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marched to Jedburgh, executed twenty or thirty of | moreland took place upon the Borders of England. the transgressors, burnt many houses, and brought Their tumultuary forces were soon dispersed, and a number of prisoners to Edinburgh. The chieftains the Earls themselves, with their principal followers, of the principal clans were also obliged to grant sought refuge upon the Scottish Marches. Norpledges for their future obedience. A noted conven- thumberland was betrayed into the hands of the tion (for the particulars of which, see Border Laws, Regent; but Westmoreland, with his followers, p. 84) adopted various regulations, which were at- took refuge in the Castle of Fairnihirst, where he tended with great advantage to the Marches.* was protected by its powerful owner. The Regent

The unhappy match betwixt Henry Darnley and himself came to Jedburgh, to obtain possession of his sovereign led to new dissensions on the Borders. these important pledges; but as he marched towards The Homes, Kers, and other East Marchers, hast- the Castle of Fairnihirst, his men shrunk from him ened to support the Queen, against Murray, Chatel- by degrees, till he was left with a small body of his herault, and other nobles, whom her marriage had own personal dependents, inadequate to the task offended. For the same purpose, the Johnstones, for which he had undertaken the expedition. WestJardines, and clans of Annandale, entered into moreland afterwards escaped to Flanders by sea. bonds of confederacy. But Liddesdale was under Robert Constable, a spy sent by Sir Ralph Sadler the influence of England; insomuch, that Ran- into Scotland, gives a lively account of the state of dolph, the meddling English minister, proposed to the Borders at this time.s hire a band of strapping Elliots, to find Home busi The death of the Regent Murray, in 1569, excited ness at Home, in looking after his corn and cattle.- the party of Mary to hope and to exertion. It KEITH, P. 265. App. 133.

seems, that the design of Both wellhaugh, who slew This storm was hardly overblown, when Both- him, was well known upon the Borders; for, the well received the commission of Lieutenant upon very day on which the slaughter happened, Bucthe Borders; but, as void of parts as of principle, cleuch and Fairnihirst, with their clans, broke into he could not even recover to the Queen's allegiance England, and spread devastation along the fronhis own domains in Liddesdale.-Keith, App. 165. tiers, with unusual ferocity. It is probable they well The Queen herself advanced to the Borders, to knew that the controlling hand of the Regent was remedy this evil, and to hold courts at Jedburgh, that day palsied by death. Buchanan exclaims Both well was already in Liddesdale, where he had loudly against this breach of truce with Elizabeth, been severely wounded, in an attempt to seize John charging Queen Mary's party with having "houndit Elliot, of the Parke, a desperate freebooter; and furth proude and uncircumspecte young men, to hehappy had it been for Mary, had the dagger of the ry, burne, and slay, and tak prisoners, in her realme, mosstrooper struck more home. Both well, being and use all misordour and crueltic, not only vsit in transported to his Castle of Hermitage, the Qucen, weir, but detestabil to all barbar and wild Tartaris, upon hearing the tidings, hastened thither. A dan- in slaying of prisoneris, and contrair to all bumanigerous morass, still called the Queen's Mirgt is tie and justice, keeping na promeis to miserabil cappointed out by tradition as the spot where the love tives resavit anis to thair mercy;". Admonitioun to ly Mary, and her white palfrey, were in danger of the trcu Lordis, Striveling, 1571. He numbers, perishing. The distance betwixt Hermitage and among these insurgents, Highlanders, as well as Jedburgh, by the way of Hawick, is nearly twenty- Borderers, Buccleuch and Fairnibirst, the Johnfour English miles. The Queen went and returned stones and Armstrongs, the Grants, and the clan the same day. Whether she visited a wounded sub-Chaitan. Besides these powerful clans, Mary numject, or a lover in danger, has been warmly disputed bered among her adherents the Maxwells, and alin our latter days.

most all the West Border leaders, excepting DrumTo the death of Henry Darnley, it is said, some of the Border lords were privy. But the subsequent ter, and gives the following account of his conversation with

$ He was guided by one Pylo of Millheuch, (upon Oxnam Wamarriage, betwixt the Queen and Bothwell, alien- bim on the state of the country, and the power of his master, the ated from her the affections of the chieftains of the Baron of Fnirnibirst :-* By the way as we rodo, I tould my oste Marches, most of whom aided the association of that the Lord of Fameherst, his master, had taken such an entre. the insurgent barons. A few gentlemen of the prise in hand

as not a subject in Enzland durst do the like, to keye Merse, however, joined the army which Mary the will of the cluefin aucthoritio. He said that his master cared brought to Carberry-hill. But no one was willing not so inuch for the Regont as the Regent cared for him, for he to fight for the detested Bothwell, nor did Both well wide at his first wiel, uy whoin be hed goolly children, was himself show any inclination to put his person in daughter to the Lord Grange, Captain of Edenborowe Castell, jeopardy. The result to Mary was a rigorous cap

and Provost of Edenborowe. This wief that be married lately is tivity in Lochleven Castle; and the name of Both sister to the Lord of Buccleughe, a man of greater power then well scarcely again pollutes the page of Scottish his master : also my Lord Hume, and almost all the gentle

men in Terydale, the Marsh and Lowdyan, were knitt together history.

in such friendship that they are agreed all to take one part ; and The distress of a beautiful and a Micted princess that the Lord Grango was oftended with the Lord Hume and the softened the hearts of her subjects; and when she Lord Parcherst, because they toke not the Easte of Northumber:

land froin my Lord Regent at Gedworthe, and sent plane word escaped from her severe captivity, the most power to the Lord Farncherst, that if the Lord Regent caine any more ful barons in Scotland crowded around her stand- to sccke him in Tevydale, he should lose all his bulles, both the ard. Among these were many of the West Border Duke, the Lord Herrix, the secretary and others, he should sett men, under the Lords Maxwell and Herries, but will to take his part ; and by us much as I heut since the Ter the defeat at Langside was a death-blow to her in- dale menn pretends to do the anoyances that they can to England. terest in Scotland.

AO sunc as this storme is past, and meancs not to answer to any Not long afterwards occurred that period of gene- day of truce." ral confusion on the Borders, when the insurrection outlaw's cabin: "I left Farneherst, and went to my ostes house,

Another passage presents a lively picture of the inside of the of the Catholic earls of Northumberland and West- where I found many gests of dyvers factions, some outla wes of

Ingland, some of Scotland, some neighbors thereabout, at cards : * The Commissioners on the English sido were, the elder Lord some for ale, somo for plake and hardhedds ; and after that I had Scroope of Bolton, Sir John Foster, Sir Thomas Garutave, and diligently learned and enquired that there was none of any surDr. Rookby. On the Scottish side, appeared Sir John Maxwell name that had me in deadly fude, nor none that know me, I sat of Terrcagles, and Sir John Bellenden.

downe, and plaid for hardhodds cinonga them, where I hard, vor + The Queen's Mire is still a pass of danger, exhibiiing, in populi, that the Lord Regent would not, for his own honour, nor many places, the bones of the horses which have been eniangle for thonor of his countery, deliver the Earles, if he hod them bothe, in it. For what reason the Queen chose to enter Liddesdale, by unlest it were to have there Quene (lelivered to him; and if be the circuitous route of Hawick, is not told. There are other two wold a gre to make that change, the Borderers wold stert up in passages from Jedburgh to Hermitage Castle ; the one hy the his contrary, and rcave both the Quicne and the Lords from him, Note of the Gate, the other over the inountain called Winburgh. for the like shame was never done in Scotland; and that he durst Either of these, but especially the latter, is several miles shorter better eate bis owne lugu then come again to seke Farneherst: if than that by Howick and the Queen's Mire. But, by the circui he did, he should be fought withere he came over Sowtrey edge. tous way of Hawick, the Queen could traverse the districts of Hector of Tharlowes hedd was wisbol to have been enten more friendly clans, than by going directly into the disorderly province of Liddesdale.

amongs us at supper."-SADDLER'S State Papers, Edin. 1809,

vol. ij. pp. 394, 388. I The followers of these barong aro said to have stolen the horscs of their friends, while they were engaged in the battle.

• Hector of Harlaw is mount, an outlaw who betrayed We Earl of Noxthumberland


fanrig. and Jardine of Applegirth. On the Eastern does our history present another enterprise, so well Border, the faction of the infant King was more planned, so happily commenced, and so strangely powerful; for, although deserted by Lord Home, the disconcerted. To the license of the Marchmen the gealer part of his clan, under the intluence of Wed- failure was attributed ; but the same cause ensured a derburn, remained attached to that party, The safe retreat.-SPOTTISWOODE, GODSCROFT, ROBERTLard of Cessford wished them well, and the Earlson, Melville. of Angus naturally followed the steps of his uncle The wily Earl of Morton, who, after the short inMorton. A sharp and bloody invasion of the Mid-tervening regency of Mar, succeeded to the supreme dle Dlarch, under the command of the Earl of Sus- authority, contrived, by force or artifice, to render sex, avenged with interest the raids of Buccleuch the party of the King every where superior. Even and Fairnihirst. The domains of these chiefs were on the Middle Borders, he had the address to engage lad waste, their castles burned and destroyed. The in his cause the powerful, though savage and licennarrow vales of Beaumont and Kale, belonging to tious, clans of Rutherford and Turnbull, as well as Bacclench, were treated with peculiar severity; and the citizens of Jedburgh. He was thus enabled to the furays of Hertford were equalled by that of Sus-counterpoise his powerful opponents, Buccleuch and X. In vain did the chiefs request assistance from Fairnibirst, in their own country, and, after an the government to defend their fortresses. Through unsuccessful attempt to surprise Jedburgh, even the predominating interest of Elizabeth in the Scot-these warm adherents of Mary relinquished her tish councils, this was refused to all but Horne, cause in despair. whose castle, nevertheless, again received an En While Morton swayed the state, his attachment glish garrison; while Buccleuch and Fairnihirst to Elizabeth, and the humiliation which many of complained bitterly that those, who had instigated the Border chiefs had undergone, contributed to thes invasion, durst not even come so far as Lauder, maintain good order on the Marches, till James VI. to show countenance to their defence against the himself assumed the reins of government. The inEnglish. The bickerings which followed distracted tervening skirmish of the Reidswire, (see the ballad the whole kingdom. One celebrated exploit may be under that uitle,) was but a sudden explosion of the selected, as an illustration of the Border fashion of rivalry and suppressed hatred of the Borderers of

both kingdoms. In truth, the stern rule of Morton, The Earl of Lennox, who had succeeded Murray and of his delegates, men unconnected with the in the regency, held a parliament at Stirling, in 1571: Borders by birth, maintained in that country more The young King was exhibited to the great council strict discipline than had ever before been there exerof his nation. He had been tutored to repeat a set cised. Perhaps this hastened his fall. Speech, composed for the occasion ; but, observing The unpopularity of Morton, acquired partly by that the roof of the building was a little decayed, he the strict adıninistration of justice, and partly by interrupted his recitation, and exclaimed with child- avarice and severity, forced him from the regency. ish lexity, " that there was a hole in the parlia- | In 1578, he retired, apparently, from state affairs, to tent,"-words which, in those days, were held to his Castle of Dalkenth: which the populace, empitsare the deadly breach shortly to be made in phatically expressing their awe and dread of his peribat body, by the death of him in whose name it son, termed the Lion's Den. But Morton could was convoked.

not live in retirement; and, early in the same year, Amid the most undisturbed security of confidence, the aged lion again rushed from his cavern. By a the lords who composed this parliament were roused mixture of policy and violence, he possessed himal daybreak by the shouts of their enemies, in the self of the foriress of Stirling, and of the person of beart of the town. God and the Queen! resounded James. His nephew, Angus, hastened to his asfmm every quarter, and in a few niinutes, the Re- sistance. Against him appeared his own old adhegone with the astonished nobles of his party, were rent Cessford, with many of the Homes, and the prisoners to a band of two hundred Border cavalry, led by Scott of Buccleuch, and to the Lord Claud from a journal of principal events, in the years 1570, 1571, 1572,

and part of 1573, kept by Richard Bannatyne, amanuensis to Jolin Harilion, at the head of three hundred infantry. Knox. " The fourt ot' September, they of Edinburgh, horsemen These enterprising chiefs, by a rapid and well-con- and futmen, (and, 18 was reported, the most part of Clidisdaill, certed maneuvre, had reached Stirling in a night that pertenit to the Hamiltons.) come to Striveling, the number of

in or illi cmen, on hors bak, guy it be ane George Bell, their hacmarch from Edinburgh, and, without so much as

butteris being all horsed, enterit in Strivcling, be tyvo hours in the being bayed at by a watch-dog, had seized the prin- morning, (whnir thair was never one to mak watche,) crying this epal street of the town. The fortunate obstinacy slogane, God and the Queen! Ane Hamiltoune! Think on the of Morton saved his party. Stubborn and undaunt-Bislio of St. Androis--all is owres ; and so a certaine come to ed, he defended his house till the assailants set it in and Glencame; but Mortounis hous they set on fyro, wha runder: fames, and then yielded with reluctance to his kins- it him to the Laird of Paleleuch. Wormestoun being appointed man, Buccleuch. But the time which he had gain to the Regenes bous desred him to cum furth, which he had ed effcrtually served his cause. The Borderers had no will to doc, yet, be perswasione of Garleys, and otheris with disposed to plunder the stables of the nobility; the caus they supposed there was no resistance, and saw the Regent iniuntry thronged tumultuously together on the corne furth, and was rendered to Wormestounc, under promeis to main striet, when the Earl of Mar, issuing from the save hislyfe, Captarne Crawforde, being in the town, sat sum

men out of the castell, and other gentlemen being in the town, castle, placed one or two small pieces of ordnance, come as they my't best to the geat, chased them out of the town. in his own half-built house,* which commands the The Recent was shot by ane Captain Cader, who confessed that market-place. Hardly had the artillery begun to

he did it at commande of George Bell, wha was commandit so

to doe be the Lord Huntlie and Claud Hamilton. Some says, that scour the street, when the assailants, surprised in

Wormestown was schot by the same schot that slew the Regent, their turn, ned with precipitation. Their alarm was but alwayis he was slane, notwithstanding the Regent cryod to in reased by the townsmen thronging to arms save him, but it culd not be, the furie was so grit of the persew. Toose who had been so lately triumphant, were now,

aris, who, following so fast, the Lord of Mortone said to Bal

cleuch, I sal! save you as yo savit me,' and so he was tane. in many instances, asking the protection of their own

Garleys, and windrio otheria, ware slane at the Port, in the pursute prisoners. In all probability, not a man would have of thame. Thair warten or twelve gentlemen slane of the King's escaped death, or captivity, but for the characteristic folks, and als mony of theris. or mea, as was said, and a dozen or rapacity of Buccleuch's marauders, who, having lancanlso. This Cader, that schot the Regent, was once turned se zed and carried off all the horses in the town, bak off the toune, and was send again (as ia said) be the Lord left the victors no means of following the chase. Huntlie, to cause Wörmistoun rotire ; but, before he come agane, The Regent was slain by an officer, named Caulder, be was dispatched, and had gottin dridis woundis. in order to prevent his being rescued.

"The Regent being schol, (as snid is.) was brought to the casSpens of

tel, whar he callit for ane phisitione, one for his sowe, ane uther Ormiston, to whom he had surrendered, lost his for his bolie. But all hope of life was past, for he was schot in life in a generous attempt to protect him. Hardly his entreillis; and swa, after sumthingis spokin to the Lordis, * This banding still (1802) remains in the unfinished state which blised end; whilk the rest of the Lordis, that tho't thame to his & persented. • Barrel ay, that "the Regent was shot by an unhappy fellow,

hiert, and İyule reguardit him, shall not mak so blised ane end,

unles they mend their maneira." while sitting on horseback heliind the Laird of Buccleuch." _-The Slowing crows account of the wholo transaction, is extracted tion of John Graham Dalyell, Esq.

This curious manuscript has been published under the inspecD

citizens of Edinburgh. Alluding to the restraint of or perhaps to achieve, the death of his monarch. the King's person, they bore his effigy on their ban- In one of the courts of inquisition, which James ners, with a rude rhyme, demanding liberty or delighted to hold upon the professors of the occult death.-BIRREL's Diary, ad annum 1578. The Earl sciences, some of his cousin's proceedings were of Morton marched against his foes as far as Fal- brought to light, for which he was put in ward in kirk, and a desperate action must have ensued, but the Castle of Edinburgh. Burning with revenge, for the persuasion of Bowes, the English ambassa- he broke from his confinement, and lurked for some dor. The only blood then spilt, was in a duel be- time upon the Borders, where he hoped for the twixt Tait, the follower of Cessfórd, and Johnstone, countenance of his son-in-law, Buccleuch. Undea West Border man, attending upon Angus. They terred by the absence of that chief, who, in obedience fought with lances, and on horseback, according to to the royal command, had prudently retired to the fashion of the Borders. The former was un France, Bothwell attempted the desperate enterhorsed and slain, the latter desperately wounded. prise of seizing the person of the King, while residing GODSCROFT, vol. ii. p. 261. The prudence of the late in his metropolis. At the dead of the night, fol. Regent appears to have abandoned him, when he lowed by a band of Borderers, he occupied the court was decoyed into a treaty upon this occasion. It of the palace of Holyrood, and began to burst open was not long before Morton, the veteran warrior, the doors of the royal apartinents. The nobility, and the crafty statesman, was forced to bend his distrustful of each other, and ignorant of the extent neck to an engine of death,* the use of which he of the conspiracy, only endeavoured to make good himself had introduced into Scotland.

the defence of their separate lodgings; but darkness Released from the thraldom of Morton, the King, and confusion prevented the assailants from prowith more than youthful levity, threw his supreme fiting by their disunion. Melville, who was present, power into the hands of Lennox and Arran. The gives a lively picture of the scene of disorder, tranreligion of the first, and the insamous character of siently illuminated by the glare of passing torches, the second favourite, excited the hatred of the com- while the report of fire-arms, the clatter of armour, mons, while their exclusive and engrossing power the din of hammers thundering on the gates, minawakened the jealousy of the other nobles. James, gled wildly with the war-cry of the Borderers, who doomed to be the sport of contending factions, was shouted incessantly, “Justice! Justice! A Bothseized at Stirling by the nobles, confederated in well! A Bothwell!"' The citizens of Edinburgh at what was termed the raid of Ruthven. But the length began to assemble for the defence of their conspirators soon suffered their prize to escape, and sovereign; and Bothwell was compelled to retreat, were rewarded for their enterprise by exile or death. which he did without considerable loss. MELVILLE,

In 1585, an affray took place at a Border meeting, p. 356. A similar attempt on the person of James, in which Lord Russel, the Earl of Bedford's eldest while residing at Faulkland, also misgave; but the son, chanced to be slain. Queen Elizabeth imputed credit which Bothwell obtained on the Borders, by the gult of this slaughter to Thomas Ker of Fair- these bold and desperate enterprises, was incredible. nihirst, instigated by Arran. Upon the imperious "All Tiviotdale,' says Spottiswoode, ran after demand of ihe English ambassador, both were him;" so that he finally obtained his object; and committed to prison; but the minion, Arran, was at Edinburgh, in 1593, he stood before James, an soon restored to liberty and favour; while Fairni- unexpected apparition, with his naked sword in his hirst, the dread of the English borderers, and the hand. *Strike!” said James, with royal dignitygallant defender of Queen Mary, died in his confine-Strike, and end thy work! I will not survive my ment, of a broken heart.---SportISWOODE, p. 311. dishonour.” But Bothwell, with unexpected mode

The tyranny of Arran becoming daily more in- ration, only stipulated for remission of his forfeiture, supportable, the exiled lords, joined by Maxwell, and did not even insist on remaining at court, Home, Bothwell, and other Border chieftains, seized whence his party was shortly expelled, by the rethe town of Stirling, which was pillaged by their turn of the Lord Home, and his other enemies. disorderly followers, invested the castle, which sur- Incensed at this reverse, Bothwell levied a body of rendered at discretion, and drove the favourite from four hundred cavalry, and attacked the King's guard the King's council.t

in broad day upon the Borough Moor near EdinThe King, perceiving the Earl of Bothwell among burgh. The ready succour of the citizens saved the armed barons, to whom he surrendered his per- James from falling once more into the hands of his son, addressed him in these prophetic words :--- turbulent subject. On a subsequent day, Bothwell

Francis, Francis, what moved ihee to come in met the Laird of Cessford, riding near Edinburgh, arms against thy prince, who never wronged thee? with whom he fought a single combat, which lasted I wish thee a more quiet spirit, else I foresee thy for two hours. But his credit was now fallen; he destruction."'--SPOTTISWOODE, P. 313.

retreated to England, whence he was driven by In fact, the extraordinary enterprises of this no- Elizabeth, and then wandered to Spain and Italy, bleman disturbed the next ten years of James's where he subsisted, in indigence and obscurity, on reign. Francis Stuart, son to a bastard of James the bread which he earned by apostatizing to the V., had been invested with the titles and estates be- faith of Rome. So fell this agitator of domestic longing to his maternal uncle, James Hepburn, Earl broils, whose name passed into a proverb, denoting of Bothwell, upon the forfeiture of that infamous a powerful and turbulent demagogue.!! man; and consequently became Lord of Liddesdale, While these scenes were passing in the metropolis, and of the Castle of Hermitage. This acquisition the Middle and Western Borders were furiously agiof power upon the Borders, where he could easily tated. The families of Cessford and Fairnihirst dislevy followers willing to undertake the most desperate enterprises, joined to the man's native daring Spottiswoode says, the King awaited this charge with firmand violent spirit, rendered Bothwell the most tur-authvir, instead of the firm deportment of James, when seized

ness; but Birrel avers, that he died upon the gallop. The same bulent insurgent that ever distracted the tranquillity by Bothwell, describes the king's majestie" as "flying down the of a kingdom. During the King's absence in Den- back stair, with his breeches in his hand, in creat fear." -Birmark, Bothwell, swayed by the superstition of his RALL, apud DALYELI., P. 30. Such is the difterence betwixt tho age, bad tampered with certain soothsavers and narrative of the courtly archbishop, and that of tho Presbyterian

burgess of Edinburgh. witches, by whose pretended art he hoped to foretel, $ This rencounter took place at Humbie, in East Lothian.

Bothwell was attended by a servant, enlled Gilson, and Cessford * A nude sort of guillotine, called the maiden. The implement by one of the Rutherfords, who was hurt in the chick. The comis now in possession of the Society of Scottish Antiquaring, batante parte from pure fatigue ; for the defensive armour of

[By a curious coincidence, one of the very first that suffered by the times was so completely impenetrable, that the wearer sel the Guillotine, is said to have been the surgeon who invented dom sustained much damage by actual wounds. and gave his name to that more celebrated anorden. --ET]

t' Sir Walter Raleigh, in writing of Essex, then in prison, says + The associated nobles seem to have owed their success chicfly "Let the Queen hold Bothicell while she hath him."--MURDIN, to the Border spearmen ; for though they had a band of mercena vol. ii. p. 512. It appears from Creichton's Memoirs, that Both ries, who used tire-arms, yet they were such bad masters of their well's grandson, though so nearly related to the royal family, accraft, their captain was hcard to observo. " that those, who knew tually role a private in the Scottish borse guards, in the reign of his soldiers as well as he did, would hardly choose to murch beCharles II.- Edinburgh, 1731, p. 42. fore them."--GODSCROFT vol. ii. p. 168.

(See Notes to Old Mortality.-ED.)

mated their right to the wardenry of the Middle In these hasty sketches of Border history, I have Marches, and to the provostry of Jedburgh; and endeavoured to select such incidents as may introWillam Kerr of Ancram, a follower of the latter, duce to the reader the character of the Marchmen,

25 murdered by the young chief of Cessford, at more briefly and better than a formal essay upon the instigation of his mother.-SPOTTISWOODE, P;

their manners. If I have been successful in the at33. But this was initing, compared to the civil tempi, he is already acquainted with the mixture of wa wazed on the western frontier, between the courage and rapacity by which they were distinJolinstones and Maxwells, of which there is a mi- guished, and has reviewed some of the scenes in nute account in the introduction to the ballad, en- which they acted a principal part. It is, therefore, tied. " Varuell's Goodnight.Prefixed to that only necessary to notice, more minutely, some of termed " Kinmont Willie," the reader will find an their peculiar customs and modes of life. acount of the last warden raids performed on the Their inorality was of a singular kind. The rapine, Border.

by which they subsisted, they accounted lawful and Hy sketch of Border history now draws to a close. honourable. Ever liable to lose their whole subThe arcession of James to the English crown con- stance, by an incursion of the English, on a sudden verled the extremity into the centre of his kingdom. breach of truce, they cared little to waste their time

The East Marchés of Scotland were, at this mo in cultivating crops to be reaped by their foes. mentous period, in a siate of comparative civiliza- Their cattle was, therefore, their chief property; ton. The rich soil of Berwickshire soon invited the and these were nightly exposed to the southern inhabitants to the arts of agriculture. Even in the Borderers, as rapacious and active as themselves. dans of Lesley, the nobles and barons of the Merse Hence robbery assumed the appearance of fair redered in manners from the other borderers, ad- prisal. The fatal privilege of pursuing the maraudministered justice with regularity, and abstained ers into their own country, for recovery of stolen fron pirinder and depredation.- De moribus Scolo- goods, led to continual skirmishes. The warden Tam, p. 7. But on the Middle and Western Marches, also, himself frequently the chieftain of a Border the inhabimnts were unrestrained moss-troopers horde, when redress was not instantly granted by and cattle-drivers, “knowing no measure of law, the opposite officer, for depredations sustained by Ely: Camden, “but the length of their swords. his district, was entitled to retaliate upon England The sterility of the mountainous country which they by a warden raid. In such cases, the moss-troopinhabitet, offered little encouragement to industry; ers, who crowded to his standard, found themselves and for the long series of centuries which we have pursuing their craft under legal authority, and behastily reviewed, the hands of rapine were never came the followers and favourites of the military there folded in in activity, nor the sword of violence magistrate, whose ordinary duty it was to check retumed to the scabbard. Various proclamations and suppress them. See the curious history of were in vain issued for interdicting the use of horses Geordie Bourne, App. No. II. Equally unable and and arins upon the West Border of England and unwilling to make nice distinctions, they were not Scotland. The evil was found to require the radi- to be convinced, that what was to-day fair booty, cal care of extirpation. Buccleuch collected under was to-morrow a subject of theft. National anihis banners the most desperate of the Border war- mosity usually gave an additional stimulus to their nors, of whom he formed a legion for the service of rapacity, although it must be owned that their dethe states of Holland, who had as much reason to predations extended also to the more cultivated rejoice on their arrival upon the continent, as Bri- parts of their own country.s tain to congratulate herself upon their departure. It Satchells, who lived when the old Border ideas of may be presumed that few of this corps ever re meum and tuum were still in some force, endeavours turned to their native country. The clan of Griene, to draw a very nice distinction betwixt a freebooter a hardy and ferocious set of freebooters, inhabiting and a thief; and thus sings he of the Armstrongs :che fy the Debate able Land, were, by a very sum “On that border was the Armstrongs, able men; mary exertion of authority, transporied to Ireland, Somewhat unruly, and very ill to time. and their return prohibited under pain of death. I would have none think that I call them thieves

For, if I did, it would be arrant lics. Azainst other offenders, measures equally arbitrary were without hesiiation pursued. Numbers of Bor Near a Border frontier, in the time of war, der nders were executed, without even the formality There's ne'er a man but he's a freebooter of a trial: and it is even said that, in mockery of

Because to all men it may appear, justice, assizes were held upon them after they had The freebooter he is a volunteer; suffered. For these acts of tyranny, see JOHNSTON, In the minister-rolls he has no desire to stay; LP. 374, 414, 39, 93. The memory of Dunbar's legal

He lives by purchase, he gets no pay. Proceedings at Jedburgh, are preserved in the pro

It's most clear, a freebooter doth live in hazard's train, Ferbial phrase, Jeddart Justice, which sign fies, A freebooter's a cavalier that ventures life for gain : trial after execution.t By this rigour, though eternly and unconscientiously exercised, the Border ma curious extracts from Mercurius Politicus, a newspaper, pubranders were, in the course of years, either reclaimed lished during the usurpation.

" Thursday, November 11, 1662. or exterminated; though nearly a century, elapsed

" Edinburgh.-The Scotte and Mosy troopers have again reere their manners were altogether assimilated to vived their old custom of robbing and murthering the English, those of their countrymen.

whether soldiers or other, upon all opportunities, within these • " Proclamation shall be made, that all inhabiting within Tyders, committed by them. Among the rest, a lieutenant, and one

three weeks. We have had notice of several robberies and mur. Dedale and Radele edale, in Northumberland; Bewcastledale,

other of Col. Overton's regiment, returning from England, were Villarry, the north part of Gil-land. E-kani Leven, in Cum berland: East and West Tividale, Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewaule,

rubbed not far from Dunbar. A lieutenant, lately master of the 1. Angerdale, in Scotland, (saving noblemen and gentlemen un

custoins at Kirkrudbright, was killed about twenty miles from Started of a lony atid thcal, and not be ung of broken cluns, and this place, and four foot soldiers of Col. Overton's were killed, licit behold sprants, dwelling within those several places, be going to their quarters, by some mossers, who, after they had fare recite.) shall put away all armour and weapons, as well

given them quarter, tied their hands behind them, and then ihrew offerve as defensive, au jacks, kpean, lances, swords, daggers,

them down a steep hill or rock, as it was related by a Scotch23rs, backlinks, pistols, plate sleeves, and such like and man, who was with them, but escaped.". shall not been au5 horse. Bilding, or mare, above the value of

Ibidem.-" October 13, 1663.-- The Parliament, October 12, past fins adulnas stseling, 4 thirty pounds Scots, upon the like pain felons, (commonly called, or known, by the name of Moss troop

an act, declaring, any person that shall discover any felon, or erinant - Proceedings of the Border Commissioners, 156 Intruduction to History of Cumberland, p. 127.

ers.) residing upon the Borders of England and Scotland, shal * A - ar proserb in England of the same interpretation, is

have a reward of ten pound upon their conviction.".

The armorial bearings, adopted by many of the Border tribes, Ladford Leie derived from Lydboru. a corporation in Devonduire. show how little they were ashained of their trade of rapine. Like whiteit seems the rane irrevlar adroinistration of justice pre- Fatstaff, they were

"Gentlemen of the night, minions of the vied A burle que copy of verses on this town begins,

wader whose countenance they committed their depre"I oft have heard of Lydford Law,

dations.--Hence, the enblematic moons and stars so frequently How in the morn they bang and draw,

charred in the arms of Border families. Their mottos also bear An sit in judgrant after."

an allusion to their protinion : Reparabit cornua Phæbe," See Wescott's History of Deronshire i. e. "We'll have moonlight again," is that of the family of Har: See the acts 19 Cha. II. ch. 3, and 30 Cha. Il. ch. 2, acudinst den ; "Yeshall want, ero I want," that of Cranstoun ; "Watch the Border Bioes-troopers ; to which wo may add the following weel,” of Haliburton, &c.


But, since King James the Birth to England went, tides of fear and hope, the flight and pursuit, the
There has beeu nu cause of grief;
And he that hath transgressed since then

peril and escape, alternate famine and feast, of the Is 10 Frecbooter, but a Thief."

savage and the robber, after a time render all course History of the Name of Scott. of slow, steady, progressive, unvaried occupation, The inhabitants of the inland counties did not un

and the prospect only of a limited mediocrity, at the derstand these subtle distinctions. Sir David Lind- end of long labour, to the last degree tame, languid, say, in the curious drama, published by Mr. Pinker- and insipid. The interesting nature of their exploits ton, introduces as one of his dramatis persona,

may be conceived from the account of Camden.

What manner of cattle-stealers they are that inCommon Thift, a Borderer, who is supposed to come to Fife to steal the Earl of Rothes best hack- habit these valleys in the Marches of both kingdoms, ney, and Lord Lindsay's brown jennet.

John Lesley, a Scotchman himself, and Bishop of

Oppression also, (another personage there introduced,) Ross, will inform you: They sally out of their own seems to be connected with the Borders : for, find Borders, in the night, in troops, through unfrequenting himself in danger, he exclaims, –

ed by-ways, and many intricate windings. All the

daytime they refresh themselves and their horses in "War God that I were found and haill,

lurking holes they had pitched upon before, till they Now lyftit into Liddesdail; The Mers kould fynd me beif and caill,

arrive in the dark at those places they have a design What rack of breid?

upon. As soon as they have seized upon the booty, War I thair lytirit with my lyfe,

they, in like manner, return home in the night, The devill sowld styk me with a knyffe

through blind ways, and fetching many a compass. An' ever I cum agune in Fyfe, Till I were deid."

The more skilful any captain is to pass through PINKERTON'S Scottish Poems, vol. ii. p. 180. those wild deserts, crooked turnings, and deep preAgain, when Common Thift is brought to condign cipices, in the thickest mists and darkness, his repunishment, he remembers bis Border friends in his putation is the greater, and he is looked upon as a

man of an excellent head. And they are so very dying speech :

cunning, that they seldom have their booty taken " The widdefow wardanis tuik my geir,

from them, unless sometimes, when, by the help of And leit me nowthir horse nor meir,

blood-hounds, following them exactly upon the Nor erdly guid that me belangit ; Now, walloway! I mon be hangit.

track, they may chance to fall into the hands of

their adversaries. When being taken, they have so Adew! my bruthir Annan thieves,

much persuasive eloquence, and so many smooth That holpit me in my mischuvis; Adew! Grossars, Nicksonis, and Bells,

insinuating words at command, that if they do not Oft have we faime owrthrouch the fells:

move their judges, nay, and even their adversaries Adew! Robsons, Howis, and Pylis,

(notwithstanding the severity of their natures) to That in our craft bas mony wilia: Littlis, Trumbells, and Armestranges ;

have mercy, yet they excite them to admiration and Adew! all theeves, that me belangis;

compassion."--CAMDEN's Britannia. The reader Bailowes, Erewynis, and Elwundin,

is requested to compare this curious account, given Speedy of flicht, and licht of handis;

by Lesley, with the ballad called Hobbic Noble.t The Scotts of Eisdale, and the Gramis,

The inroads of the Marchers, when stimulated 1 haif na time to tell your nameis." PINKERTON'S Scottish Pocms, vol. i. p. 156. only by the desire of plunder, were never marked

with cruelty, and seldom even with bloodshed, unWhen Common Thift is executed, (which is per- less in the case of opposition. They held, that proformed upon the stage,) Falset, (Falsehood,) who perty was common to all who stood in want of it; is also brought forth for punishment, pronounces but they abhorred and avoided the crime of unneover him the following elegy :

cessary homicide.-LESLEY, p. 63. This was, per"Waes me for thec, gude Common Thift!

haps, partly owing to the habits of intimacy betwixt Was never man made more honest chift,

the Borderers of both kingdoms, notwithstanding His living for to win :

their mutual hostility and reciprocal depredations. Thair wes not, in all Liddesdaill, That ky mair craftily could steil,

A natural intercourse took place between the EnWhar thou hingis on that pin!"

glish and Scottish Marchers at Border meetings, PINKERTON'S Scollish Poems, vol. i. p. 194. and during the short intervals of peace. They met Sir Richard Maitland, incensed at the boldness frequently at parties of the chase and football; and and impunity of the thieves of Liddesdale in his it required many and strict regulations on both time, has attacked them with keen iambics. His sides, to prevent them from forming intermarriages, satire, which, I suppose, had very little effect at the and from cultivating too close a degree of intimacy. – time, forms No. III. of the Appendix to this intro- Scottish Acts, 1587, C. 105; WHARTON'S Regulations, duction.

6th Edward VI. The custom, also, of paying blackThe Borderers had, in fact, little reason to re: twixt the countries ; for a Scottish Borderer, taking

mail, ar protection-rent, introduced a connexion begard the inland Scots as their fellow-subjects, or to respect the power of the Crown. They were fre- black-mail from an English inhabitant, was not quently resigned, by express compact, to the bloody only himself bound to abstain from injuring such retaliation of the English, without experiencing any person, but also to maintain his quarrel, and recover assistance from their prince, and his more immebis property, if carried off by others. Hence, a diate subjects. If they beheld him, it was more fre- union arose betwixt the parties, founded upon muquently in the character of an avenging judge, than tual interest, which counteracted, in inany instances, of a protecting sovereign. They were in truth, du- | the effects of national prejudice. The similarity of ring the time of peace, a kind of ontcasts, against whom the united powers of England and Scotland count. Veitch or Dawyk, u man of great strength and bravery,

+ The following tradition is also illustrative of Lesley's acwere often employed. Hence the men of the Bor who flourished in the 16th century, is said by tradition to have ders had little attachment to their monarchs, whom been upon lud terms with a neighbouring proprietor, Tweetie of they termed, in derision, the Kings of Fife and Lo- Drummelziet dwelling aloo near the source of Tweed. By some thian; provinces which they were not legally entitled meizier's grounds, at the time when Dickie of the Den, a Lidto inhabit, * and which, therefore, they pillaged with distale putlaw was making his rounds in Tweeddale. Seeing as little remorse as if they had belonged to a foreign this block of sheep, he drove them off without ceremony. Next country. This strange, precarious, and adventurous retiliners, laid a blood hound upon the traces of the robber, by mode of life, led by the Borderers, was not without whom they were guided for many miles, wil, on the banks of Lid its pleasures, and seems, in all probability, hardly del, the dog stayed upon a very large has stack. The purstiers so disagreeable to us, as the monotony of regulated were a good deal surprised at the obstinnte pause of the blood society must have been to those who had been long a large excavation containing the robber and his spoil. He inaccustomed to a state of rapine. Well has it been stantly flewmon Dickie, and was about to poniard him, when remarked, by the eloquent Burke, that the shifting the marauder, with the address noticed by Lesley, protested that

he would never have touched a cloot (hool) of the booty, had he * By an act 1587, C. 96, Borderers are expelled from the inland not taken them for Drummelzier's property. This dexterous apcounties, unless they can find security for their quict deportment. poal to Veitch's passions saved the life of the freebooter.

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