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their manners may be inferred from that of their | against the perjured criminal, that he was often language. In an old mystery, imprinted at London, slain by his own clan, to wipe out the disgrace he 1654, a mendicant Borderer is introduced, soliciting had brought on them. In the same spirit of confialins of a citizen and his wife. To a question of dence, it was not unusual to behold the victors, after the latter, he replies, "Savying your honour, yood an engagement, dismiss their prisoners upon parole, maistress, I was born in Redesdale, in Northum- who never failed either to transmit the stipulated berlande, and come of a wight riding surname, ransom, or to surrender themselves to bondage, if called the Robsons: gude honeste men, and true, unable to do so. But the virtues of a barbarous savying a little shiftynge for theyr livyng; God help people being founded, not upon moral principle, but them, sully, pure men.'
The wite answers, What upon the dreams of superstition, or the capricious dost thou here, in this countrie? me thinks thou dictates of ancient custom, can seldom be uniformly art a Scot by thy tongue."--Beggur. “Trowe ine relied on. We must not, therefore, be surprised to never mair then, good deam; I had rather be hang. find these very men, so irue to their word in geneed in a withie of a cow-taile, for thei are ever fare ral, using, upon other occasions, various resources and fause."-Appendix to Ben Jonson's Sad Shep- of cunning and chicane, against which the Border herd, Edit. 1783, p. 188. From the wife's observa- Laws were in vain directed. tion, as well as from the dialect of the beggar, we The immediate rulers of the Borders were the may infer that there was little difference between chiefs of the different clans, who exercised over the Northumbrian and the border Scottish; a cir- their respective septs a dominion partly patriarchal cumstance interesting in itself, and decisive of the and parily feudal. The latter bond of adherence occasional friendly intercourse among the Mareh- was, however, the more slender; for, in the acts men. From all these combining circumstances regulating the Borders, we find repeated mention arose the lenity of the Borderers in their incursions, of " Clannes having captaines and chieftaines, and the equivocal moderation which they some- whom on they depend, oft-times against the willes times observed towards each other in open war.* of their landelordes." --Slat. 1587, c. 95, and the roll
This humanity and moderation was, on certain thereto annered. Of course, these laws looked less occasions, entirely laid aside by the Borderers. In to the feudal superior than to the chieftain of the the case of deadly feud, either against an English- name, for the restraint of the disorderly tribes; and man, or against any neighbouring tribe, the whole it is repeatedly enacted, that the head of the clan force of the offended clan was bent to avenge the should be first called upon to deliver those of his death of any of their number. Their vengeance not sept, who should commit any trespass, and that, on only venied itself upon the homicide and his family, his failure to do so, he should be liable to the injured but upon all his kindred, on his whole tribe; and on party in full redress. -- Ibidem, and Slat. 1574, c. Ter one, in fine, whose death or ruin could affect 231. By the same statutes, the chieftains and landhim wih regret.-LESLEY, P. 63; Border Luus, lords, presiding over Border clans, were obliged to parsim į Scottish Acis, 1594, c. 231. The reader find caution, and to grani hostages, that they would will find, in the following collection, many allusions subject themselves to the due course of law. Such to this infernal custom, which always overcame the clans as had no chieftain of sufficient note to enter Marchet's general reluctance to shed human blood, bail for their quiet conduct, became broken men, and rendered him remorselessly savage.
outlawed to both nations. For fidelity to their word, Lesley ascribes high From these enactments, the power of the Border praise to the inhabitants of the Scottish frontier. chieftains may be conceived ; for it had been hard Rusent Constable (himself a traitorous spy) de- and useless to have punished them for the trespass scribes the outlaws, who were his guides into Scot- of their tribes, unless they possessed over them unand, as men who would not hesitate to steal, yet limited authority. The abodes of these petty princes Wald betray no man that trusted in them, for all by no means corresponded to the exteni of their the gold in Scotland or France. “ They are my power, We do not find, on the Scottish Borders, guides," said he ; " and outlaws who might gain the splendid and extensive baronial castles which thar pardon by surrendering me, yet I am secure of graced and defended the opposite frontier. The their fidelity, and have often proved it." Indeed, Gothic grandeur of Alnwick, of Raby, and of Na Waen an instance happened of breach of faith, the worth, marks the wealthier and more secure state injured person, at the first Border meeting, rode of the English nobles. "The Scottish chieftain, through the field, displaying a glove (the pledge of however extensive his domains, derived no pecunifaith) upon the point of his lance, and proclaiming ary advantage, save from such parts as he could the perfidy of the person who had broken his word. himself cultivate or occupy: Payment of rent was So great was the indignation of the assembly hardly known on the Borders, till after the Union
of 1603.7 All that the landlord could gain, from * This practice of the Marchmen was observed and reprobated by Patten * Another manner have they (the Eng? Border the English author above quoted; "There is nothing that is ocET Dng them, of wearing haurrchers rollid about their cazbene of your adhering to the opinion of Ingland contrair your are and letters bruuder'd embroidered) upon their capps.natite cuntri, bot the grit familiarite that Joglis men and Scottes they saw the ves, the thearof was that ech of them might be had on bailh the Boirdours, ilk ane with uthieris, in merchanmoke his fellowe, and they the sooner assemble, or in nede der, in selling and buying hors and nolt, and scheip, outting and to ayd one another, and such lyke respectes; howbit thear wear intang, ilk une amang utheris, the whilk familiarite is express conof be army among us (some suspicious men percance) that trar the lawis and consuetudis buyth of lngland and Scotland. In tabt the used them for collusion, and rather becaustuimight auld tymis it was determit in the artiklis of the pace, be the twa be power to the finije, as the enemies are known to them, wananis of the Boardons of Ingland and Scotland, that there for the hare their markertoo,) and wo in conflict either ech to should be na familiarite betwix Scotus men and Inglis men, nor spere other. or gently cche to take other. Indeer, men have been marriage to be contrakit betwix them, nor conventions on holynoted tbx matter to thinke so, bycaus sum of their crosses the dais at gummis and plays, nor merchandren to be maid, among Er is red crimees) were so narrowe, and so singly set ou, that them, por Scottis men ullenter on Inglis ground, without the king a pult of wynde micht blow them from their broastes, and that of lugland's save conduet, nor loglis men till enter on Scottis the wear found sight often talking with the Scottisti prikkers grond, without the king of Scotland's save conduct, howbeit that within less than their rod', ( epear's) length asunder; and when ther war sure pace betwix the twa realmes. But thir scvyn yeir the parted the had been espiod, thei have begun one to run bygane, thai statutis and artiklis of the pace are adoyilit, for ther at an outre, lut so apparently perlassent (in parteyl as the look her been a grit tituliarite, and conventions, and inakyng of merers can resented their chasyng lyke the running at base in an un chandreis, on the Boirdours, this lang time betwix. Inglis men laci-bts, whear the match is made for a quart of good ale, or and Scotiis men, byth in pnce and weir, as Scottismen usis Like the play in Robin Corkes scole, la fencing school, whear, ninang theme eeltis within the realme of, Scotland: and sic famibrzu ih punin mey lemne, thoi striko few strokes but by as. Tante bes bone the cause that the Kyng of Ingland gat intellint and as tootment. I hard sun men say, it did mooch aug gence with divers gentlemen of Scotland." went their suspack that wey, bycaus at the bartail they saw
Compaynt of Scotland, Edin. 1801, p. 164. tors prikkers so badly derocan them, more intending the iaking + Stowe, in detailing the happy consequences of the union of the of prisont, than the surety of victorye ; for while oother men crowns, observer, "that the Northern Borders became as safe, fazht. ibi&ll to their prey, that as thear wear lout fowe of them and peaceable, as any part of the entire kingdome, so as in the bat brought bane his prianer, 90 wear thear many that had six fourthe year of the King's reigne, as well gentlemen and others
ven.''--PATTEN S Account of Somerset's Expedition, apud inhabuiting the places aforesayde, finding the auncient waste DALYEL' Frasmente, p. 76.
ground to be very good and fruitetull, began to contende in lawe it is singular that, abut this very period, the same circum- about their bounds, challenging then, that for their hereditarie sances are severally animadverted upon by the strenuous Scot right, which formerly they disavowed, only to avoyde charge of Lebaman, who wrote the complainu of Scotland, as well as by common defonce."
those residing upon his estate, was thetr personal | which they were little anxious, as they contained service in battle, their assistance in labouring the nothing of value. On the approach of a superior land retained in his natural possession, some petty force, they unthatched them, to prevent their being quit rents of a nature resembling the feudal casual-burned, and then abandoned them to the foe. ties, and perhaps a share in the spoil which they Srowe's Chronicle, p. 665. Their only treasures acquired by rapine.* This, with his herds of cattle were, a fleet and active horse, with the ornaments and of sheep, and with the black-mail which he ex- which their rapine had procured for the females of acted from his neighbours, constituted the revenue their family, of whose gay appearance the Borderers of the chieftain ; and, from funds so precarious, he were vain. could rarely spare sums to expend in strengthening Some rude monuments occur upon the Borders, or decorating his habitation. Another reason is the memorials of ancient valour. Such is the Cross found, in the Scottish mode of warfare. It was at Milholm, on the banks of the Liddle, said to early discovered, that the English surpassed their have been erected in memory of the Chief of the neighbours in the arts of assaulting and defending Armstrongs, murdered treacherously by Lord Soulis, fortified places. The policy of the Scotush, there while feasting in Hermitage castle. Such also is fore, deterred them from erecting upon the Borders that rude stone, now broken, and very much derabuildings of such extent and strength, as, being once ced, placed upon a mount on the lands of Haughtaken by the foe, would have been capable of re- head, near the junction of the Kale and the Teviot. ceiving a permanent garrison.t To themselves, the The inscription records the defence made by Hobbie woods and hills of their country were pointed out Hall, a man of great strength and courage, against by the great Bruce, as their safest bulwarks; and an attempt of the powerful family of Ker, to possess the maxim of the Douglasses, that, "it was better themselves of his small estate.ll to hear the lark sing, than the mouse cheep," was The same simplicity marked their dress and arms. adopted by every Border chief. For these combined Patten observes, that in battle the laird could not reasons, the residence of the chieftain was com be distinguished from the serf; all wearing the monly a large square battlemented 1 tower, called a same coat-armour, called a jack, and the baron bekeep or peel, placed on a precipice, or on the banks ing only distinguished by his sleeves of mail and his of a torrent, and, if the ground would permil, sur-head-piece. The Borderers, in general, acted as rounded by a moat. In short, the situation of a light cavalry, riding horses of a small size, but asBorder house, encompassed by woods, and rendered tonishingly nimble, and trained to move, hy short almost inaccessible by torrents, by rocks, or by bounds, through the morasses with which Scotland morasses, sufficiently indicated the pursuits and ap- abounds. Their offensive weapons were, a lance of prehensions of its inhabitants.--" Locus horroris et uncommon length; a sword, either two-handed, or vasta solitudinis, aptus ad prædam, habilis ad ra of the modern light size; sometimes a species of pinam, habitatoribus suis lapis erat offensionis et battle-axe, called a Jedburgh-staff; and, latterly, petra scandali, utpote qui stipendiis suis minime dags or pistols. Although so much accustomed to contenti, totum de alieno, parum de suo, possitle-move on horseback, that they held it even mean to bant-totius prorinciæ spolium." No wonder, appear otherwise, the Marchmen occasionally acted therefore, that James V., on approaching the castle as infantry; nor were they inferior to the rest of of Lochwood, the ancient seat of the Johnstones, is Scotland in forining that impenetrable phalanx of said to have exclaimed, "that he who built it must spears, whereof it is said, by an English historian, have been a knave in his heart." An outer wall, that "sooner shall a bare finger pierce through the with some light fortifications, served as a protection skin of an angry hedge-hog, than any one encounter for the cattle at night. The walls of these fortresses the brunt of their pikes.” At the battle of Melrose, were of an immense thickness, and they could for example, Buccleuch's army fought upon foot. easily be defended against any small force; more
But the habits of the Borderers fitted them particuespecially, as, the rooms being vaulted, each story larly to distinguish themselves as light cavalry; and formed a separate lodgement, capable of being held hence the name of prickers and hobylers, so freout for a considerable time. On such occasions, quently applied to them. At the blaze of their beathe usual mode adopted by the assailants, was to con fires, they were wont to assemble ten thousand expel the defenders, by setting fire to wet straw in horsemen in the course of a single day. Thus rapid the lower apartments. But the Border chieftains in their warlike preparations, they were alike ready seldom chose to abide in person a siege of this na- for attack and defence. Each individual carried his ture; and I have scarce observed a single instance own provisions, consisting of a small bag of oatof a distinguished baron made prisoner in his own meal, and trusted to plunder, or the chase, for eking house. 5-PATTEN's E.xpedition, p. 35. The common
out his precarious repast. Beaugué remarks, that people resided in paltry huts, about the safety of nothing surprised the Scottish cavalry so much as
to see their French auxiliaries encumbered with · As for the humours of the people, (i e. of Teviotdale, they baggage-wagons, and attended by commissaries. were both strong and warlike, as being inured to war, and daily incursions, and the most part of the heritons of the country gave
Before joining batile, it seems to have been the out all their lands to their tenants, for military attendance, iipon Scottish practice to set fire to the litter of their rentals, and reserved only some ti'w mainses for their own suste camp, while, under cover of the smoke, the hobylers, pance, which were laboured by their tenants, besides their service. They paid an entry, a herauld, and a small rental-duty; for there
or Border cavalry, executed their maneuvres. --were no rents raised here that were considerable, till King James There is a curious account of the battle of Mitton, went into England: yea, all along the Border." - Account of fought in the year 1319, in a valuable MS. Chronicle Rorburghshire, by Sir WILLIAM SCOTT of Harden, and KERR of England, in the collection of the Marquis of of Sunlaws, apud MACFARLANE'S MSS. + The royal castles of Roxburgh, Hermitage, Lochmaben, &c.,
Douglas, I from which this stratagem seems to have form a class of exceptions to this rule, being extensive and wel decided the engagement. “In meyn time, while the fortified. Perhaps we ought ako to except the baronial castle of wer thus lastyd, the kynge went agane into SkotHome. Yet, in 1455, the following petty garrisons were thought londe, that híte was wonder for to wette, and bysufficient for the protection of the Border; two hundred spearmen, and as many archers, upon the East and Middle Marches; and foner in his castle of Foimihirst, after defending it bravely against one hundred spears, with a like number of bowmen, upon the Lord Dacres, 21th September. 1623. Western Marches. But then the same statute provides, " That 11. The rude strains of the inscription little correspond with the they are neare hand the Borloure, are ordained to have sud house gallantry of a haldes, and abuizicd men an uiteiris; and to be reddie at their
" village Hampden), who, with dauntless breast, principal place, and to pass, withile wandlane, quhen and enhair
The little tyrant of his fields withstoo..." they wall be charged."- ACE of James II. cap. 55, of garrisons It is in these wonis :to be laid upon the Bondore. Hence Buchanan has justly described, as an attribuie of the Scottish nation,
"Here Ice Hall bollly maintained his right, "Nec fossis, nec muris, patriam, sed verle tueri."
Gairat rest, plain forer, armed wi'uwles inight I I have observed a difference in architecture betwixt the Eng
Full thirty pleuch, barnel in all their gear, lsh and Scottish towers.
Coull noi liis valint noble heart make fear!
But wi' his sword he cut the foremost's roam projecting battlement, with interstices, anciently called machi
In two; and drove baulth pleugles and ploughmen home. coulen, betwixt the parapet and the wall, through which stones or darts might be hurled upon the assailants. This kind of tortifica Soom means the iron links which fasten a yoke of oxen to the tion is less common on the Sath Border.
plough $ I ought to except the fauous Dand Ker, who was made pri ! Now Duke of Hamilton, 1830.
macbd the towne of Barwick; but the Skottes went Irwen. The abbeys, which were planted upon the Her the water of Sold, that was nii myle from the Border, neither seem to have been much respected beste, and prively they stole away by nyghte, and by the English, nor by the Scottish Barons. They one into England, and robhed and destroyed all were repeatedly burned by the former, in the course that they myght, and spared no manner thing til of the Border wars, and by the latter they seem to that tbey come to Yorke. And, whan the Englische- have been regarded chiefly as the means of endow
, that were left at home, herd this tiding, all tho ing a needy relation, or the subject of occasional taat might well travell, so well monkys and priestis, plunder. Thus, Andrew Home of Fastcastle, about and tries and chanouns, and seculars, come and 1488, attempted to procure a perpetual teu of certain mes with the Skoties at Mytone of Swale, the xii possessions belonging to the Abbey of Colding
sy of October. Allas, for sorrow for the Englische- hame; and being batiled by the king bestowing that Ded! houbondmen, that could nothing in wer, opulent benefice upon the royal chapel at Stirling, ther were quelled and drenchyd in an arm of the the Humes and Hepburns started into rebellion ;
And hyr chyftaines, Sir William Milton, Ersch- asserting, that the priory should be conferred upon tast 20 of Yorke, and the Abbot of Selby, with her some younger son of their families, according to stedes tied and come into Yorke; and that was her ancient custom. After the fatal battle of Flodden, este folye that they had that mischaunce; for the one of the Kors testified his contempt for clerical pasuri the water of Swale, and the Skoftes set on immunities and privileges, by expelling from his És three staikes of hey, and the smoke thereof was house the Abbot of Kelso. These bickerings be
huge that the Englischemen might not see the twixt the clergy and the barons were usually excited Skottes; and whan the Englischemen were gon by disputes about their temporal interest.
It was grerte water, tho cam the Skottes, with hir wyng, common for the churchmen to grant lands in feu n maner of a sheld, and come toward the Eng; to the neighbouring gentlemen, who, becoming their shemmen in ordour. And the Englischemen fled vassals, were bound to assist and protect them. ft annetbe they had any use of armes, for the Kyng But, as the possessions and revenues of the benepod dem al almost lost att the sege on Barwick. fices became thus intermixed with those of the And the Scotsmen hobylers went betwene the brigge laity, any attempts rigidly to enforce the claims of and the Englischemen; and when the gret hoste the church were usually attended by the most tem mel, the Englischemen fled between the hoby- scandalous disputes. A petty warfare was carried bers and the gret hoste; and the Englischemen wer on for years, bet wixt James, Abbot of Dryburgh, ther quelled, and he that myght wend over the water and the family of Haliburton of Mertoun, or Newwere saved, but many were drowned. Alas! for mains, who held some lands from that abbey. the wire slayn many men of religion, and secu- These possessions were, under various pretexts, ars and priestis, and clerks, and with much sorwe seized and laid waste by both parties; and some che Ersch-bishope scaped from the Skottes; and, bloodshed took place in the contest, betwixt the lay metrlare the Skottes called that battel the White vassals and their spiritual superior. The matter
was, at length, thought of sufficient importance to For smaller predatory expeditions, the Borderers be terminated by a reference to his Majesty; whose bai sznals
, and places of rendezvous, peculiar to decree arbitral, dated at Stirling, the sth of May, es tnbe. If the party set forward before all the 1535, proceeds thus: “Whereas we have been adTembers had joined, a mark, cut in the turf, or on vised and know the said gentlemen, the Hallibure bark of a tree, pointed out to the stragglers the tons, to be leal and true honest men, long servants dirt on which the main body had pursued. * Their unto the saide abbeye, for the saide landis, stout men Farude convocations were also, frequently disguised, at armes, and goode Borderers against Ingland; urder pretence of meetings for the purpose of sport. We doe therefore decree and ordain, that they sall It came of foot-ball, in particular, which was be repossess'd, and bruik and enjoy the landis and 23 zudly, and sull continues to be, a favourite Bor- steedings they had of the saide abbeye, paying the de sport was the means of collecting together large use and wonte: and that they sall be goode serbodies of moss-troopers previous to any military vants to the said venerabil father, like as they and
ht. When Sir Robert Carey was Warden of their predecessours were to the said venerabil the East Marches, the knowledge that there was a father, and his predecessours, and he a good master geat match at foor-ball at Kelso, to be frequented to them.”g. It is unnecessary to detain the reader by the principal Scottish riders, was sufficient to with other instances of the discord which prevailed ile bis vigilance and his apprehension. Previous anciently upon the Borders, betwixt this spiritual also to the murder of Sir John Carmichael, (see chepherd and his untractable flock. Notes on the Raid of the Reidsuire,) it appeared ar The Reformation was late of finding its way into the trial of the perpetrators, that they had assisted the Border wilds; for while the religious and civil ut a grand foot-ball meeting, where the crime was dissensions were at the height in 1565, Drury writes oncerted,
to Cecil, -- "Our trusty neighbours of Teviotdale are Upon the religion of the Borderers there can very bolden occupied only to attend to the pleasure and btle be said. We have already noticed, that they calling of their own heads, to make some diversion remained attached to the Roman Catholic faith in this matter." The influence of the reformed Esther longer than the rest of Scotland. This pro- preachers among the Borderers, seems also to have bably arose from a total indifference upon the sub- been but small; for, upon all occasions of dispute peet; for we no where find in their character the with the kirk, James VI. was wont to call in their respect for the church, which is a marked feature of assistance.-CALDERWOOD, p. 129. that religion. In 1328, Lord Dacre complains heavily These vassals resembled, in some degree, the Vidames in to Cardinal Wolsey, that, having taken a notorious France, and the Vogten, or Vizedomen, of the German abbeys : frn booter, called Dyk Irwen, the brother and friends but the system was never carried regularly into effect in Britain, of the outlaw had, in retaliation, seized a man of and this circumstanco facilitated the dissolution of the religious some property, and a relation of Lord Dacre, called $ This decree was followed by a marriage betwixt the abbot's Jeffrey Middleton, as he returned from a pilgrimage daughter, Elizabeth Stewart, and Walter Halliburton, one of tho to St. Ninian's in Galloway; and that, notwith family of Newmains. But even this allirince did not secure penco standing the sanctity of his character as a true pill the marriage was an only daughter, named Elizabeth Halliburton, grim, and the Scottish monarch's safe conduct, As this young lady was her father's heir, the Hallilortons resolved they continued to detain him in their fastnesses that she should marry one of her cousins, to koop her property in until he should redeem the said arrant thief, Dyk the clan. But as this did not suit the views of the abbot, he car * In the parish of Linton, in Roxburghshire, there is a circle of Alexander Erskine, a brother of the Laird of Balgony, a relation
surrounding a smooth plot of turí, called tho Trust, or and follower of his own. From this marriage sprung the Erskines place of apponiment, which tradition avers to have been the ren of Shielted. This exploit of the abhot revived the feud betwixt OZA of the neighbouring warriors. The name of the leader him and the Halliburtons, which only ended with the dissolution **t in the turf, and the arrangement of the letters announced of the abbey. – MS. History of Halybutton Family, penes edi: en bis follower the course which he had taken. See Statistical torem. - This history of the family, a principal branch of which Account of the Parish a Linton.
Sir W. S. himself represented, was printed (not published) by * See Appendis.
him, with an Introduction and Notes, in 1820.--ED.)
We learn from a curious passage in the life of Appendix to this introduction, No. IV., the reader Richard Cameron, a fanatical preacher during the will find a curious league, or treaty of peace, betime of what is called the “persecution,” that some twixt two hostile clans, by which the heads of each of the Borderers retained to a late period their in- became bound to make the four pilgrimages of Scotdifference about religious matters. After having land, for the benefit of the souls of those of the been licensed at Haughhead, in Teviotdale, he was, opposite clan, who had fallen in the feud. These according to his biographer, sent first to preach in were superstitions, flowing immediately from the Annandale. “He said, how can I go there? I nature of the Catholic religion ; but there was, upon know what sort of people they are.' – But,' Mr. the Border, no lack of others of a more general naWelch said, 'go your way, Ritchie, and set the fire ture. Such was the universal belief in spells, of of hell to their tails.' He went; and, the first day, which some traces may yet remain in the wild parts he preached upon that text, How shall I put thee of the country. These were common in the days of among the children, &c. In the application, he said, the learned Bishop Nicolson, who derives them 'Put you among the children the offspring of from the time of the Pagan Danes. " This conceit thieves and robbers! we have all heard of Annan was the more heightened, by reflecting upon the dale thieves. Some of them got a merciful cast natural superstition of our Borderers at this day, that day, and told afterwards, that it was the first who were much better acquainted with, and do field-meeting they ever attended, and that they more firmly believe, their old legendary stories, of went out of mere curiosity, to see a minister preach fairies and witches, ihan the articles of their creed. in a tent, and people sit on the ground."-Life of And to convince me, yet farther, that they are not Richard Cameron.
utter strangers to the black art of their forefathers, Cleland, an enthusiastic Cameronian, lieutenant- I met with a gentleman in the neighbourhood, who colonel of the regiment levied after the Revolution showed me a book of spells and magical receipts, from among that wild and fanatical sect, claims for taken, iwo or three days before, in the pocket of one the wandering preachers of his tribe the merit of of our moss-troopers; wherein, among many other converting the Borderers. He introduces a cavalier conjuring seats, was prescribed a certain remedy haranguing the Highlanders, and ironically thus for an ague, by applying a few barbarous characters guarding them against the fanatic divines :
to the body of the party distempered. These, me
thought, were very near akin to Wormius's Ram "If their doctrine there get rooting,
Rumer, which, he says, differed wholly in figure and
shape from the common rung. For, though he tells Dayly experience makes it appear;
us that these Ram Runer were so called, Eo quod For instance, lately on the Borders,
molestias, dolores, morbosquc hisce in fligere inimiWhere there was nought but theft and murders, Rapine, cheating, and resciting,
cis soliti sunt magi; yet his great friend, Arng. JoSlight of hand in fortunes getting, -
nas, more to our purpose, says, that-His etiam usi Their designation, as ye ken,
sunt ad benefaciendum, medicandum tam animi Was all along the Taking Men.
quam corporis morbis ; atque ad ipsos cacodæmones Now, rebels more prevails with words, Than drawgoons does with guns and swords,
pellendos et fugandos. I shall not trouble you with So that their bare preaching now
a draught of this spell, because I have not yet bad Makes the rush-bush keep the cow,
an opportunity of learning whether it may not be Better than Scots or English kings Could do by kilting them with strings.
an ordinary one, and to be met with, among others Yea, those that were the greatest rogues,
of the same nature, in Paracelsus, or Cornelius Follows them over hills and bogues,
Agrippa.”--Letter from Bishop Nicolson to Mr.
Walker ; ride Camden's Britannia, Cumberland.
Even in the editor's younger days, he can remember
the currency of certain spells, for curing sprains, The poet of the Whigs might exaggerate the suc- burns, or dislocations, to which popular credulity cess of their teachers; yet it must be owned, that ascribed unfailing efficacy.s Charms, however, the doctrine of insubordination, joined to their va- against spiritual enemies, were yet more common grant and lawless habits, was calculated strongly than those intended to cure corporeal complaints. to conciliate Border hearers.
This is not surprising, as a fantastic remedy well But though the church, in these frontier counties, suited an imaginary disease. attracted little veneration, no part of Scotland teem There were, upon the Borders, many consecrated ed with superstitious fears and observances more wells, for resorting to which the people's credulity than they did. "The Dalesmen,'t says Lesley, is severely censured by a worthy physician of the never count their beads with such earnestness as seventeenth century, who himself believed in a when they set out upon a predatory expedition.” shower of living herrings having fallen near DumPenances, the composition betwixt guilt and con- fries. “Many run superstitiously to other wells, and science, were also frequent upon the Borders. Of there obtain, as they imagine, health and advaniage; this we have a record in many bequests to the church, and there they offer bread and cheese, or money, by and in some more lasting monuments; such as the throwing them into the well.” In another part of tower of Repentance, near Hoddam Castle, in the MS. occurs the following passage:
"In the Dumfries-shire, and, according to vulgar tradition, bounds of the lands of Eccles, belonging to a lineage the church of 'Linton,t in Roxburghshire. In the of the name of Maitland, there is a loch called the ** This man was for a short time chaplain in the family of Sir Dowloch, of old resorted to with much superstition, Walter Scott of Harden, who attended the meetings of the in
as medicinal both for men and beasts, and that with dulged Presbyterians; but Cameron, considering ihis conduct as such ceremonies, as are shrewdly suspected to have a compromise with the foul fiend Episcopacy, Wilsolisinissed from been begun with witchcraft, and increased afterthe family Ile was slain in a skirmish. Airismos bipucati | wards by magical directions: For, buryins of a
Au epithet bestowed upon the Borders, from the names of the cloth, or somewhat that did relate to the bodies of various districts; ar Teviodile, Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewadale, men and women, and a shackle, or tether, belongAnnandale, &c. Hence, an old ballad distinguishes the north as the country,
ing to cow or horse, and these being cast into the
loch, if they did tloat, it was taken for a good omen "Where every river gives name to a dale."
of recovery, and a part of the water carried to the Ex-ale-tation of Ale.
patient, though to remote places, without saluting, : This small church is founded upon a little bill of sand, in or speaking to any they met by the way; but, if which no stone of the size of an eng is said to have been found, they did sink, the recovery of the party was hopealthough the neighbouring soil is sharp and gravelly. Tradition accounts for this, by informing us, that the foundernes were two Among these may be reckoned the supposed influence of Irish Fistera, upon whose account much blood had been spilt on that earth, in curing the poison of adders, or other venomous reptiles. spot; and that the penance imposed on the fair causes of the - This virtue in extended by popular credulity to the natives and slaughter, was an order from the Pope to sift the sand of the hill, even tv'the animals of Iliberma. A gentleman, (who was educaupon which their church was to be erected. This story may, per- ted to medicine, by the way.) bitten by some reptile, so as to ochans, have some foundation : for in the churchyard was disco casion a great swelling, seriously issured the Editor, that he asvered a single crave, containing no fewer than fifty skwls, most of cribed his cure to putting the aflected finger into the mouth of an which lyore tbe marks of having been cloft by violence.
less. This custom was of late much curbed and by the ordinary judges, but by a set of country gen. restrained; but since the discovery of many medi- tlemen, acting under commission from the Privy cinal fountains near to the place, the vulgar, holding Council.s that it may be as medicinal as these are, at this Besides these grand articles of superstitious betime begin to re-assume their former practice."- lief, the creed of the Borderers admitted the existAccount of Presbytery of Penpont, in Macfarlane'sence of sundry classes of subordinate spirits, to MSS.
whom were assigned peculiar employments. The The idea, that the spirits of the deceased return chief of these were the Fairies, concerning whom to haunt the place, where on earth they have suffer the reader will find a long dissertation in this voed, or have rejoiced, is, as Dr. Johnson has observ. lume. The Brownie formed a class of beings, ed, common to the popular creed of all nation 3.* distinct in habit and disposition from the freakish The just and noble sentiment, implanted in our bo- and mischievous elves. He was meagre, shaggy, soms by the Deity, teaches us that we shall not and wild in his appearance. Thus Cleland, in his slumber for ever, as the beasts that perish. Human satire against the Highlanders, compares them to vanity, or credulity, chequers, with its own inferior and baser colours, the noble prospect, which is alike
"Faunes, or Brorenies, if ye will, held out to us by philosophy and by religion. We feel,
Or Satyres come from Atlas Hill." according to the ardent expression of the poet, thai In the daytime, he lurked into remote recesses of we shall not wholly die;t but from hence we vainly the old houses which he delighted to haunt; and, and weakly argue, that the same scenes, the same in the night, sedulously employed himself in dispassions shall delight and actuate the disembodied charging any laborious task which he thought spirit which affected it while in its tenement of clay. might be acceptable to the family, to whose service Hence the popular belief, that the soul haunts the he had devoted himself. His name is probably depot where the murdered body is interred; that its rived from the Portuni, whom Gervase of Tilbury appearances are directed to bring down vengeance describes thus. -" Ecce enim in Anglia dæmones on its murderers; or that, having left its terrestrial quosdam habent, damones, inquam, nescio dixerim, forin in a distant clime, it glides before its former an secreta et ignota generationis effigics, quos Galli friends, a pale spectre, to warn them of its decease. Neptunos, Angli Portunos nominant. Istis insitum Such tales, the foundation of which is an argument est quod simplicitatem fortunatorum colonorum amfrom our present feelings to those of the spiritual plectuntur, et cum nocturnas propter domesticas opeworld, form the broad and universal basis of the ras agunt rigilias, subito clausis januis ad ignem popular superstition regarding departed spirits; califiunt, et ranunculas er sinu projectas, prunis imagainst which, reason has striven in vain, and uni-positas comedunt, senili rultu, facie corrugata, staversal experience has offered a disregarded testimo- lura pusilli, dimidium pollicis non habentes. Panpy. These legends are peculiarly acceptable to niculis concertis induuntur, et si quid gestandum barbarons tribes; and, on the Borders, they were in domo fuerit, aut onerosi operis agendum, ad received with most unbounded faith. It is true, operandum se jungunt, citius humana facilitate that these supernatural adversaries were no longer expediunt. Id illis insitum est, ut obsequi possint opposed by the sword and battle-axe, as among the et obesse non possint."--Otia. Imp. p. 980. In every unconverted Scandinavians. Prayers, spells, and respect, saving only the feeding upon frogs, which exorcisms, particularly in the Greek and Hebrew lan
was probably an atiribute of the Gallic spirits alone, guages, were the weapons of the Borderers, or rather the above description corresponds with that of the of their priests and cunning men, against their aerial Scottish Brownie, whose very name is a corruption, enerny. The belief in ghosts, which has been well in all probability, of Portunus. But the Brownie, termed the last lingering phantom of superstition, although, like Milton's lubbar fiend, he loves to still maintains its ground upon the Borders. stretch himself by the fire, I does not drudge from the
It is unnecessary to mention the superstitious be- hope of recompense. On the contrary, so delicate lief in witchcraft, which gave rise to so much cru- is his attachment, that the offer of reward, but pareity and persecution during the seventeenth century. ticularly of food, infallibly occasions his disappearThere were several executions upon the Borders for ance for ever. I 'We learn from Olaus Magnus, that this imaginary crime, which was usually tried, not • See Rasselar. # Non omnis moriar.-HOR.
advice or censure to his rash brother, he permitted the ghost to One of the most noted apparitions is supposed to haunt Sped- obtain the last word; a circunstance which, in all colloquies of lin's
Castle near Lachmaben, the ancient batonial residence of the this nature, is strictly to be guarded against. This tatal oversight Jardines of Applezirth. It is said that, in exercise of his territo
occasioned his falling into a lingering disorder, of which he never
recoverd. nal jurisdiction, one of the ancient luids had imprisoned, in the Marry More, or dungeon of the castle, a person named Porteous,
A curious poem, upon the laying of a ghost, forms article No. Being called suddenly to Edinburgh, the laird discovered, as he
V. of the Appendix. entered the West Port, that he had brought along with bim the
$ I have sen, penes Hugh Scott, Esq. of Harden, the record of
the trial of a witch, who was burned at Ducove. She was tried key of the dungeon. Struck with the utmost hortur, he sent back his servant to relieve the prisoner, but it was too late. The in the manner above mentioned. wretched being was found lying upon the steps descending from
--" how the drudging goblin swet, tbe ders of the vault starved to death. In the agonins of hunger,
To earn the cream bowl duly set ; be hai gta wed the flesh from one of his arms. "That bis spectre
When, in one night, ere glimpse of mom, should haunt the castle, was a natural consequence of such a tra.
His shadowy fail had thresh'd the corn, gedy. Indeed, its viwit became ko frequent, ihat a clergyman of
That ten day-lab'rers could not end; eminence was employed to exorciso it. After a contest of twenty.
Then lies bim down the Jubbar fiend, four hours, the man of art prevailed so far as to contine the goblin
And, stretch'd out all the chimney's length to the Masy More of the castle, where its shrieks and cries are
Basks at the fire his hairy strength; still heard. A part, at least of the spell, depends upon the pre
And. crop full, out of doors he flings, servation of the ancient black-lettered Bible, employed by the ex
Ere the first cock bis matin rings.' orcist. It was some years ago thought necessary to have this Bi
L'Allegro. ble rebound ; but a, soon as it was removed from the castle, the spectre commenced his nocturnal orgies, with ten-fold noise ; and When the monials in a Scottish family protracted their vigils it is verily bebeved that he would have burst from hig confine around the kitchen fire, Brownie, weary of being excluded from ment, had not the sacred volume been speedily replaced,
the midnight hearth, sometimes appeared at the door, seemed to A Mass John Scott, minister of Peebles, is reported to have watch their departure, and thus admonished them :-"Gang a' to been the last renowned exorciser and to have lost his life in a your beds, sirs, and dinna put out the wee grieshoch seinbers.) auntest with an obstinate spirit. This was owing to the conceit 1 It is told of a Brownin, who haunted a Border family, now exel rashness of a young clergyman, who commenced the ceremony tmct, that the lady having fallen unexpectedly in Inbour, and the of laying the gbost bfore the arrival of Mne. John. It i4 the na servant, who was ordered to ride to Jedburgh for the sage femme, ture, it seems, of spirito disembodied, as well as embodied, to in showing no great alertness in setting out, the familiar spirit slipt crease in strength and presumption, in proportion to the advanta on the great cont of the lingering domestic, rode to the town on goe which they may gain over the opponent. The young clergy. the laird's best horse, and returned with the midwife en croupe. man losing emurare, the horrors of the scene were increased to During the short space of his absence, the Tweed, which they such a degre, that, as Maes Jolin approached the house in which most necessarily ford, rose to a dangerous height. Brownie, who it pasked, he beheld the slates and tile flying from the roof, as if transported his charge with all the rapidity of the ghostly lover of dispered with a whirlwind. At his entry, he perceived all the Lenore, was not to be stopped by this obstacle. He plunged in war tapers (the most essential instruments of conjuration) extin with the terrified old lady, and landed her in safety where her serruisbed, except one, which already bumet blue in the socket, vices were wanted. Having put the horse into the stable, (where The arrival of the experienced sake changed the scene · he bronght it was afterwards found in a woful pligbr.) he proceeded to the the spint to reason ; but unfortunately, while addressing a word of room of the servant, wbose duty he had discharged ; and, finding