manu sinistra habebat scripturam continentem hos versi
return on Loard. 72. 73.- Tristrem mnounts his stored, thi lead. culos :
ing that of Yonde by the lindle, suddenly plunkes with bre into ( Zean. Sallelle Tribrz
the forest, atter tauntingly informing the Irish Earl, that he had Roy de Lomas incronez,
lost, by the rute, ber whom he had kuined by the barp, The Sie wures barons afirexies
lovers remain in a lodg in the forest for a werk; after which Zo que yo 12 in.perius
Tristrem restore Ysonle to her husband, advising him in future Per Deo vas pri ne mor roku"
to give mineirls other gifts. Gual unei de la Hamina de rebus
Stan: 74. 75. 76. - Meriadok, a knight of Cornwall, a comEr is zonis l'accontitis. The epitaph may be thus rendered :
panion of 'Triatrem, and deeply obliged to him, becomes suspicious "Rot here, in Jerusleserye name,
of his intercourse with the Queen This was carried on by Gallan de Turin, chief of lume,
means of a sliding board, through which Tristrem was admitted Highest prirei mid horops high
to Y sonde's bower. A srowy evening enables Merindok to trace Anderwe Kingot Lomarlie.
Tristrem's steps to this place, although he had taken the proper I won the spoils belute me precu:
caution of binding a nieve upon his feet, In a crevice of the Rob not the honoura of the dead."
sliding board, the spy discovers a piece of Tristrem's green kinie
77.21-Meriadok unfolds his suspicion to the King, who, by his Ich man, for sothe to say, adrice, pritends a journey to the Holy Land, and demands of
For soke tho that knight, Yugle to whose charge she would wish to be committed. The
As thare; Que al fint names Sir Tristrem. 79. 80. 81.--By adsice of the wel Biergwain the Queen resumes the subject, and pretends a Thai hadde don what he might, mortal batril to Tristrein, which she ascribes to the scandal Thai no rought of his fare. dere to bur on tiis accuunt. The suspicious of the simple King Curnwall are thus lulled to sleep.
II. S02 82 13.-Al the in-tigation of Meriadok, who promises to give the king demonstration of his dishonour, Sir Tristrem be
Til it was on a day, des again the object of Mark's jealousy. He is separated
Til Mark he gan him mene; fra Yound, and their mutual sorrow is described 64. 85.-.
Shortliche, sothe to say, Youndt treding in a bower, and Tristrem in the neighbouring cafi, be cuties to carry on a communication with her, by
This tale was hem bítvene; Du ans or light leafy twigs thrown into the river which runs --"In sorwe ich haue ben ay, honen beranen. By these suunals she knew when to expect
Seththen ich aliue haue ben;" — has asken rats. 56. 97. (The 85th and 66th Sianza sem to be TOR] The interviews of the lovers are discovered by a
Marke seyd-"Wayleway! dwartooncealed in a tree. Meriadok advises the king to pro
That ich it schuld y sene; clam a fiat hunting match, and, instead of going to the forest,
Swiche thing.' to wo al lumself in the duart's lurking place. 68, 49. 90. - The
Tristrem with outen wene, Cart is sent to Tristrem with a pretended message from Ysonde, apudunk a rendezvous. Tristrem, suspecting the deceit, returns
A schip asked the King. aiutdanner. The dwarf tills Mark that Tristrem puts no con. free in his message, but that he is nevertheless certain be will
III. at Yonde that night.
-"Em,”-he seyd, -"Y spille, da 91 92 93.-Mark, having taken his station in the tree,
Of lond kepe Y na mare,
Mine harp to play me thare, fra lan the affertions of his uncle, so that he was nearly com
Stouer ynough to wille, De to fly into Wales. Y sonde avows her hatred to Tristrem, ulice as the cause, her husband's unjust suspicions of their
To képe me son yon yare ;"— clint revue. 91. 95. 96. -The dialogue is continued in
Thei Marke liked ille, MI: strain ; Tristrem beseeching Yxonte to procuro him a
Trisirem to schip thai bare, unal from the count, and she ensuring, on condition of his
And brought; departup, to supplicato Mark to endos hiui with suitable means of support. The good natured monarch is overwhelmed with
Who wold with him fare? yoy an t-oderne at this supposed discovery of the innocence Gouernayle no lete him nought. of the site and nephew. Far from a senting to 'Tristrem's de. parture, be chates him his higii constable ; and the grateful
IV. butt caries on his intrigue with Ysonde, without farther sun
Tristremes schip was yare; pus, for the space of three years. DANA 97 $5.99. - Meriadok again excites the jealousy of
He asked his benisoun; Ant Mark and persuades him to order the Queen and Tristrem The hauen he gan out fare, La bele boel the same day: Meriadok also strews the floor of
It hight Carlioun :* to knz': chamber with tour, in order to delect the traces of friena upon it. 101). 101. -Tristrem evades this last device, by
Nighen woukes, and mare, sariling a distance of thirty teet, Over the part of the chamber
He hobled vp and doun; terh wa cufered with the flour; but the wound of his vein A winde to wil him bare, fpening with the exertion. his stolen visit is betrayed to the King
To a stede there him was boun, by the traces of his blood. Tristrem flieg tror Cornwall. 102. 11 -Yle undertakes to prove her innocence, by undergoing
Neighe hand; the try cadeal. A court is appointed to be held at Westmin
Deluelin hight the toun, ster, where the Queen is to bear red hot iron in her hand, An hauen in Irland. countin? to the ancient law of ordeal. Tristrem joms the rele, disused as a pea ant, in the most abject state of poverty. 194 - When they are about to cross the Thames, the Queen
V. fiches apo her disguised lover to bear her from the shore to the A winde thider him gan driue, up Tristren designedly lets his fair burden tall upon the beach,
Schipmen him seighe neighe hand; rh a manner as to expose some part of her person. 105. In botes thai gun him stiue, The attendants, scandalized at this indecent accident, caused by the sakwardness of the stranger, are about to drown' him in the
And drough him to the land; me; but att presented by Ysonde, who imputes his fall to fee. A wounded man aliue, betess, through want of nourishment, and orders him a reward.
In the schip thai fand; 104. 187. 105. - When the Queen in brought to her oath, she swears, tout she is a “guiltless woman," and that no one had ever fa
He seyd—“ Bisiden a riue, Tulanty with ber person, excepting the King, and the peasant who
Men wounded him and band, bors her to the vessel, whose indelicate awkwardness had been
Vn sounde."borard by the whole of her retine. The hot iron is then pre
No man might bi him stand, Berted to Yoonde; but the uxorions King of Cornwall, resting tertently satisfied with the equivocal oath of his consort, refuses
For stinking of his wounde. mit her to hazard this dangerous confirmation of her faith. Yup is proclaimed innocent, in spite of the accusations of
VI. Maradok, and is completöly reconciled to her husband. Tristrem, ranbile, remains in Wales, occupying in military achieve
Gouernail gan hem frain, meats the terra of his separation from Ysonde.
What hight the se strand ?
The schipmen that him fand:
Tho was Tristrem vnfain,
And wele gan vnderstand,
Hir brother hadde he slain,
That Quen was of the land,
Tristrem he gan doun lain,
And seyed Tramtris he hight. The Carlioun of Tomas of Erceldoune was a seaport, and The space between the Land's End and Isles of Scilloy, being epparently the capital of Comwall
. It cannot, therefore, be the about thirty milos, to this day relaineth that name, in Comisli, fame with Casploon upon Uske. From the etymology of the word Lethowsow, and carrieth continually an equal depth of forty or
Cerra Leonense) I apprehend that it must have been the sixty fathom, (a thing not usual in the sea's proper dominion, ehorf town of the district of Leonois, or Leonesse, the native save that about midway there lieth a ridge, which, at low water, country of our hero, from which he derived his usual appellation, discovereth its head. They term it the Gulph, suiting thereby fident on this subject, because there has tourished in Cornwall, thereabouts, have drawn up pieces of doors and windows. Morefron time jamemorial, a family called Curlyon of Tregrahan, a Over, the ancient name of St. Michael's mount was Caracloase Neme pot curring out of that county, being therefore, in all in Corose, in English, The Hoare Rocke in the Woode; which is pratility, a local appellation, derived from the capital of Lion now, at every flood, encompassed by the sea, and yet at low
We can, with great ease account for that capital bring now ebbe, roots of mighty trees are descried in the winds about it. unknown, since the whole district of Lionesse has been totally in The like overfiowing las taken place at Plymouth Haven, and undatud, as we are assuredly Mr. Carew, in his survey of Comwall, divers other places.".-See, upon this subject, Ellis's Notes 10
The sea, a dually encroaching on the shore, hath ravined WAY's Fabitaux, vol. ij. p. 179. fron Conwall the whole tract of country called Lionesse, toge. In the French Ms and prose folio, the abode of King Mark is ther with divers other parcells of no little circuit ; and that such fixed at the Castle of Tintagel, renowned in romance as the birtha country as Lionesso there was, those proofs are yet remaining. place of King Arthur. See p. 322.
An heye man he was like,
Thei he wer wounded sare;
His gles weren so sellike,
That wonder thought hem thare.
His harp, his croude was rike;
His tables, his ches he bare;
Thai swore, bi Seyn Patrike,
Swiche seighe thai neuer are,
Er than :
-"Yif he in hele ware,
He were a miri man."-
The leuedi of heighe kenne,
His woundes schewe he lete;
To wite his wo vnwinne,
So grimli he gan grete;
His bon brast vnder skinne,
His sorwe was vnsete;
Thai brought him to an inne;
A bath they made him sket,
That Tristrem on his fet,
Gon he might swithe.
Salues hath he soft,
And drinkes that ar lithe :
Thai no rought hou dere it bought,
Bot held him al so swithe:
He made his play aloft,
His gammes he gan kithe;.
For thi was Tristrem oft,
To boure cleped fele siihe:-
Ich man was lef to lithe,
His mirthes were so swete. * Fowe, from the French, fourure, signifies furs in general: away in drinking and lively discourse, in playing at backgamGriis, a particular kind of fur, so called from its gray colour! mon, and listening to the soft strains of the harp." The words occur repeatedly in the poem. Gris was in high es. 1 The familiarity of Tristrem with the queen and princess, dutoem. The Monk of Chaucer bud
ring his residence at the court of Dublin, is perfectly consistent - lasiteve purtiled, at the hond,
with the manners of the age, but more especially with those of With gris, and that the finest of the lond.".
the Irish. When Richard II. endeavoured to reform the manners In the beautiful Lay of Launfal, the mantles of the fairy were of gran felwet,
of that people, the knight, to whose tutelage he committed four Ybordurul with gold, ryght well yete,
of their petty kings, complained to Froissart, they wolde cause Impelvereid with grys ar gro.
their mynstrelles, their servauntes, and varlettes, to sytle with Froissart tells us, that Richard 11. provided for the Irish Kings, them, and to eate in their own dyshe, and to drinke of their who came to reside with him, robes of silk, furred with minever cuppes. And they shewed me, that the usage of their countrio and gray. Certain Gerinan nobles, who had slain a bishop, were was good; for they sayd, in all thynges (except their beddes) enjoined, amongst oth 't acts of penunce, " ut varium, griseum,
they were and lyved in common."--BERNERS' Froissari. fo. ermclinum, et pannos coloratos, non portent."--TRITHEMUI Cron: cclvii
. Much oftended were these potentates with their knightly Hirs, ad annum 1202.
tutor, who insisted upon their disusing this liberal custom, as well Gris appears, however, to have been inferior to ermine ; for in a as that of going without breeches, and other rude practices statute passed in 1155, for regulating the dress of the Scottish
A picture of similar manners occurs in the ancient Irish poem, Lords of Parliament, the gowns of the Earls are appointed to be quoted in the last note: Cuchollin, according to evil presages, furred with ermine, while those of the other Lords are to be lined
was to fall in battle, if he encountered an army of the Irish, rumwith "criestay gray, griece, or purray."* According to Ducange, manded by the Queen of Connaught, before three inauspicious griseum is synonymous to vair, which appears to have been the days had passed over. The wiles of the enchanters, by w bose skin of the Hungarian equirrel.' They are, however, distinguished arts he fell
, arc, for two days, batiled by the skill of his attendin stanza 24 of this fyrte:
ant bards, through whose alluring music and rage counsel the A schip with grene and gray,
hero is long withheld from the fated combat: during this occuWith cair, and eke with griis."
pation, the chief'bard reclined upon the same bed with the chief The proper griis was perhaps equivalent to minever, (menu tain These are circumstances peculiar to Celtic manners. Alvair.) an inferior kind of vair, made from the skins of the small though the Gothic minstrels were highly rewarded and honoured, weazel and marten.
they were not placed by their lords upon so familiar a footing. Furs were a valuable article of trade, and, as such, were parti. Glasgerion, whose story is preserved in Percy's Reliques of Am cularly noticed in maritime regulations. "Nullus mercator non cien! Poetry, was a Celtic bard, as appears from his high birth, debet dare tidem, ad exitum portæ, de rebus quas portat vel mer: and fatal intimacy with the daughter of a prince, as well as from cat, nisi de fourura et armatura ferri." Cart. apud DUCANGE. the epithet of Chaucer, who terms him " the British Glaskeron." Hence Tristrem, in his assumed character of a merchant, de- A copy of his legend has been preserved in the remote parts of scribes himself as robbed of "fowe and griss." In the romance Scotland, by oral recitation. His musical powers are curiously of Sir Gy, a merchant thus narrates his bill of lading :
described : "fowe and gries apough laile we,
" Gleskerion was the best harper
Harped ever on the string.
He could harp the fish out o' the sea,
The water out o' the stane,
And milk out o' the maiden's breast, "Giy him schrniin fou and gray."
That bairn hul bever banc." + The croud (Welsh crioth) was a rude kind of violin: hence The accomplishments displayed by Sir Triatrem, while in Dub Butler's Crowlero, as the name of a fiddler. Tables was a fa lin, were those of a complete minstrel, who, besides the science vourite game during the middle ages. Two games of this nature of music, was generally master of every game known in the midare mentioned by Wace, the greater and the less.-Ellis's Spe dle ages, and of all other amusements which could chase away cimens, p. 39. The same amusement occurs in an old romance
the lingering hours of a martial nobility, delichting only in war quoted by Cervantes :
and the chase. Juegling, and feats of legerdemain, were often "Jugando esta a las tablas Don Gayferos,
added to these qualifications. Que ya de Melisandra esta obliviuló."
Indeed, it is hardly necessary to remark the prominent figure It was, perhaps, analogous to back ammon, which is of Celtic which is made by the harper and minetrel, in this and in all other derivation, as appears from its name : Back, parvun, and Cam- romances. It was their privilege to find a free admittance to the mon, prælium. This game is mentioned in an old Irish roem, courts of monarchs, and the castles of barons. In the fine old now called the Death of Cuchollin, where it is said, "the hours passed mance of Gierin de Montglaire, G rard, Lord of Vienne, being • From a passage of Brompton we learn, that the skin of the wild-cat was
desirous to prove the spirit of his nephew Aimeri, commands the usel ly the clergy Diabop Volkan proferre lanskin, saying in excur,
porter, when the young man presents himself b fore the gates, to Cerile mihi, nunquam suivi, in ecclean, cantari cabus Dei, seul agnus Dei; relise him admittance, under pretence of mistaking him for a Kiwchicieri anno Volo." Derem. Scrip. p. 873
wandering min trel. Aimeri breaks into a violent rage, forces 1 The badger i tenned a groy; bat his skin senna greatly too coarse to an his entry into the great hall, and upbraids his uncle for his ser the purpose of trimining
churlish and inhospitable mode of housekeeping. “Yous ne val.
He bitaught hem God, and gode day,
With him went Gouernail.
Riche sail thai drewe,
White and red so blod it
A winde to wil hem blewe,
To Carlioun thai yode;
Now hat he Tristrem trewe,
And fareth ouer the flod;
The schip the cuntre knewe,
It thought hem ful gode,
Of urake thai vnder stode,
For on thai leten him sare.
Thai tolden to the king,
That the schip had sain;
Neuer of no tiding
Nas Mark the King so fain :
To toun thai gun him bring,
The King ros him ogayn;
Blithe was her meteing,
And fair he gan him frain,
"Tristrem, nought to lain, So gode likeing he fand,
Heled is thi wounde ?"-
His em answer he yeld,
That litel he wald wene,
Of bot sche was him beld,
That Moraunt soster had bene;
Hou fair sche hath him held,
He told hem al bidene;
And seththen Tristrem liath teld,
Of Ysonde that was kene, s
Hou sche was bright and schene,
Of loue was non so trewe.
Mark to Tristrem gan say,
Mi lond birake Y the,
To haue after mi day,
Thine owhen schalit be, bez rien, qui ainsi faictes fermer votre palais. La cour d'un gen
anco, is written expressly to be read, or else sung. It is evident, olmame doit estre defferm e a toutes gens; messagers, men indeed, that the minstrels, who were certainly the authors of tho Bestriers, heraux doivent trouver les cours ouvertes : et si y doivent
French romances, and probably of the English also, could derive Ranger, et avoir de l'argent. Car c'est la coutume." There are
no advantage from those compositions, unless by reciting or sing. watot allusions, in the Fablinux of Le Grand and Barbazan, to
ing them. Some traces of this custom remained in Scotland till the public recepiion of the midstrels on all joyous occasions :
of late years. A satire on the Marquis of Argyle, published about Quant un hom lait noces ou feste,
the time of his death, is said to be composi dio the tune of Gray. Ou la gros de bone geste, Li metres, hansila l'entenclent
steel, a noted romance, reprinted at Aberdeen so late as the be. Qui trechne ve terraplent,
ginning of the last century. Within the memory of man, an old Vont la soit, amont sit aral,
person used to pisambulate the streets of Edinburgh, singing in L'un a pie, l'autre a cheval."
a monotonous cadence, the tale of Rosewal and Lilian, which is, These two lines comprise all the literary amusement of the in all the forme, a metrical romance of chivalry. middle ages. Glee was lised generally io express a piece of po + Our forefathers decorated their vessels with useless and abr etry adapted to music, as the fabliau, and perhaps the lay,* as surd magnificence. The lords of France, when about to invade well as the music itself; while the romance meant a work of England, (il sort of epidemic discase, which has frequently seized Bach greater length. to be read or chanted. I do not mean, that the rulers of that country, and generally spent its force in an romance already bore the modern acceptation : it signified, gene eruptive expense of preparation) made baners, penons, standaly, the French language, and obliquely, the long works written erdes of sylke, so goodly'e, that it was marvayle to beholde them: in it, whether of history or fable. These were usually read, and also they paynted the mastes of these shippes fro the one end to to read there was not an object of general attainment. Some the other, ilytcring with olde, and devyses, and armes : and spe particular intonation was probably necessary beyond the more art cially it was shewed me, that the Lord Guy of Tremyyle gamyshiof tasting ; for the mode of slurring verse into prosp, by reading ed his shippe rychely; the paintyngs that were made cost more it ha cuch, is a modem refinement. When Robert the Bruce fer than two thousande frankes. --BERNERS' Froissart, vol. ij fol. medits few faithful followers over Loch Lomond, in a boat which Ixi. In elder timex, Earl Godwin is said to have given to Edward bei! but three men at a time, he amused them by reading the fa the Confessor a galley having a gilded prow, inanned with eighty ou romance of Fierabrits:
chosen warriors, armed in slutable splendour. Each wore brace. * The King the quiles, meryly
lets of roll, a triple liauberk, a gilderi helmet, and a sword with Red to thaim, that war hym by,
gilded luni: a Danish uxe, inlaid with gold and silver, was susRomar.ya of worthi Feramlırace"-Barbour, Book ili. The night befor the murder of James L. of Scotland, was spent pended at the back; tho left hand held a buckler with a gilded
boss, the right a lance, called in English tegar.-SIMEON of DUR: by that accomplisher prince "yn redyng of romang, yn syngynt,
HAM, apud an. 1010. and pypynge, in harpynge, and in other honest solaces of greta
That is, now he is called by his proper name, Tristrom, instead pleasance and disport." --- PINKERTON'S II istory, Appendix to vol. of the inverted appellation, I'ramtris, which he had bume in Ireland. 1 D. 467.
$ The romancer represents the passion of Tristrem for Ysonde it u not, however, to he supposed, that what we now call me
as arising solely from the drink of might, of which they unfortutreal romances were always road. On the contrary, several of nately partuok. 15 rominers bear internal evidence that they were occasionally Mark were those of dispassionato admiration, or, at most, of
The praises, therefore, which intlamed King elanted to the harp. The Creside of Chaucer, a long perform gratitude. The prose folio does not entirely follow Tomas in • The has been doned; brat the conclusion of Orfeo and Herodiis, in the this particular. 'Tristrem loves Ysolt from their first interview, Ascenieck MS, forms so prove that the lay wus set to music
against Palamedes upon her account, during his resi** Harcours in Bretaine after than,
dence in Dublin. It was, however, but a transient passion, being Her far* thin mersale began,
superseded by that which he afterwards entertained for the lady and tube heret aley of give lykeing, And rem pned it alter the King i
of Segurades, in whose affections, as afterwards in those of "Ttitlny Osleu i lute,
Ysonde, he successfully rivalled his uncle Mark. Ysonde per. Gode in the lay, rete is the note."
ceived neither the passion of Tristrem nor Palamedes, nor their Bire, ajo, the ancolote of the Irish harper, p.279, who is expressly said to sing mutual hatred, Comme celle qui oncques n'avoit pensé à to the tarp #herry isy.