« PreviousContinue »
XXXV. Tristrem is went oway,,
That in bis hert he fand, With outen coming oghain;
And trewely thought he ay. And siketh for so the to sain.
The forward fast he band, With sorwe and michel pain;
With Ysonde, that may Tristrem fareth ay,
With the white hand, As man that wald be slain;
He spoused that day; Bothe night and day,
O night ich vnderstand,
To boure wenten thai
Tristrem ring fel oway
As men to chaumber him ledde.
Tristrem biheld that ring, Rohande sones to se;
Tho was his hert ful wo; Gamen and ioie thai made;
- "Oghain me swiche a thing Welcom to hem was he;
Dede neuer Y sonde so; As lord he ther abade,
Mark her lord the King, As gode skil wald be ;
With tresoun may hir to; Thai boden him landes brade,
Mine hert may no man bring,
For no thing hir fro,
Ich hane tvinned ous to,
The wrong is al in me.'
Tristrem to bedde yede, Bicome the Doukes knight:t
With hert ful of care; He set his lond in pes,
He seyd, -" The dern dede, That arst was ful of fight;
Do it Y no dare;"Al that the Doukes wes,
The maiden he for bede, Hewan oghain with right;
Yif it hir wille ware? He bede him with outen les,
The maide answered in lede, His douhter that was bright,
-"Ther of haue thou no care, Inland :
Al sulle; That maiden Y sonde hight,
Y nil desiri na mare,
Bot at thine owen wille.".
Her fader on a day, On swete Y sonde the Qucne;
Yaf hem londes wide ; Of Ysonde he made a song,
Fer in that cuntray,. 'That song Y sonde bidene,
Markes were set biside; The maiden wende al wrong,
Bitvene the Douke thai had ben ay Of hirit hadde y-bene;
And a geaunt vnride; Hir wening was so long,
No most ther no man play,
That he no dede him abide,
Lesen he schuld his pride,
Were he king or knight.
-"Tristrem, Y the for bede,
For the loue of me; Has founden in his thought: - Mark min em hath sinne;
No hunte thou for no nede, Wrong he hath ous wrought;
Bi yond the arm of the se Icham in norwe and pine,
Beliagog is vnrede, Ther to hye hath me brought;
A stern geaunt is he; Hir loue Y say is mine,
of him thou owest to drede; The boke seyt it is nought
Thou slough his brether thre,
Vrgan and Morgan vnfre, For sche Y sonde hight.
And Moraunill the noble knight.
This is one of the circumstanthe samcena, was, to the romancers, a sort of fairy-land. Giunts: and originality of Thomas's poom. * Stein, those most fertile provinces were so long possessed by otherwise have been furnished.
ces omitted in the prose romance, which marks the antiquity
To the former work, the Benchenets, and monstrous payniins of every sort, were to be resemblance of naines occasions unnecessary embarrassinent
to the reader, without in any way contributing to advance the - the dark tribes of late reviving Spain.”
plot. Orford Prize Poein on Palestine.
$" Tristan se coucha avecques Yseult. Le luminaire ardoit si * There is propriety and probability in Tristrer choosing Britta cler, que Tristan pouvoit bien vooir la beaulté de Yseult. Elle ty fue han plice of Petuge, as it was peopled by a colony from avoit la bouche blanche et tendre, yeux vers rians, les sourcilz Cenwall and Wales during the districtions of the Roman cm bruns et bien assis, la face clere et vermeille. "Tristan la baise et per lis at leasi certain that the languare, laws, and customs accolle; et quant il luy souvient de la Reyne Yseult de Cornouof the Brumns of Artoricans, coincided with those of the Cornish aille, si a lonte perdu la voullente ce surplus faire. Ceste Yseult 291 W-wl, with whom they carried on a constant intercourse. est devant luy, et l'autre est en Cornouailles, qui luy deffend, si The dike, with whom Bir Tristrem takra refuge, and whose cher comme il ayme son corps, que a ceste Yseuli ne face chose, Cuzchler be afterwards married, is called Florentin, in stanza 52. qui a villennie luy tourne. A noi demoure 'Tristan avecques Yseult la the phone romance he is named Hurl. probably to identify him on femme: et elle, qui d'autre Boulas que d'aczoller et de baiser with the Earl Dell of Bretagne, mentioned by the Pseudo-Turpin, as no savoit rien, s'er:dort entre le bras de Tristaa."-Tristan, ff. being, even in his day, the kurject of popular poetry. “Ocullus, lix. es urbes que vulgo dicitur Nantes . . . de hoc canitur in It is difficult to say for what purpose the minstrel has esselena usque in bodiernum diem, quia innumera fecit mirabi- tablished this relationship among all the persons who fell under
the sword of Tristrein. Perhaps it is only meant, that they were The poet here takee an advantage of the two Ysondes bearing brethren in arms. a sucred bond of union, which chivalry borthe same name, which is entirely lost in the folio. Ysonde of rowed from the Footbrädalag of Scandinavia. In Pagan times, kattung, tearing Trstrein sing á lay in praise of the Queen of it was formed by minemg the blood of the future brothers, of Crowall, is induced to believe him her lover, and to beg her which they mutually tasted. In the Loka-Lenna, or Serife of fither to authorize their union. Thus, their marriage is brought Loc, that malevolent demon, being excluded from the banquot of Recut with more apology for Tristrem's infidelity than could the gods, thus addresses Odm :
The geaunt herd that spelle,
For thi him was ful wa,
So bitven hem tva,
The cuntek gan arise.
Dartes wel vnride,
Beliagog set gan;
Tristremes liif ihat tide,
Ferly neighe he wan;
Bitvene the hauberk and side,
The dart thurch out ran;
Tristrem bleynt biside,
God he thonked than,
Tristrem as a man,
Fast he gan to fight.
Beliagog the bold,
As a fende he faught;
Tristrem lif neighe he sold,
As Tomas hath ous taught;
Tristrem smot, as God wold,
His fot of at a draught;
Adoun he fel y-fold,
That man of michel maught,
"Tristrem, be we saught,
And haue min londes wide.
"Ouer comen hastow me,
In bataile and in fight;
Helden oghaines the,
No wil Y neuer with right;": -
His tresour lete he se,
Tristrem the noble knight;
Cristrem knewe him fre,
Beliagog in hight,
An halle to maken hím bright,
To Y sonde and Bringwain.
The geaunt him gan lede,
Til he fond an hald;
the lord of the domain, but refuses to surrender the steed, eayme, "Father of laughter, Olin, say,
it was no knight's fashion to go on foot. This did not sally Remember's not the former day,
the young carl When ruddy in the goblet stood,
*Gy by the reyn he hath y-notne,
With strengthe he wende to the hors corne;
Thei he war wroth, it was no ferly,
With that statt hemote Sir Gy.
Wicket mat, thou hast me emite,
Thou shalt it ablege God it wile.' and Joinville, Louvre edition, P: 104.
With his horn he him emol, # The prise was the note blown at the death of the strug.
His breys he schadde fot-hot." Among the many causes of contention between knights errant
After this adventure, Gy, be wildered in the forest, is hospitably and those persons who exceeded six feet in height, the rigour of the latter, in preservation of their game, was a frequent subject received in the castle of Earl Florentin. During the repast, the of dispute. In the romance of Sir Eglamour of Artoys, we find dead body of the earl's son is brought home. In the first tran=1077
of rage, Florentin assaults Sir Gy with an andiron. His atterda giant as jcalous of this important privilego, as the Belia
ants crowd to assist his revenge. But when Gy claims tbe nicht gog of Sir Tristrem, or as a modem justice of peace. Sir of hospitality, the spirit of chivalrous honour tempers the Earl's Exlamour had entered a forest belonging to this gigantic son of pateral feelings : He commands his followers to hold; susters Nimrod :"He blewe his borne in that tyde,
Gy tu arm himself, and pass out of the castle, then follows and
defies him to mortal combat. The Earl Florentin had not home Hartis ra on evir ilk Aide; A nobil dere he chaste.
arms for fifteen years, and was overthrown at the first shend His houndis two the dere can ta,
But the victor pitied him, both for his age, and the irreparable "That heride the gyant quhare he lay,
injury he had done him; he leaped off his good sterd, anit left it That rasyt him of his real.
with the carl, in acknowledgment of his having given him "moat
at need :" with the assurance, however, that he would never again "Methynk wonder that I heire,
burden his hospitality. Jo those days, when "might was right." Tbar is a thieffe walde stele my dere;
" to beat the men, kill the deer, break open the lodge," or even to Him war weill better a Be him that were the crowne of thorne,
"kiss the keoper's daughter," was only matter of dishonour and Hymn hau better been onborne,
punishment, if the adventuror wanted resolution or strength to He boght never derrair mex"
make good his aggression. Sir Eglamour. Printed by Chopman and + That is, “it were unnatural that thou (who hast slain my broMyllar, Edinburgh, 150
thers) and I should salute like kinsfolk, There occurs often, It will readily be anticipated, that the giant is wlain by Sir in the old romancen, a rude giving betwixt combatants, similar to Eglamour.
some passages in the liad. Thus, in the duel betwixt Otuwe Another instance of the risk at which the lords of a manor in and Clarel the Saracen, terfered with the deer-stealing chivalry of the time, occur in the
"uwel firwrath tho anon, Romance of Gy of Warwick. Gy, liunting in a forest belonging
Arrighte himn on the cheke-bon, to the Earl Florentin, had slain a boar, and blown the pris :
Allel of that was there,
And made his teth allere:
'Tho Oluwe saw his cheke bon,
He gat Clarela skorn anon;
Anul bile, 'Clarel, se mote thou the,
Whichewentou thi teth to me ?
1 nam po forh-rawcre,
'Thou no meist mi no cheine bere."
A similar brutal joke is uttered by Doolin, when he has lai
bare the scalp of his antagonist with a back-stroke. "Herchard The young knight finds Gy, and demands his horso, as a for- bant, vous estes courronnú commo un prestre nouveau."feit for hunting in his lord's forest. Gy offers to attend him to Fleur des Ballailes.
The water about yede,
Tristrem that michel can,
A werk hem hath y-brought;
Nas ther neuer yete man,
That wist what other wrought;
Arere when thai bigan,
Swiche a werk nas nought
Thei al men hadde it thought
It nas to large no guede.
At his des in the halle,
Swete Ysonde was wrought;
Hodain and Pen-cru to calle,
The drink hou Brengwain brought;
Mark y-clad in palle,
And Meriadok ful of thought;
So lifliche weren thai alle,
Ymages semed it nought,
And Tristrem hou he faught,
With Beliagog vnride.
So it bifel a cas,
In Seyn Matheus toun, This is a passage of difficult interpretation. I am inclined to the myne that is out of this castell.' Then Sir Raymond of explain it thus: Beliagog in that necessity wald find him rich, Convayle sayde, 'Sir, surely there is a way under the groundo, ie would prove his wealth-io fine, finally, an expletive. Belia for thereby I was taken, and lost this my caste): it was before gue and the castle which he built, are not mentioned in the proge of long time decayed and destroyed, but these robbers new refinance, por even in the French fragments ; though, in the last, payred it, and by that way they came on me: and, sire, the there is an obvious allusion to the statues with which the hall issue thereof is in a wood not furre hence' - Wel,' sayd Sir $20 enriched-see p. 315. There is, in the prose book, a tale Gualtyer, 'all is wel.' And so IIII da yes after be wente to the of Uther Pendragon, who carried on an intrigue with the wife of same wood, and had with him cc men well armed ; and when Eran, one of his vassals. But Ezrian way no Mark; he en he saw the hole where the issue was, be caused the erthe and werered the King, discomfited him, and only granted him bushes to be aroyded, and then he lyghted up many fagottes, and mercy on eondition he should build him an impregnable castle, sayd to them that were ordeyned to go into the cave, Sirs, to be called Le cerzongne Vier pendrason, fucil. cxvu.
follow this cave, and it shall bring you into the hall of Convale, * It would appear from this stanza, that, in the castle built by and there ye shall find a dore; breke it up, ye are strong enough Blang, there was a private entrance. by which Sir Tristrein so to do, and to figiate with them within. So they entered and puski egter at pleasure. Such contrivances were frequent in came to the grece (stepe,) nere to the hall dore in the castell, then ament ca des; and from the following passage in Froissart, it with gret axes they srake at the dore ; and by the time it was
Tin that they were often referred to in the days of romance. nere night, they within the castell made good wache, and perDoes the forces of Charles of France were actively engaged in ceyved how by the myne they wolde have entered into the castell, Pipething the adrénturers, as they were called,-a sort of mer and Espaygnollet was going to his rest. Then came he thyder, Quy troops partaking much of the character of banditti, who, and there they cast stones, benches, and timber, before the cave danng the wars betwixt England and France, had possessed door, to the intente that none should enter there, thoogh the dore themselves of many fortresses in Aquitane,--dir Walter of Pas. were broken up. This was done, for other shift had they none cho was the principal leader of the French, and closely block of defence ; but for all that, they within the myne anone brake at the Castle of Pulpuron, whereof Angerot, a chict of the the dure all to peces, and yet were never the nere, for then aderatus companiang, called the Little Meschine, was cas they had more to do than they had before ; and when they telai Sir Walter had sworn by his father's soul, that he would saw it was impossible for them to enter there, they retumed take none of the besieged to ransom, but would put them all to again to the host." In conclusion, however, all egress by the the word Bit Angerot had a cave within the castle, the other subterranean passage being prevented, the castle was taken, and entravee of which was in a wood about balf a league distant. the defendere put to the sword. -- FROISSAKT, vol. ii. fo. xlviii. *Thrush this parzige he made his escape, with his followers, 1 It is difficult exactly to determine whether painting or statuked with the booty which they had pillaged from the neigh ary is the subject of this curious description. I incline to the bring country. The third day after their departure, the French former opinion ; for, in stanza 62, Ganhardin rushes to salute Okabeerd a furious discharge of arrows upon the castle, which, Ysonde and Brengwain, and, in his precipitation, breaks his to toris great surprise, was not answered from within. Then head against the wall. This mistake might more easily occur there were ordayned ladders to set up agaynst the walles, and where colours aided the deception, than if the figures had been tbesitat mounted on them passed over the walls and entered cut in stone, as the word "images" seems to imply. The hall isto tbe castell, and founde no creature therein. And than they of a Gothic castle was usually painted on the sides and roof; went to the gale, and there they found a great bundell of kayes, at least upon the latter, the former being often hung with and among other they found the lays of the gate and opynet tapestry. Some vestiges of this decoration niay be traced in it, and then all the burryers one after another; whereof the lordes the banqueting room of the ancient castle of Borthwick, about had great marveyl, and specially Sir Gualtyer of Paschac; he twelve miles from Edinburgh. The painting is executed on a wana lheç had been departed out of the castell by enchantment, vaulted roof of hown stone, with suitable inscriptions, such and then demanded of them that were about hem how it might the Palais of Honor." In this hall Bothwell was feast. be Tbe seneschal of Tholous sayd to hym, - sir, surely they ing with the unfortunate Mary, when the first insurrection took can wat be thus gone, withaut they have some secret way under place against her authority. They were nearly surprised, the the erike, which I think there be.' Then all the castle was Queen escaping with difficulty, in the disguise, it is said of a page. songht in every corner where any such way should be. Than I find no mention of the images in the folio, but they are they foarte in a cellar the mouth of the alley open, and there alluded to in the Metrical Fragment, p. 315. In Lancelot du al ib bortre did behold it, and Sir Gualtyer had great mar Lac, there occurs a circumstance somewhat similar. That Ferie of, and demaunded of the seneschal of Tholous, if he knight was long confined by the envious Morgajne Faye, Enebelure of any such cave. Sir,' quoth he, 'I have heard er sister to King Arthur, but resembling him in none of his good the thereof; brit I thought nothing that they would thus have qualities, and widely differing from him in his unsuspicions condrare bg that way!- By my faythe,' quoth Sir Gualtyer, fidence in Queen Guenever.* The good knight, finding his time *bbey be one that same way. Have the castells of this country bang heavy, chose to charm it away, by painting on ihe walls
dynaunce!- Sir,' quod Sir Hugh, there be divers such of his prison the whole history of his amours with the wife of Gualla 4 of old tyme perteyned to Reynalt of Montabon, that the great Arthur, who, in these tender concerns, shared the fato baih geb conseyaunce; for, when he and his brethren kent war of the cowardly and petty King of Cornwall
. Sir Lancelot, aparaat King Charlemayne of France, they were made all after distrusting, probably, his own powers of producing the desired the manner by the council and advice of Maugis their cousin : resemblance, was at the further pains to guide the spectator to for ben the king besieged them by puyssance, and that they saw the meaning of the painting, by certain mottoes and distiches, they could not resyst him, then wolde they departe, without pointing out the nature of the adventures, and the quality of the ang leve tak, og, by meaner of those passages under the erthe'- dramo is persone. He could not possibly have made worse use *Surely,' said şir Brews, 1 laud gretly the ordynnunce. I cannot of his leisure ; for some time afterwards King Arthur, while maye if ever I shall have any warre agaynst me or not, other by visiting his sister, was lodgeit, by the insidious Morgain, in this Inge, dake, or by any other neighbour, but as soon as I am painted chamber. Though probably no great amateur of painting, return into my country, I shall cause such a mine to be made these decorations were enough to interest him for the whole
my castle of Pas-ac. Bo these lords and their company came night. The result was a confirmation of the suspicions often to the carnaon of Convale, in Robestan, and layde syege thereto. intused into his mind by Sir Gawain and his brethren. A breach and then Sie Gualtyer demaunded of the reneschal of Tholous, with Sir Lancelot became unavoidable, which finally occasioned if Conale antiently penteyned to Raynalte of Mountallon, and the destruction of the whole chivalry of the Round Table. bed, 'Yes'' Then there is a cave under the grounde,' said Su Gualtser.- Sir, that is true,' said Sir Brews, for by reason
• Queen Guenever surprised Morgain in the embraces of a favourite knight, par apayrolet wan it the second tyme, and the owner and very imprudently publishei her disgrace. Of course, Sir Lancelot and she witino il' Then Sir Gualtyer sent for the knyght that was owner experienced all the mortification and danger which could be produced by the aereof, and sayd to bymn, 'Sir, it were good ye enformed us of rage of an affronted woman, and an incord enchantreas.
LVIII. Ganhardin the fest fles,
He bicom Tristremes frende. He seyd, his lif he les,
Bot he with Tristrem wende; Quath Tristrem,-"Yif it so bes,
In Inglond that we lende,
To ben his brother he bede; To ben a trewe knight,
In al Tristremes nede; Bothe busked that night,
To Beliagog in lede; Ganhardin seighe that sight, And sore him gan adrede,
To brink ; "To sle thou wilt me lede, To Beliagog me think."
That a fair fest was,
Of lordes of renoun:
Spoused a leuedi of Lyoun;
To that fest gan fare ;
With hem rode Y sonde thare;
The water her wat ay whare,
His soster tho cald he; -"Abide now, dame, and lithe,
What is ther tidde to the;
Astow louest mc,
With outen oth,
LIV. -"Brother, no wrathe the nought,
The sothe Y wil thc say;
Of o polk in the way.
That in mi sadel it lay;
That schamely schent ar wc;
Hetheliche holdeth he;
Fain lwald it se;
And that Tristrem y-ses; What thought he is in,
Fast he asketh Y wis;
While thi wille is;
LVII. -"Yif it hir wille ware,
For hole it might haue be; Sche hath y-told it you yare,
Quite schic is of me ;
A yift Y yeve the ;
To frain." -
Mi wille yif Y might gete,
LXIX. That leuedi wold Y se;
" Sir Canados the waite: Mine heri hye hath y-steke,
Ever thou art mi fo;
Febli thou canst hayt,
There man schuld menske do;
Who wil lesinges layte, Til Y se that hende.”_
Thart hin no ferther go;
Falsly canestow favt,
That euer worth the wo,
For thi; Treuthe plighten thay,
Malisoun haue thou also,
Of God and our leuedy.
"A yift ich yiue the, Til he with Brengwain haue lin,
Thi thrift mot thou tine,
That thou asked me,
No schal it neuer
Y-hated al so thou be, Tho knightes stithe on stede.
Of alle that drink wine ;
Hennes yern thou fle
Out of sight mine,
In lede. Constable the Quen ful neighe;t
Y prav to Seyn Katerine,
That iuel mot thou spede.'
The Quien was wratthed sore; For nought that he do can,
Wroth to chaumber sche yede; Hir hert was euer heighe,
"Who may trowe man more,, To hold;
Than he hath don this dede." That man hye neuer seighe,
A paliray asked sche there, That bifor Trisirem wold.
That wele was loued in lede;
Dight sche was ful yare,
Hir pauilouns with hír thai lede
Ful fine : That song Ysonde the sleighe,
Bifore was stef on stede,
Tristrem, and Ganhardine.
Ful ner the gat, thai abade, As oule, and stormes strong,
Vnder a figer tre;
Thai scighe where Y sonde rade,
And Bringwain bothe seighe he;
With tvo houndes mirie made
Fairer might non be;
Her blis was ful brade, -"Tristrem, for thi sake,
A tale told Ysonde fre;
Tristrem thai herd he,
And seyd thus in his spelle. Other semblaunt thou make
LXXIII. Thi seluen yif thou hir se;
-“Ganhardin, ride thou ay, Thi loue hir dede binn take,
Mi ring of finger thou drawe;
Thou wende forth in thi way,
And gret hem al on rawe;
Her houndes praise thouay, With the white hand.”
Thi finger forth thou schawe, * The love of Ganhardin for the trusty confidante of Ysonde very amusing. He carries him to Tintagel, where he is acknowis mentioned in the Frements, p. 310, but not in the folio. Ac. ledlced, first by his dog Hlodain, and then by the lovely Ysonde. Faz lo later authority, the hand of Brengwain is bestowed the skill of the latter completes a cure, already begun by the
on Grousernsil, th squire of Tristrem, and this faithful couple intinence of her prosence, and Sir Tristrein, pardoned by his ed to the Kingdom of Lionesse. Ganhardin, called Kamele, incurs, by fresh oflences, a new banishment. Tristan, han in the follo, and Pheredan by Tressan, is supposed to 11. crvii. repares the same ardent lunging to see Yeonde, which is men. + This enterprising constable, who hoped to succeed the peer tarred in the lost; but, his desire being satisfied, he falls despie. leas Tristrem in the love of the Queen of Cornwall, is the Carirately in love with her, and continues to write, in her praise, ono ads of Mr. Douce's Fragment. See p. 302. He is not mentioned
ar lay afur another till he exhausts both his strength and in the folio; for the treacherous Canados must be carefully disteral wers, and fairly dire while concluding a madrigal. tinguished from Carados Brics bras, (partie prom. ff. cxliii. part. T: 15 fint the worst effect of his passion; for Yyonde, naturally sec. filii.) a knight of the Round Tal.le, distinguished for his settle had been induced, by the lamentable condition of this valour, but yet more as the liusband of a chaste and constant despairing baru, to write him a letter of consolation. !! unfortu- lady, a happiness which King Arthur himself might well have mely fill into the hands of Tristrem, who hecame thereupon, envieil him. She was the only dame in Queen Guonever's train, Fores, pestically mad, like the enamoured Breton, and unerwards, who could wear the mantle, designed, like the horn of Morgain, outra grously frantic in good eamest.* Our hero roves through to prove matrimonini fidelity. the front in this melancholy condition : but still, instinctively; * This was a proverbial phrase. In an old French metrical there his prodigious strength in the conquest of monsters and romance, we find, Eluld, oporpusors to the herdsmen, with whom he associated,
" La meilleur gent, vui oncques heurent vin." and by whom he was led. Like Orlando, in his encounter with The phrase also occurs in Sir (iy, and other tales of chivalry, as Rotomont upon the perilous bridge, Sir Tristrem quells the arrow well as when Robert de Brinde tells us. ence of och crrant knight: as saw in him only a wandering
* Solan sa cevs never drink no weyn " banatic, Allingth Mark, when hunting in the forest, fiuds 'Tris. This was but a limited compliment, as few Saracen Soldans were en askep anong the stepherds. Paying little attention to so in the habit of drinking wine. mail: an object, he winds his horn to recall his followers. The musiman starte up at the well known sound of the chase,
+ See the tale of the ** Mantle Made Amies," in Iny'. Fo'liaus, with
Ella'. Notre, ou the balad of the "Bry and Mantle." in Reliques of Art and this all bis bunting-cries, cheering his favourite Hodain, cient Poetry, vol. iii. In the last, Karade is calle! Crackloc, a narne which lie and calling bino by name.
Nevertheless. Mark does not re. also bears in the metrical romance of Arthour and Merlin, Carica the nephew, whom he had so much cause both to love
"The thirti.fitt was Calloe, and to hate, but only rejoices in finding a foul, who could be so
An harlie knight in ich fine,
The Welsh poems abound in encomiums on his valonr. He was called *k is probable that the madness of Orlando was copied by Ariosto, either Frrich-Fras, or Strong Arm: which the Norman minstrels corrupted, into flesta le rem-nast of Trietten, or from that of Lan-dot.
Brief-Bras, and Brisc-Bras.