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spirits, somewhat similar in their operations to the clan, or family of distinction; and who, perhaps Brownie, were supposed to haunt the Swedish yet more than the Brownie, resemble the classic mines. The passage, in the translation of 1658, household gods. Thus, in a MS, history of Moray, runs thus: "This is collected in briefe, that in we are informed, that the family of Gurlinbeg is northerne kingdomes there are great armies of de- haunted by a spirit, called Garlin Bodacher; that vils, that have their services, which they perform of the Baron of Kinchardin, by Lamhdearg i or with the inhabitants of these countries: but they Redhand, a spectre, one of whose hands is as red are most frequently in rocks and mines, where they as blood; that of Tullochgorm, by May Moulach, break, cleave, and make them hollow: which also a female figure, whose left hand and arm were cothrust in pitchers and buckets, and carefully fit vered with hair, and who is also mentioned in Aųwheels and screws, whereby they are drawn up- bry's Miscellanies, pp. 211, 212, as a familiar attendwards; and they shew themselves to the labourers, ant upon the clan Grant. These superstitions were when they list, like phantasms and ghosts." It so ingrafted in the popular creed, that the clerical seems no improbable conjecture, that the Brownie synods and presbyteries were wont to take cogniis a legitimate descendani of the Lar Familiaris zance of them.§ of the ancients.
Various other superstitions, regarding magicians, A being, totally distinct from those hitherto men- spells, prophecies, &c., will claim our attention in tioned, is the Bogle, or Goblin ; a freakish spirit, the progress of this work.li For the present, therewho delights rather to perplex and frighten man- fore, taking the advice of an old Scottish rhymer, kind, than either to serve, or seriously to hurt them, let us This is the Esprit Follct of the French; and "Leave bogles, brownies, gyre carlinges, and ghaists." Puck, or Robin Goodfellow, though enlisted by
Flyting of Polwart and Montgomery. Shakspeare among the Fairy band of Oberon, pro The domestic economy of the Borderers next enperly belongs to this class of phantoms. Shelly gages our attention. That the revenues of the chiefcoat, a spirit, who resides in the waters, and hias tain should be expended in rude hospitality, was the given his name to many a rock and stone upon the natural result of his situation. His wealth consisted Scottish coast, belongs also to the class of Bogles.* chietly in herds of cattle, which were consumed by When he appeared, he seemed to be decked with the kinsmen, vassals, and followers, who aided him marine productions, and, in particular, with shells, to acquire and to protect them.** whose clattering announced his approach. From
: The following notice of Lamhdearg occurs in another account this circumstance he derived his name. He may, of strattispy, apud Macfarlane's MSS. :-" There is much talk perhaps, be identified with the goblin of the north- of a spirit called Ly-ers, who frequents the Glenmore. He apern English, which, in the towns and cities, Durham pears with a red hand, in the habit of a soldier, and challenges and Newcasile for example, had the name of Bar- men to fight with him; as lately as 1669, he fought with three guest ;t but, in the country villages, was more fre- brothers, one after another, who immediately thereafter died.""
$ There is current, in some parts of Germany, a fanciful superquenily termed Brag. He usually ended his mis stition concerning the Stile Volk, or silent people. These they chievous frolics with a horse-laugh.
suppose to be attached to houses of eminence, and to consist of a
number, corresponding to that of the mortal family, each person Shellycoal must not be confounded with Kelpy, a
of which has thus his representative amongst these domestic spiwater-spirit also, but of a much more powerful and rits. When the lady of the furnily has a child, the queen of ihesimalignant nature. His attributes have been the lent people is delivered in the same moment. They endeavour to subject of a poem in Lowland Scottish, by the learn- give warning when danner approaches the family, assist in warded Dr. Jamieson of Edinburgh, which adorns the wait off, and are sometimes seen to weep and wring their hands
betore inevitable calamity. latter part of this collection. Of Kelpy, therefore, H (The reader is referred to Sir Walter Scott's Letters on Demoit is unnecessary to say any thing at present. nology and Witchcraft, 1831), for a more detailed examination of Of all these classes of spirits, it may be, in gene
most of the superstitions liere alluded 10.-ED.)
So generally were these tales of diablerie believed, that one ral, observed, that their attachment was supposed to William Lithgow, a bon rirani, who appears to have been a nabe local, and not personal. They haunted the rock, tive, or occasional inhabitant, of Me.Iruse, is celebrated by the the stream, the ruined castle, without regard to the pot companion who composed his elegy, because persons or families to whom the property belonged.
"He was good company at jeists, Hence they differed entirely from that species of spi
And wanton when he came to teists.
He scorn'd the converse of great beasts, rits, to whom, in the Highlands, is ascribed the
O'er a sheep's head ; guardianship, or superintendence, of a particular
He laugh'd at stories about shaists;
Blyth Willie's deal!" him just in the act of drawing on his boots, he administered to him
WATSON'S Scottish Poems, Edin. 1706. a most merciless drubbing with his own horsewhip. Suchan important service excited the gratitude of the laird; who, under ** We may form some idea of the style of lite maintained by the standing that Brownie had been heard to express a wish to have Border Warriors, from the anecdotes, handed down by tradition, a green cout, ordered a vesiment of that colour to be made and concerning Walter Scott of Harden, who flourished towards the len in his haunts. Brownie took away the green coat, but was middle of the sixteenth century. This ancient lain was a re
We muy suppose, that, tired of his domestic nowned freebooter, and used to ride with a numerous band of drudgery, he went in his new livery to join the fuiries. --See Ap followers. The spoil, which they carried off from England, or pendix, No. VI.
from their neighbours, was concealed in a deep and impervious The last Brownie known in Ettrick Forest, resided in Bodsbeck, len, on the brink of which the old tower of Harden is situated. a wild and solitary spot, near the head of Mostat Water, where from thence the cattle were brought out, one by one, as they he exercised his functions undisturbed, till the scrupulous devotion were wanted, to supply the rude and plentiful table of the laird. of an old lady induced her to hire him ancay, as it was termed, When the last bullock was killed and devoured, it was the lady's by placing in his liant a porringer of milk and a piece of inoney. custom to place on the table a dish, which, on being uncovered, After receiving this hint to depart, he was heard the whole night was found to contain a pair of clean spurs, a hint to the riders to howl and cry, "Farewell to bonnie Dodsbeck!" which he was that they must shirt for their next ineal. Upon one occasion, when compelled to abandon for ever.
the village herd was driving out the cattle to pasture, the old laird Mr. Hogg, the Etirick shepherd, has written a tale, in which beard bim call loudly, to drive out Harden's coro. "Harden's the Brownie ot Bousbeck is explained as being one of the fugi cow "" echoed the affronted chief-"Is it come to that pass ? by live Cameronians.
my faith, they shall sune say Harden's kve," (cows.) Accord* One of his pranks is thus narrated : Two men, in a very dark ingly, be sounded his bugle, mounted his borse, set out with his night, approaching the banks of the Ettrick, heard a doletul voice followers, and returneri next day with "a boo of kye, and a basfrom its waves repeatelly exclaim-"Lost! Lost!! They fol sen'd Ibrindled) bull." On his return with this gallant prey, he lowed the sound, which seemed to be the voice of a drowning passed a very large haystack. It occurred to the provident laird, person, and, to their intinite astonishment, they found that it as that this would be extremely convenient to fodder his new stock cended the river. Still they continueri, during a long and tem of cattle; but as no means of transporting it were obvious, he pestuous night, to follow the cry of the malicious aurite ; and ar. was fuin totuke leave of it with this apostrophe, now proverbial : riving, before morning's dawn, at the very sources of the river, the "By my soul, had ye but four feet, yeshould not stand lang there !" voice was now beard descending the opposite side of the moun In short, as Froissart says of a similar class of feudal robbers, notain in which they arise. The futigned and deluded travellers now thing cume aming to them, that was not too heacy, or too hot. relinquished the pursuit ; and had no sooner done 80, thun they | The same moule of housekeping characterized most Border faheard Shellycoat applauding, in loud bursts of langhter, luis suc muilies on both sides. A MS, quoted in listory of Cumberland, cessful roguery. The spirit was supposed particularly to haunt : 166, concerning the Gremes of Netherhy, and others of that the old house of Gorinberry, situated on the river Hermitage, in clan, runs thus:--"'They were all stark moss-troopers and arrant Liddesdale
thieves: both to England and Scotland outlawed : yet sometimes This is a sort of spirit peculiar to those towns. He has made connived at, because they gave intelligence forth of Scotland. his appearance in this very year (1809) in that of York, if the vul. and would raise 400 borre at any time, upon a raid of the English par may be credited. His name is derived by Growe, from lus ap into Scotland." A kaving is recorder of a mother of this clan to jaring near bars or stiles, but seems rather to come from the lier son(which is now becomo proverbial,)." Ride, Rouly, (Row. German Dahr-Geist, or Spirit of the Bior.
land,] hough's l' the pot;" that is, the last piece of beef was
never seen more.
We learn from Lesley, that the Borderers were than the King of Scotland exerting legal power to temperate in their use of intoxicating liquors, and we punish his depredations; and when the characters are therefore left to conjecture how they occupied are contrasted, the latter is always represented as a the time, when winter, or when accident, contined ruthless and sanguinary tyrant. Spenser's descripthem to their habitations. The litile learning which tion of the bards of Ireland applies, in some degree, existed in the middle ages, glimmered, a dim and to our ancient Border poets. "There is, among the dying flame, in the religious houses; and even in the Irish, a certain kinde of people called bardes, which sixteenth century, when its beams became more are to them instead of poets; whose profession is to widely diffused, they were far from penetrating the set forth the praises or dispraises of men, in their recesses of the Border mountains. The tales of poems or rhymes; the which are had in such high tradition, the song, with the pipe or harp of the min. regard or esteem amongst them, that none dare disstrel, were probably the sole resources against ennui, please them, for fear of running into reproach through during the short intervals of repose from military their otience, and to be made infamous in the mouths adventure.
of all men; for their verses are taken up with a This brings us to the more immediate subject of general applause, and usually sung at all feasts and the present publication.
meetings, by certain other persons, whose proper Lesley, who dedicates to the description of Border function that is, who also receive, for the same, manners a chapter, which we have already often great rewardes and reputation amongst them.' quoted, notices particularly the taste of the Marchmen Spenser, having bestowed due praise upon the poets, for music and ballad poetry. :Placent admodum who sung the praises of the good and virtuous, insibi sua musica, et rythmicis suis cantionibus, quas forms us, that the bards, on the contrary, "seldom use de majorum suorum gestis, aut ingeniosis predandi to choose unto themselves the doings of good men precandire stratagematibus ipsi con fingunt." for the arguments of their poems; but whomsoever LESlers, in capit. de moribus eorum, qui Scotiæ they finde to be most licentious of life, most bold and limites Angliam versus incolunt. The more rude lawless in his doings, most dangerous and desperate and wild the state of society, the more general and in all parts of disobedience, and rebellious disposition, violent is the impulse received from poetry and mu- him they set up and glorify in their rhythmes : him sic. The muse, whose effusions are the amusement ney praise to the people, and to young men make of a very small part of a polished nation, records, in an example to follow." -" Eudorus-I marvail the lays of inspiration, the history, the laws, the what kind of speeches they can find, or what faces very religion, of savages.-Where the pen and the they can put on, to praise such bad persons, as live press are wanting, the flow of numbers impresses so lawlessly and licentiously upon stealths and upon the memory of posterity the deeds and senti- spoyles, as most of them do; or how they can think Ments of their forefathers. Verse is naturally con- thai any good mind will applaud or approve the Dected with music; and, among a rude people, the same?". In answer to this question, Irenæus, after union is seldom broken. By this natural alliance, remarking the giddy and restless disposition of the the lays, " steeped in the stream of harmony,” are ill-educated youth of Ireland, which made them more easily retained by the reciter, and produce upon prompt to receive evil counsel, adds, that such a his audience a more impressive effect. Hence there person, if he shall find any to praise him, and to has hardly been found io exist a nation so brutishly give him any encouragement, as those bards and nude, as not to listen with enthusiasm to the songs rhythmers do, for little reward, or share of a stolen of their bards, recounting the exploits of their fore- cow,* then waxeth he most insolent, and half-mad, fathers, recording their laws and moral precepts, or with the love of himself and his own lewd deeds. hyrning the praises of their deities. But where the And as for words to set forth such lewdness, it is fåelings are frequently stretched to the highest pitch, not hard for them to give a goodly and painted show by the vicissitudes of a life of danger and military thereunto, borrowed even from the praises which adventure, this predisposition of a savage people, to are proper to virtue itself. As of a most notorious admire their own rude poetry and music, is heighten- thief, and wicked outlaw, which had lived all his ed, and its lone becomes peculiarly determined. It lifetime of spoils and robberies, one of their bardes, is not the peaceful Hindú at his loom, it is not the in bis praise, will say, 'that he was none of the idle timid Esquimaux in his canoe, whom we must ex- milk-sops that were brought up by the fire-side, but pect to glow at the war-song of 'Tyrtæus. The mu- that most of his days he spent in arms, and valiant sic and the poetry of each country must keep pace enterprises; that he never did eat his meat before he with their usual tone of mind, as well as with the had won it with his sword; that he lay not all night state of society.
slugging in his cabin under his mantle, but used The morality of their compositions is determined commonly to keep others walking to defend their by the same circumstances. Those theres are lives, and did light his candle at the flames of their necessarily chosen by the bard, which regard the houses to lead him in the darkness; that the day favourite exploits of the hearers; and he celebrates was his night, and the night his day; that he loved only those virtues which from infancy he has been not to be long wooing of wenches to yield to him; laugh: to admire. Hence, as remarked by Lesley, but, where he came, he took by force the spoil of the music and songs of the Borderers were of a mili- other men's love, and left but lamentations to their tary nature, and celebrated the valour and success lovers; that his music was not the harp, nor lays of of their predatory expeditions. Razing, like Shak- love; but the cries of people, and clashing of arspeare's pirate, the eighth commandment from the mour; and, finally, that he died, not bewailed of decalogue, the minstrels praised their chieftains for many, but made many wail when he died, that the very exploits, against which the laws of the dearly bought his death.' Do not you think, Eucountry denounced a capital doom. An outlawed doxus, that many of these praises might be applied freebooter was to them a more interesting person to men of best deserts ? Yet are they all yielded to in the pot, and therefore it was high time for him to go and fetch a most notable traitor, and amongst some of the more. To such men might with justice be applied the poet's de Irish not smally accounted of."-State of Ireland. scription of the Cretan warrior, translated by my friend, 'Dr. Ley. The same concurrence of circumstances, so well
pointed out by Spenser, as dictating the topics ot "My sword, my spear, my shaggy shield,
the Irish bards, tuned' the Border harps to the With these i till, with these I sow;
praise of an outlawed Armstrong, or Murray.
For similar reasons, flowing from the state of
society, the reader must not expect to find, in the With these I prees the luscious wine.
Border ballads, refined sentiment, and, far less, eleMy sword, my spear, my shaggy shield,
gant expression; although the style of such compoThey make me lord of all below: For be who dread, the lance to wield,
* The reward of the Welsh bards, and perhaps of those upon Before my shaggy shield must bow.
the Border, was very similar. It was enacted by Howel Dha, His lands, his vineyards, must resign;
that if the King's bard played before a body of warriors, upon a And all that cowards lave is mine."
predatory excursion, he should receive, in recompense, the best Hybrias (ap. Athendum.) cow which the party carried off. - Leges Wallie, l. 1. cap. 19.
sitions has, in modern hands, been found highly obligingly pointed out to me the following passages, susceptible of both. But passages might be pointed respecting the noted ballad of Dick of the Cow; out, in which the rude
minstrel has melted in natu “ Dick o' the Cow, that mad demi-lance Northern ral pathos, or risen into rude energy. Even where Borderer, who plaid his prizes with the Lord Jockey these graces are totally wanting, the interest of the so bravely."-NASHe's Have with you to Saffrenstories themselves, and the curious picture of man Walden, or Gabriell Harvey's Hunt is up:-1596, ners which they frequently present, authorize them 410. Epistle Dedicatorie, sig. A. 2. 6. And in a list to claim some respect from the public. But it is not of books, printed for, and sold by, P. Brocksby, the Editor's present intention to enter upon a his- (1688,) occurs • Dick-a-the-Cow, containing north tory of Border poetry; a subject of great difficulty, country songs,"+ Could this collection have been and which the extent of his information does not as found, it would probably have thrown much light on yet permit him to engage in. He will, therefore, the present publication ; but the editor has been now lay before the reader the plan of the present obliged to draw his materials chiefly from oral trapublication ; pointing out the authorities from which dition. his materials are derived, and slightly noticing the Something, may be still found in the Border cotnature of the different classes into which he has tages, resembling the scene described by Penniarranged them.
cuick: The MINSTRELSY of the SCOTTISH BORDER con
"On a winter's night my grannum spinning, tains three classes of Poems :
To mak a web of good Scols linen; I. HISTORICAL BALLADS.
Her stool being placed next to the chimley,
(For she was uuld, and saw right dimly,) II. ROMANTIC.
My lucky dad, an honest whig,
Was telling tales of Bothwell-brig;
He could not miss to mind the altempt,
For he was sitting pu'ing hemp ;
My aunt, whom nane dare say has no grace, either know actually to have taken place, or which, Was reading in the Pilgrim's Progress; at least, making due allowance for the exaggerations The meikle tasker, Davie Dallas, of poetical tradition, we may readily conceive to
Was telling blads of William Wallace ;
My mither bade her second son say, have had some foundation in history. For reasons
What be'd by heart of Davie Lindsay: already mentioned, such ballads were early current Our herd, whom all folks hate that knows him, upon ihe Border. Barbour informis us, that he Was busy hunung in his bosom; thinks it unnecessary to rehearse the account of a
The baims and oyen were all within doors :
And all the auld anes telling wonders."
PENNICUICK's Poems, p. 7.
The causes of the preservation of these songs have The Bruce, book xvi.
either entirely ceased, or are gradually decaying. Godscroft also, in his history of the House of Whether they were originally the composition of Douglas, written in the reign of James VI., alludes minstrels, professing the joint arts of poetry and more than once to the ballads current upon the music; or whether they were the occasional effuBorder, in which the exploits of those heroes were sions of some self-taught bard, is a question into celebrated. Such is the passage relating to the which I do not here mean to inquire. But it is cerdeath of William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale, slain tain, that, till a very late period, the pipers, of whom by the Earl of Douglas, his kinsman, his godson, there was one atiached to each Border town of and his chief.* Similar strains of lamentation were note, and whose office was often hereditary, were poured by the Border poets over the tomb of the the great depositaries of oral, and particularly of Hero of Otterbourne ; and over the unfortunate poetical, tradition. About spring time, and after youths, who were dragged to an ignominious death, harvest, it was the custom of these musicians to from the very table at which they partook of the make a progress through a particular district of the hospitality of their sovereign. The only stanza pre-country. The music and the tale repaid their lodgserved of this last ballad is uncommonly animated: ing, and they were usually gravfied with a donation " Edinburgh castle, toune, and toure,
of seed cornit This order of minstrels is alluded to God grant thou sink for sinne!
in the comic song of Maggy Lauder, who thus adAnd that even for the black dinoure,
dresses a piperErl Douglas gat therein."
“Live ye upo' the Border ?" Who will not regret, with the Editor, that compositions of such interest and antiquity should be
By means of these men, much traditional poetry now irrecoverable? But it is the nature of popular Other itinerants, not professed musicians, found
was preserved, which must otherwise have perished. poetry, as with the objects of the time, and it is the frail their welcome to their night's quarters readily enchance of recovering some old manuscript, which sured by their knowledge in legendary lore. John can alone gratify our curiosity regarding the earlier Grame, of Sowport, in Cumberland, commonly efforts of the Border Muse. Some of her later called The Long Quaker, $ a person of this latter strains, composed during the sixteenth century, have description, was very lately alive; and several of the survived even to the present day; but the recollec- songs, now published, have been taken down from tion of them has, of late years, become like that of his recitation. The shepherds also, and aged pera "tale which was told.". In the sixteenth century,
sons, in the recesses of the Border mountains, frethese northern tales appear to have been popular well known in England. Among the popular heroes of romance,
+ The Selkirkebire ballad of Tamlane seeins also to have been even in London; for the learned Mr. Ritson has cnumerated in the introduction to the history of" Tom Thumbe."
(London, 1621, bl. letter,) occurs "Tom a Lin, the devil's sup * "The Lord of Liddesdale being at his pastime, hunting in Et: posed bastard." There is a parody upon the same ballad in the trick Forest, is beset by William, Earl of Douglax, and such as he
Pinder of Wakefield," (London, 1621.) had ordained for the purpose, and there assailed. wounded, and slain, beside Galeswood, in the year 1353. upon a jealousy that Borders, were certaunly the lust memains of the minstrel race. Ro
: These town-pipers, an institution of great antiquity upon the the Earl bad conceived of him with his lady, as the report goeth : bin Hastie, town-piper of Jedburgh, perhaps the last of the order, for so sayeth the old song,
died nine or ten years ago : his family was supposed to have beld ". The Counters of Douglas out of her bower she came,
the office for about three centuries. Old age hai rendered Robin And loudly there that she did call
a wretched performer; but he knew several old songs and tunes, It is for the Lord of Liddesdale,
which have probably died along with him. The town-pipers reThat I let all these tears down fall."
ceived a livery and salary from the community to which they be
longed ; and, in some burghs, they had a small allotment of land, "The song also declareth, how she did write her love letters to called the Piper's Croft. For farther particulars regarding them, Liddesdale, lo dissuade him froin that hunting. It tells likewise see Introduction to Complayni of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1801, p. the inanner of the taking of his men, and his own killing at Gales. 142. (1802.) wood ; and how be was carries the first night to Linden kirk, a $ This person, perhaps the last of our professed ballad reciters, mile from Selkirk, and was buried in the Abbey of Melrose."- died since the publication of the first edition of this work. He was GODSCROFT, vol. i. p. 144. Ed. 1743.
by profession an itinerant cleaner of clocks and watches; but a Some fragments of this ballad are still current, and will be found stentonan voice, and tenacious memory, qualifieil him eminently in the engung work.
for remembering accurately, and reciting with energy, the Border
quently remember and repeat the warlike songs of the course of the following pages. Two books of their fathers.. This is more especially the case in ballads, in MS., have also been communicated to what are called the South Highlands, where, in me by my learned and respected friend, Alexander many instances, the same families have occupied Frazer Tytler, Esq.f I take the liberty of tranthe same possessions for centuries.
scribing Mr. Tytler's memorandum respecting the It is chiefly from this latter source that the Editor manner in which they came into his hands. My has drawn his materials, most of which were col fathers got the following songs from an old friend, lected many years ago, during his early youth.* But Mr. Thomas Gordon, Professor of Philosophy in he has been enabled, in many instances, to supply King's College, Aberdeen. The following extract and correct the deficiencies of his own copies, from of a letter of the Professor to me explains how he a collection of Border songs, frequently referred to came by them :-'An aunt of my children, Mrs. in the work, under the title of Glenriddell's MS. Farquhar, now dead, who was married to the proThis was compiled from various sources, by the prietor of a small estate, near the sources of the Dee, late Mr. Riddel of Glenriddell, a sedulous Border in Braemar, a good old woman, who had spent the antiquary, and, since his death, has become the pro best part of her life among flocks and herds, resided perty of Mr. Jollie, bookseller at Carlisle, to whose in her latter days in the town of Aberdeen. She liberality the Editor owes the use of it, while pre- was possessed of a most tenacious memory, which paring this work for the press. No liberties have retained all the songs she had heard from nurses been laken, either with the recited or written copies and country-women in that sequestered part of the of these ballads, farther than that, where they dis country. Being maternally fond of children, when agreed, which is by no means unusual, the Editor, young, she had them much about her, and delighted in justice to the author, bas uniformly preserved ihem with the songs and tales of chivalry. My what seemed to him the best or most poetical read. youngest daughter, Mrs. Brown, at Falkland, is ing of the passage. Such discrepancies must very blest with a memory as good as her aunt, and has frequently occur, wherever poetry is preserved bs almost the whole of her songs by heart. In conoral tradition; for the reciter, making it a uniform versation, I mentioned them to your father, at principle to proceed at all hazards, is very often whose request my grandson, Mr. Scott, wrote down when his memory fails him, apt to substituie large parcel of them as his aunt sung them. Being portions from some other tale, altogether distinct then but a mere novice in music, he added, in the from that which he has commenced. Besides, the copy, such musical notes as, he supposed, might prejudices of clans and of districts have occasioned give your father sonne notion of the airs, or rather variations in the mode of telling the same story, lilts, to which they were sung," " Some arrangement was also occasionally necessa From this curious and valuable collection, the ry, to recover the rhyme, which was often, by the Editor bas procured very material assistance. At ignorance of the reciters, transposed, or thrown into the same time, it contains many beautiful legendary the middle of the line. With these freedoms, which poems, of which he could not avail himself, as they were essentially necessary, to remove obvious cor- seemed to be the exclusive property of the bards of rupoons, and fit the ballads for the press, the Editor Angus and Aberdeenshire. But the copies of such presents them to the public, under the complete as as were known on the Borders, have furnished him surance that they carry with them the most indis- with various readings, and with supplementary putable marks of their authenticity.
stanzas, which he has frequent opportunities to acThe same observations apply to the Second Class, knowledge. The MSS. are cited under the name here termed ROMANTIC BALLAds, intended to com- of Mrs. Brown of Falkland, the ingenious lady, to prehend such legends as are current upon the Bor- whose taste and meinory the world is indebted for der, relating to fictitious and marvellous adventures. the preservation of the tales which they contain.lt Such were the tales with which the friends of Spen- The other authorities, which occur during the work, ser strove to beguile his indisposition :
are particularly referred to. Much information has * Some told of ladies, and their paramours;
been communicated to the Editor, from various Some of brave knights, and their renowned squires ; quarters, since the work was first published, of Some of the fairies, and their strange attires,
which he has availed himself, to correct and enAnd some of giants, hard to be believed."
large the subsequent editions. These, carrying with them a general, and not
I Now a senator of the College of Justice, by the title of Lord merely a local interest, are much more extensively Woodhouselee. 1510. - Now deceased. 1920. known among the peasantry of Scotland than the $ William Tytler, Esq. the ingenious defender of Queen Mary, Burder-raid ballads, the fame of which is in general and author of a Dissertation upon Scottish Music, which does confined to the mountains where they were origin (To thiy lady, Mr. Jamieson also acknowledges his obliga. ally composed. Hence, it has been easy to collect tions for similar ussistance, in the following terms : these tales of romance, to a number much greater
* For the ground work of this collection, and for the greater and than the Editor has chosen to insert in this publica- contains, the public are indebted to Mrs. Brown of Falkland. Be
more valuable part of the popular and romantic tales which tion. With this class are now intermingled some sides the large supply of ballads, taken down from her own recilyric pieces, and some ballads, which, though nar tation many years ago, by Professor Scott of Aberdeen-in 1800, rating real events, have no direct reference to Bor- I paid an unexpected visit to Mrs. Brown, at Dygart, where she der history or manners. To the politeness and libe- meditated repetition, about a dozen pieces more, most of which
then happened to be for health, and wrote down, from her unprerality of Mr. Herd of Edinburgh, who put forth the will be found in my work. Several others, which I had not time first classical collection of Scottish songs and bal- to take down, were afterwards transmitted to me by Mrs. Brown lads, the Editor is indebted for the use of his MSS., herself, and by her late highly respectable and worthy husband, containing songs and ballads, published and un- sheets, will see how much i owe to Mrs. Brown, and to her ne published, to the number of ninety and upwards. Dhew, my much-esteemed friund, Professor Scott; and it rests To this collection frequent references are made in
with me to feel that I owe them much more for the real and spi
rit which they have manifested, than even for the valuable com. gathering songs and tales of war. His memory was latterly much munications which they have made. impaired, yet, the number of verses which he could pour forth, “As to the authenticity of the pieces themselves, they are as and the animation of his tone and gesture, formed a most extraor. authentic as traditionary poetry can be expected to be ; and their dinary contra l to his extreme feebleness of person, and dotage being more entire than most other such pieces are found to be, of muni (1910.)
may be easily accounted for, from the circumstance that there * (There is in the library at Abbotsford a collection of ballade, are few persons of Mrs. Brown's abilities and education, that repartly printed broadsides, partly in MS., in six small volunes, peat popular ballads from memory
She learnt most of them be. iluch from the hand-writing, must have been formed by Sir Wal fore she was twelve years old, from old women and maid-sertät grott while he was attending the earlier classes of Edinburgh vants : what she once leamt she never forgot; and such were College. -ED)
her curiosity and industry, that she was not contented with mere • M. Rolert Jamieson, of Macclesfield, a gentleman of litera ly knowing the story, according to one way of telling, but studied ty and cortical accomplishments, was, for some years, employed to acquire all the varieties of the same tale which she could meet in a coinpilation of Scottish ballad poetry, which was published with. In some instances, these different readings may have inin 1546. I therefore, a far as the nature of my work permitted, sensibly inixed with each other, and produced, from various dissedulously avoided anticipating any of his materials: and the cu jointed fragments, a whole, such as reciters, whose memories Trots reader will find in his collection some important light on the and judgments are less perfect, can seldom produce : but this La story of Scottish Song, derived from comparing it with the bal. must be the case in all poetry, which depends for its authenticity lad of the Scandinavians. 1810.
on oral tradition alone."-Preface to Jamicson's Ballads.]
In publishing both classes of Ancient Ballads, the and other of the upper house of the Muses, have Editor has excluded those which are to be found in thought their canzons honoured in the title of a balthe common collections of this nature, unless in lad.” To my ingenious friend, Dr. John Leyden, * one or two instances, where he conceived it possi- my readers will at once perceive that I lie under exble to give some novelty, by historical or critical tensive obligations, for the poetical pieces with illustration.
which he has permitted me to decorate my compilaIt would have been easy for the Editor to have tion; but I am yet farther indebted to hin for his given these songs an appearance of more indisputar uniform assistance, in collecting and arranging mable antiquity, by adopțing the rude orthography of terials for the work.t the period to which he is inclined to refer them., In the Notes and occasional Dissertations, it has But this (unless when MSS. of antiquity can be re- been my object to throw together, perhaps without ferred to) seemed too arbitrary an exertion of the a sufficient attention to method, a variety of reprivileges of a publisher, and must, besides, have marks, regarding popular superstitions, and legendunnecessarily increased the difficulties of many ary history, which, it not now collected, must soon readers. On the other hand, the utmost care has have been totally forgotten. By such efforts, feebeen taken, never to reject a word or phrase, used ble as they are, I may contribute somewhat to the by a reciter, however uncouth or antiquated. Such history of my native country; the peculiar features barbarisms, which stamp upon the tales their age of whose manners and character are daily melting and their nation, should be respected by an editor, and dissolving into those of her sister and ally. And, as the hardy emblem of his country was venerated trivial as may appear such an offering to the manes by the Poet of Scoiland:
of a kingdom, once proud and independent, I hang " The rough bur thistle spreading wide
it upon her altar with a mixture of feelings which I
shall not attempt to describe.
“Hail, Land of spearmen! seed of those who scorn'd
To stoop the proud crest to Imperial Rome! The meaning of such obsolete words is usually
Hail! dearest half of Albion, sea-wall'd! given at the bottom of the page. For explanation Hailt state unconquer'd by the fire of war, of the more common peculiarities of the Scottish
Red war, that twenty ages roun thee blazed! dialect, the English reader is referred to the excellent
To thee, for whom my purest raptures flow,
Kneeling with filial homage, I devote glossary annexed to the best editions of Burns's
My life, my strength, my first and latest song." works. The Third Class of Ballads are announced to the
* Now, to the great loss of literature, and of his friends, no public, as MODERN IMITATIONS of the Ancient style + [" In 1801, when Mr. Lewis published his Tales of Wonder, of composition, in that department of poetry; and Leyden was a contributor to that collection, and furnished the they are founded upon such traditions, as we may ballad of the Elf king. And in the following year be employed şuppose in the elder times would have employed the himself earnestly in the congenial task of procuring materials for harps of the minstrels. This kind of poetry has been the Editor of that collection. In this labour, he was cerrally intesupposed capable of uniting the vigorous numbers rested by friendship for the Editor, and by his own patriosie zeal and wild fiction, which occasionally charm us in the for the honour of the Scottish Borders, and both may be judged of ancient ballad, with a greater equaliiy of versification, been obtained of an ancient historical ballad, but the remainder, and elegance of sentiment, than we can expect to find to the great disturbance of the Editor and bis coadjutor, was not in the works of a rude age. But upon my ideas of to be recovered. Two days afterwards, while the Editor was sitļhe nature and difficulty of such imitations, I ought thing with some company after dinner, a sound was heard at a in prudence to be silent; lest I resemble the dwarf
, rigging of the vessel which scuds before it. The sounds increased who brought with him a standard to measure his as they approached more near, and Leyden (to the great astonishown stature. I may, however, hint at the difference, ment of such of the guests as did not hnow him) burat into the not always attended to, betwixt the legendary po- gesture, and all the energy of the saw tones of his voice, already ems and real imitations of the old ballad; the reader commemorated. It turned out, that he had walked between forty will find specimens of both in the modern part of and titly miles and back again, for the sole purpose of visiting an this collection. The legendary poem, called Glen-oll person who possessed this precious remnant of antiquity: His finlas, and the ballad, entitled the Ere of St. John, erted for the support of this undertaking to the former, the were designed as examples of the difference betwixt reader owes in a great measure, the Dissertation on Fury Superthese two kinds of composition.
stition, which, although arranged and digested by the Editor, It would have the appearance of personal vanity, had read, and was onginally compiled by him, and to the latter,
abounds with instances of such curious reading as Leyden alone were the Editor to detail the assistance and encou
the spirited ballaris entitled Lord Soulis, and the Court of Keel ragement which he has received, during his under dar."-- Biographical Menoir of Dr. Leyden, in Sir Walter taking, from some of the first literary characters of Scotrs Miscellaneous Prose Works.) our age. The names of Steuart, Mackenzie, Ellis, vered. This pem was a great favourite with Sir Walter Scott,
: From Albania, (1742,) whose author has never been discos Currie, and Ritson, with many others, are talismans who often read it aloud in his evening eirele. He used to say it too powerful to be used, for bespeaking the world's was most likely the early effort af some gentleman. who, rising favour to a collection of old songs; even although subsequently to eminence in a grave profession, was afraid of cona veteran bard has remarked, "that both the great original thin folio is very rare-but Dr. Leyden reprinted the piece
tessing that he had ever indulged in the light sin of verse. The poet of Italian rhyme, Petrarch, and our Chaucer, I in his “Scottish Descriptive Poems," 1903, 12mo.-ED.)