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spirits, that I think any stimulus short of the risk | beaver of a Quaker. I insist the more on this, for of being shot or drowned would fail of rousing him the benefit of those of the fireside at ***, who to any exertion. The best is, that a rival on the are accustomed to take their ideas of a fine street land proves a certain remedy for the sorrows of the from Portland-place, or from the George Street of sea; and I do not think that even your materia Edinburgh, where a long and uniform breadth of medica could supply any other.

causeway extends between two rows of ordinary Suppose your brother then landed among the houses of three stories, whose appearance is renmynheers and yafrows of Holland and Belgium, dered mean by the disproportioned space which as it is now the fashion to call what, before our divides them, and tame from their unadorned uniportentous times, was usually named Flanders. formity. Strange sights meet his eyes; strange voices sound If you talk, indeed, of comforts, I have no doubt in his ears; and yet, by a number of whimsical that the internal arrangements of the last-named associations, he is eternally brought back to the ranges of dwellings is infinitely superior to those of land of his nativity. The Flemings, in particular, the ancient Flemings, where the windows are freresemble the Scotch in the cast of their features, quently high, narrow, and dark; where the rooms the sound of their language, and apparently, in their open into each other in such a manner as seems to habits of living, and of patient industry. They are, render privacy impossible; where you sometimes to be sure, a century at least behind in costume and pass into magnificent saloons, through the meanest manners; but the old chateau, consisting of two or and darkest of all possible entrances; and where a three narrow houses, joined together by the gables, splendid corridore conducts you, upon other occawith a slender round turret ascending in the centre sions, to a room scarce worthy of being occupied as of the building, for the purpose of containing the a pig-sty, -by such pigs at least whose limbs are staircase, is completely in the old style of Scottish bred in England. It is for the exterior alone that dwelling houses. Then the avenue, and the acre or I claim the praise of dignity and romantic charactwo of ground, planted with fruit trees in straight ter; and I cannot but think, that, without in the lines; the garden with high hedges, clipped by the least neglecting the interior division necessary for gardener's art into verdant walls; the intermixture domestic comfort, some of these beauties might, of statues and vases; the fountains and artificial with great advantage, be adopted from the earlier pieces of water, may still be seen in some of our school of architecture. Thai of the present day ancient mansions; and, to my indifferent taste, are seems to me too much to resemble the pinched and no unnatural decorations in the immediate vicinity pared foot of the ambitious Princess, who submitted of a dwelling-place, and infinitely superior to the io such severe discipline, in order to force her toes meagerness of bare turf and gravel. At least they into the memorable glass slipper. seem peculiarly appropriate to so flat a country as These marks of ancient wealth, and burgher-like Belgium, which, boasting no objects of natural opulence, do indeed greatly excel what could be beauty or grandeur, and being deprived in a great expected from the architecture of Scotland at the measure, even of the grace of living streams of same period. But yet, to return to the point from water, must necessarily supply these deficiencies by which I set out, there is something in the height the exertions of art. Nor does their taste appear of the houses, and the mode of turning their gables to have changed since the days of William III. toward the streets which involuntarily reminds me There seem to be few new houses built; and the of what the principal street of our northern capital old chateaux, and grounds around them, are main- ' was when I first recollect il. tained in the original style in which they were con If you enter one of these mansions, the likeness structed. Indeed, an appearance of antiquity is one is far from disappearing. The owner, if a man of of the inost distinguishing features which strike the family, will meet you with his scraggy neck rising traveller in the Low Countries. Dates, as far in shrivelled longitude out of the folds of a ibinly. back as the fifteenth, and even fourteenth

centuries, plaited stock. The cut of his coat, of his waistcoat, are inscribed upon the front of many of the houses, his well-preserved cocked-hat, his periwig, and both in the country and in the towns and vilages. camblet riding-coat, his mode of salutation, the kiss And although I offended your national pride, my bestowed on each side of the face, all remind you dear sister, when I happened to observe, that the of the dress and manners of the old Srotch laird. Scotch, who are supposed to boast more than other The women are not, I think, so handsome as my nations of their ancient descent, in reality know fair countrywomen, or my walks and visits were less of their early history than any other people in unfortunate in the specimens they presented of Europe, yet, I think, you will allow, that our borough female beauty; but, then you have the old dress, towns afford few visible monuments of the high with the screen or mantle hanging over the head, claims we set up to early civilization.

and falling down upon each shoulder, which was Our neighbours, the English are not much more formerly peculiar to Scotland. The colour of this fortunate in this respect, unless we take into the mantle is indeed different-in Scotland it was usuaccount the fortresses built for the purpose of de-ally tartan, and in Flanders it is uniformly black. fence on the frontiers of Wales and Scotland, or The inhabitants say they derive the use of it from their ancient and beautiful churches. But we look the Spaniards, of whose dominions their country in vain for antiquity in the houses of the middling was so long a principal part. The dress and fearanks; for the mansions of the country gentlemen, tures of the lower class bear also a close renemand the opulent burghers of the fifteenth and six- blance to those of Scotland, and favour the idea teenth centuries, have, generally speaking, long held by most antiquaries, that the lowlanders, at since given place to the architecture of the earlier least, are a kindred tribe. The constant intercourse part of the last age, or the more fantastic structures our ancestors maintained with Flanders, from of our own day. It is in the streets of Antwerp which, according to contemporary accounts, they and Brussels that the eye still rests upon the forms derived almost every article which required the of architecture which appear in the pictures of the least skill in manufacture, must have added greatly Flemish school; those fronts, richly decorated with to those points of original similarity. various ornaments, and terminating in roofs, the The Flemings are said to be inferior to their neighslope of which is concealed from the eye by win- bours of Holland in the article of scrupulous attendows and gables still more highly ornamented; the tion to cleanliness. But their cottages are neat and whole comprising a general effect, which from its comfortable, compared to those of our country; grandeur and intricacy, amuses at once and delights and the garden and orchard, which usually surthe spectator. In fact, this rich intermixture of round them, give them an air of ease and snugness, to wers, and battlements, and projecting windows, far preferable to the raw and uninviting appearance highly sculptured, joined to the height of the houses, of a Scotch cottage, with its fractured windows and the variety of ornament upon their fronts, pro- stuffed with old hats and pieces of tattered garments, duces an effect as superior to those of the lame and its door beset on one side by a dunghill, on the uniformity of a modern street, as the casque of the other by a heap of coals, or peats. warrior exhibits over the slouched broadbrimmed These statistics, my dear Margaret, rather fall in

the Laird's province than yours. But your depart. | these simple barriers, with reference to the command ments border closely upon each other; for those of each other, as well as of the neighbouring counfacts, in which he is interested as a Signeur de try, has been held, and I doubt not justly, the very Village, affect you as a Lady Bountiful, and so the perfection of military science. And, upon a nearer state of the coitages is a common topic, upon which approach, even the picturesque traveller finds some either may be addressed with propriety.

gratification. This is chiefly experienced upon his Adieu! 1 say nothing of the pad nag and poor old entrance into the town. Here, turning at a short Shock, because I am certain that whatever belongs angle into a deep and narrow avenue, running peculiarly to Paul will be the object of special care through these mounds, which at a distance seemed during his absence. But I recommend to you to so pacific and unimportant, he finds himself still take some of the good advice which you lavish upon excluded by draw-bridges and ditches, while guns, others; to remember that there are damps in Scot-placed upon the adjoining batteries, seem ready to land as well as in Holland, and that colds and slow sweep the ground which he traverses. Still moving fevers may be caught by late evening walks in our forward, he rolls over draw-bridges, whose planks own favourite climate, as well as in France or claiter under the feet of his horses, and through Belgium. Paul ever remains your affectionate vaulted arches, which resound to the eternal smack Brother.

of his driver's whip. He is questioned by whiskered sentinels, his passports carefully examined, and his

name recorded in the orderly-book; and it is only LETTER II.

after these precautions that a stranger, though as unwarlike as myself, is permitted to enter the town.

The impression is a childish one ; yet a Briton feels PAUL TO HIS COUSIN THE MAJOR.

some degree of unpleasant restraint, not only at unBergen-op-Zoom-British Attack-General Skerret--Night Scene. dergoing a scrutiny, to which he is so little accus

tomed, but even from the consciousness of entering AFTER all the high ideas, my dear Major, which a place guarded with such scrupulous minuteness. your frequent and minute and reiterated details had It is needless to tell you, my dear Major, how much given me, concerning the celebrated fortress of Ber- this is a matter of general routine in forufied places gen-op-Zoom, informer years the scene of your on the continent, and how soon the traveller beinartial exploits, I must own its exterior has sadly comes used to it as a matter of course.

But I condisappointed me. I am well enough accustomed, clude you would desire to have some account of my as you know, to read the terms of modern fortifica- first impressions upon such an occasion. To you, tion in the Gazette, and to hear them in the interest. who speak as familiarly of roaring cannon ing narratives of your military experience; and I

As maids of fifteen do of puppy-dogs, must own, that bastions and ravelins, half-moons, curtains, and palisades, have hitherto sounded in my my expectations, my disappointment, and my further ears every whit as grand and poetical as donjons sensations, will probably appear ridiculous enough. and barbicans and portcullises, and other terms of These formidable fortifications will soon be of lit. ancient warfare. But I question much if I shall here- tle consequence, and may probably be permitted to after be able to think of them with exactly the same go to decay. Bergen-op-Zoom, a frontier town of degree of respect.

the last importance, while the Princes of Orange A short reflection upon the principles of modern were only Stadtholders of the Seven united Prodefence, and upon the means which it employs, vinces, is a central part of their dominions, since might, no doubt, have saved me from the disappoint- the Netherlands have been united into a single ment which I experienced. But I was not, as it kingdom. Meantime, the town is garrisoned by a happened, prepared to expect, that the strongest body of Land-poliz, which corresponds nearly to our fortress in the Netherlands, or, for aught I know, in local militia in the mode in which it is levied. All the world, the masterpiece of Cohorn, that prince of the disposable forces of the Netherlands have been engineers, should, upon the first approach of a sent forward into France, and more are sull organstranger, prove so utterly devoid of anything strik- izing to be despatched in the same direction. ing or imposing in its aspect. Campbell is, I think, In the evening, by permission of the commandant, the only English poet who has ventured upon the I walked round the scene of your former exploits. appropriate terms of modern fortification, and you But you must forgive me, if my attention was chiefly will not be surprised that I recollect the lines of a occupied by the more recent assault under our brave favourite author,

countryman, Lord Lyndock, which was so boldly the tower

undertaken, and so strangely disappointed, when That, like a standard bearer, frown'd

success seemed almost certain. I was accompanied Defiance on the tuving Indian power.

in my walk by a sensible native of the place, a man Beneath, each bold and promontory mound, With embra sure embussid and armour crown'd,

of Scotch descent, who spoke good English. He And arrowy trize, and wedgid ravelin,

pretended to point out with accuracy the points on Wove like a diadem its tracery round

which the various assaults were made, and the spots The lotty summit of that mountain green.

where several of the gallant leaders fell. I cannot But, in order to give dignity to his arrowy frize and rest implicit faith in his narrative, because I know, ravelin, the bard has placed his works on the edge and you know still better, how difficult it is to proof a steepy ascent. · Bergen-op-Zoom is nothing cure a just and minute account of such an enterless. Through a country as level as the surface of a prise, even from those who have been personally lake, you jolt onward in your cabriolet, passing engaged in it, and how imperfect, consequently, along a paved causeway, which, as if an inundation must

be the information derived from one who himwere apprehended, is raised upon a mound con- self had it at second hand. Some circumstances, siderably higher than the champaign district which however, may be safely taken upon my guide's it traverses. At length, you spy the top of a poor averment, because they are such as must have conlooking spire or two, not rising proudly pre-eminent sisted with his own knowledge. But, first, it may from a group of buildings, but exhibiting their be observed in general, that the history of war con slender and mean pinnacles above the surrounding tains no example of a bolder attempt; and, if it glacis, as if they belonged to a subterranean city, or failed of success, that failure only occurred after indicated the former situation of one which had been alınost all the difficulties which could have been levelled with the ground. The truth is, that the foreseen had been encountered and surmounted. In buildings of the town, being sunk to a considerable fact, the assailants, successful upon various points, depih beneath the sloping ramparts by which it is were already in possession of by far the greater surrounded and protected, are completely hidden, number of the bastions; and had they fortunately and the defences themselves, to an inexperienced been in communication with each other, so as to eye, present nothing, but huge sloping banks of have taken uniform measures for attacking the earth, cut into fanciful shapes and angles, and care- French in the town, they must have become masters felly faced with green turf. 1 69 the arrangement of l of the place. It is even confidently said, that the

Vol. I



French commandant sent his aid-de-camp to pro- station. I assure you this is no piece of imaginary pose a capitulation; but the officer being killed in scenery got up to adorn my letter, but the literal cirthe confusion, other and more favourable intelligence cumstances of my perambulation around the raminduced the Frenchman to alter his purpose. It has parts of Bergen-op-Zoom. been generally alleged, that some disorder was I presume you are now in active preparation for caused by the soldiers, who had entered the town, the Moors, where I wish you much sport. Do not finding access to the wine-houses. My conductor fail to preserve for me my due share in your fnendobstinately denied this breach of discipline. He ship, notwithstanding that, on the subject of Bergensaid, that one of the attacking columns destined to op-Zoom, I am now qualified to give you story for cross the stream which forms the harbour, had un- story. Such are the advantages which travellers happily attempted it before the tide had ebbed, and gain over their friends. My next letter to you shall were obliged to wade through when it was of con- contain more interesting, as well as more recent and siderable depth ; and he allowed, that the severity of more triumphant military details. the cold, joined to the wetting, might give them the I must not omit to mention, that in the church of appearance of intoxication. But when the prisoners Bergen-op-Zoom, a tablet of marble, erected by were put under his charge in the church, of which their brother-officers, records the names of the brave he was sexton, he declared solemnly, that he did not men who fell in the valorous, but ill-fated attack see among thein one individual who seemed affect upon this famous fortress. For them, as for their ed by liquor. Perhaps his own predilections, or a predecessors who fell at Fontenoy, the imagination natural desire to please his auditors, may have in- of the Briton will long body forth the emblematic Huenced his opinion. To resist such temptations to forms of honour and freedom weeping by their excess is not among the numerous excellencies of monuments. Once more, farewell, and remember the British soldier.

The fate of a Dutch officer in our service, who led the attack upon one of the bastions, was particularly interesting. He was a native of the town,

LETTER III. and it was pposed had been useful in furnishing hints for the attack. He led on his party with the utmost gallantry; and although the greater number of them fled, or fell, under a heavy fire-for the Retrospect--Surrender of Paris-Bourbons restored--Emigrantsenemy were by this time upon the alert-he de

Noblesse-Clergy-Liberalists. scended into the inain ditch, crossed it upon the ice, and forced his way, followed by a handful of men, The politics, my dear Peter, are of the right Scotas far as the internal defences of the place. He had tish cast. Thou knowest our old proverbial chaalready mounted the inner glacis, when he was racter of being wise behind the hand. After all, the wounded in many places, and precipitated into the wisdom which is rather deduced from evenis ikan ditch; and, as his followers were unable to bring formed upon predictions, is best calculated for a him off, he remained on the ice until next morning, country politician, and smacks of the prudence, as when, being still alive, he became a prisoner to the well as of the aforesaid proverbial attribute of our French. Their first purpose was to execute him as national character. Yet, believe me, that though s a traitor, from which they were with difficulty di- more strict seclusion of the dethroned Emperor of verted by a letter from the British general, accom- France might have prevented his debarkment at panied by documents to establish how long he had Cannes, and although we and our allies might have been in the English service. The unfortunate gen- spared the perilous farce of leaving him a globe and tleman was then permitted to retire from the hos sceptre to play withal, there were, within France pital to his own house in the town, where he did not itself

, elements sufficiently jarring to produce, sooner long survive the wounds he had received.*

or later, a dreadful explosion. You daily politieians I did not, you may believe, fail to visit the unfortu- are so little in the practice of recollecting last year's nate spot, where Skerret, so celebrated for his gal news, that I may be excused recalling some leading lantry in the peninsula, Gower, Mercer, Carleton, facts to your recollection, which will serve as a text Macdonald, and other officers of rank and distinc to my future lucubrations. tion, fell upon this unfortunate occasion. I was as The first surrender of Paris had been preceded by sured that General Skerret, after receiving a severe so much doubt and by so many difficulties, that the wound by which he was disabled, gave his watch final victory seems to have been a matter not only and purse to a French soldier, requesting to be carried of exultation, but even of surprise, to the victors to the hospital; and that the ruffian dragged him themselves. This great event was regarded rather down from the banquette only to pierce him with as a gratification of the most romantic and extrahis bayonet. But I have since learned, from better vagant expectations, than as a natural consequence authority, that this gallant officer fell on the


of that course of re-action, the ebb of which brought While I listened to the details of this unhappy the allies to the gates of Paris, as its tide had caraffair, and walked slowly and sadly with my con- ried Bonaparte to those of Berlin and Vienna. ductor from one bastion to another, admiring the Pleased and happy with themselves, and dazzled strength of the defences which British valour had so with the glory of their own exploit, the victors were nearly surmounted, and mourning over the evii fate in no humour to impose harsh conditions upon the which rendered that valour fruitless, the hour of vanquished; and the French, on their part, were the evening, gradually sinking from twilight into delighted at their easy escape from the horrors of darkness, suited well with the melancholy subject of war, internal and exiernal, of siege, pillage, and my inquiries. Broad flashes of lambent lightning contribution. Bonaparte's government had of late illuminated from time to time, the bastions which become odious to the bulk of the people, by the we traversed; and the figure of my companion, a pressure of taxation, by the recurring terrors of the tall, thin, elderly man, of a grave and interesting ap- proscription, but, above all, by the repeated disaspearance, and who seemed, from his voice and man. ters which the nation had latterly sustained. The ner, deeply impressed by recollections of the melan. constitutional charter, under which the Bourbon choly events which he detailed, was such as might family were restored, was not only a valuable gift to appear to characterize their historian. A few broad those who really desired to be ensured against the and heavy drops of rain occasionally fell and ceased. re-establishment of despotism, but operated as a And to aid the general effect, we heard from below salvo to the wounded feelings of the still more nuthe hollow sollof the druins announcing the setting merous class, who wished that the crimes and calaof the watch, and the deep and sullen wer da of the inities of the Revolution should not appear to be sentinels, as they challenged those who passed their altogether thrown away, and who could now appeal * I have since been informed, from unquestionable authority, nation had not sinned and suffered in vain. The

to this Bill of Rights, as a proof that the French that this officer was not ill-treated by the French. It is remarka. ble, that he hud personally ventured into the town to ascertain the laboratory and chemical apparatus which were to possibility of success, the day before the attack was made. I have produced universal equality of rights, had in

For neither it in art or nature is,

deed exploded about the ears of the philosophical | among themselves into various classes; and the experimentalists, yet they consoled themselves with original emigrants, whose object it was to restore the privileges which had been assured to them by the royal authority by the sword, looked with disthe King upon his restoration.

like and aversion upon the various classes of exiles So though the Chemist his great secret miss,

of a later date, whoin each successive wave of the

Revolution had swept from their native land. Their Yet things well worth his toil he gains,

own list did not appear to exhibit any remarkable And doth his charge and labour pay, With good unsought, experiments by the way.

degree of talent; Hose among them whose exile

was contemporary with their manhood, were now All parties being thus disposed to be pleased with too old for public business, and those who were themselves and with each other, the occupation of younger had become, during their long residence the capital was considered as the close of the disas- abroad, strangers, in a manner, to the customs and tere which France had sustained, and converted habits of their country; while neither the aged nor into a subject of general jubilee, in which the Pari- the young had the benefit of practical experience in sians themselves rejoiced, or affected to rejoice, as public affairs. It was not among such a party, howloudly as their unbidden guests. But this desirable ever distinguished by birth, by loyalty, by devotion state of the public mind was soon overcast, and the in the royal cause, that Louis XVIII. could find, or French, left to their own reflections, began speedily hope to find, the members of an useful, active, and to exhibit symptoms both of division and dissatis- popular administration. Their ranks contained faction.

many well qualified to be the grace and ornament The first, but not the most formidable of their of a court; but few, it would seem, fitted for the causes of discontent, arose from the pretensions of support and defence of a throne. Yet who can the emigrant noblesse and clergy.

wonder, that the men who had shared the misforAt the restoration of Charles II. (to which we al- unes of their sovereign, and shown in his cause most in voluntarily resort as a parallel case,) the no- such proofs of the most devoted zeal, were called bility and gentry of England, who had espoused the around him in his first glimpse of prosperity; and cause of his father, were in a very different condi- that, while ascending the throne, he entertained țion from the emigrant nobles of France. Many towards this class of his subjects, bound to him, had indeed fallen in battle, and some few by the as they were, arbitrary sentence of the usurper's courts of justice;

"By well-tried faith, and friendsbip's holy ties," but the majority, although impoverished by fines and sequestrations, still resided upon their patrimo- the affections of a kind and grateful master? One nial estates, and exercised over their tenantry and distinguished emigrani, observing the suspicion and coltagers the rights of proprietors. Their influence, odium which so excusable a partiality awakened though circumscribed, was therefore still consider against the monarch, had the courage to urge, that, able; and had they been disposed to unite them to ensure the stability of the throne, their sentence selves into a party, separate from the other orders of of banishment should have continued by the royal the state, they had power to support the pretensions edict for ten years at least after the restoration of which they might forin. But here the steady sense the house of Bourbon. It was in vain that the adand candour, not only of Ormond and Clarendon, vocates of Louis called upon the people to observe, but of all the leading Cavaliers, induced them to that no open steps had been taken in favour of the avoid a line of conduct so tempting yet so perilous. emigrants. Their claims were made and pleaded The dangers of re-action, according to the modern upon every hand; and, if little was expressly done phrase, were no sooner sounded into the public ear, in their favour, suspicion whispered, that the time by the pamphlets and speeches of those who yet was only waited for when All could be granted with clung to a republic, than every purpose, whether of safety. These suspicions, which naturally occurred revenge, or of a selfish and separate policy, was dis, even to the candid, were carefully fostered and enowned in a manifesto, subscribed by the principal larged upon by the designing; and the distant clank Royalists, in which they professed to ascribe their of the feudal fetiers were sounded into the ears of past misfortunes, not to any particular class of their the peasants and burghers, while the uncertainty of fellow-citizens, but to the displeasure of the Al property alarmed the numerous and powerful pro mighty, deservedly visiting upon thein their own sins prietors of forfeited domains. and those of the community. Such was the decla The dislike to the clergy, and the fear of their reration of the cavaliers at that important crisis; and viving claims upon the confiscated church-lands, though there were not wanting royalistes purs et excited yet greater discontent than the king's apprepar ercellence, who, like Swift's correspondent, Sir hended partiality to the emigrants. The system of Charles Wogan, censured the conduct of Clarendon the Gallic church had been thoroughly undermined for suffering to escape so admirable an opportunity before its fall. Its constitution had been long irreto establish despotic authority in the crown, and trievably shattered ; the whole head was sick, and vest feudal power in the nobility, I need not waste the whole heart was faint. Doctrines of infidelity, words in vindicating his moderate and accommo- every where general among the higher ranks, were dating measures to my discerning friend Peter. professed by none with more publicity than by the

The scattered remnants of the French noblesse, superior orders of the clergy; and, respecting moral who survived to hail the restoration of the Bourbons, profligacy, it might be said of the church of France while they possessed no efficient power, held much as of Ilion, more lofty pretensions than had been preferred by

Inira moon ia peccatur, et ertra. the aristocracy of Britain at the Restoration. It would be unjust to subscribe to the severe allega- It is no wonder, that in a system so perverted, neition, that they had forgot nothing, and learned no-ther the real worth of many of the clergy, nor the thing, during their long exile; yet can hardly be enthusiastic zeal of others, was able to make a either doubted or wondered at, that they retained stand against the tide of popular odium, skilfully their prejudices and claims as a separate and privi- directed towards the church and its ministers by the leged class, distinguished alike by loyalty and suf- reigning demagogues. Our Catholic Highland neighferings in the cause of the exiled family, to a point bour must also pardon us, if we account the superinconsistent with the more liberal ideas of a com stitious doctrines of his church among the chief munity of rights, which, in despite both of the frenzy causes of her downfall. The necessity of manning of the Revolution and the tyranny of Bonaparte, outworks, which are incapable of being effectually had gradually gained ground among the people at defended, adds not a little to the perplexities of a large. And, while the once privileged classes main- besieged garrison. Thus the sarcasms and sneers, tained such pretensions, they were utterly devoid of justified, at least in our heretical eyes, by some part the means of effectually asserting them. Long years of the Catholic doctrines, opened the way for univerof banishment had broken off their connexion with sal contempt of the Christian system. At any rate, the soil of France, and their influence over those by nothing is more certain, than that a general prejuwhom it is cultivated. They were even divided dice was, during the Revolution, successfully excited


against the clergy, and that, among the lower Pari- greater facilities than the restoration of the military sians in particular, it still exists with all its violence. despotism of Bonaparte. Even to the very last moEven on the day when the rabble of the Fauxbourgs ment, Fouché is said to have looked round for some hailed the triumphal return of Bonaparte to his mezzo termine, some means of compromise, which throne, their respect for the hero of the hour did not might render unnecessary the desperate experiment prevent them from uttering the most marked ex of the emperor's restoration. When Napoleon had pressions of dislike and contempt when Cardinal landed, and was advancing towards Lyons, Fouché Fesch appeared in the procession. The cry was demanded an audience of the king upon important general, A bas la calotte ! and the uncle of the re- business. The interview was declined, but two nostored emperor was obliged to dismount from his blemen were appointed by Louis to receive his compalfrey, and hide himself in a carriage.

munication. He adverted to the perilous situation The king and the Comte D'Artois are, in their of the king: and offered even yet, provided his terms distresses, understood to have sought and found were granted, to arrest Napoleon's progress towards consolation in the exercise of religious duties. They the capital. The ministers required to know the continued, in gratitude, those devotions which they means which he meant to employ. He declined to had commenced in humble submission, and their state them, but professed himself confident of sucregard was naturally extended to the ministers of cess. On his terms he was less reserved. He anthat religion which they professed and practised. nounced them to be, that the Duke of Orleans Conduct in itself so estimable, was, in the unhappy should be proclaimed lieutenant-general of the state of the public mind, misrepresented to their kingdom ; and that Fouché himself and his party Bubjects. The landholders were alarmed by fear of should immediately be called to offices of trust and the re-establishment of lithes; the labouring poor, power. These terms were of course rejected ; but and the petty shopkeeper, regarded the enforcing it was the opinion of the well-informed person from the long-neglected repose of the Sabbath, as a tax whom I had this remarkable anecdote, that Fouche upon their industry and time, amounting to the hire would have been able to keep his word. of one day's labour out of the seven. The proprie His recipe was not, however, put to the test ; and tors of church lands were alarmed, more especially he and his party immediately acceded to the conspiwhen the rash zeal of some of the priesthood re: racy, and were forced onward by those formidable fused the offices of the church to those who had agents, of whom it may be observed, that, like fire acquired its property. The Protestants in the south and water, they are excellent servants, but dreadful of France remembered the former severities exer- masters, -I mean the army, whose state, under the cised against them by the sovereigns of the house Bourbons, deserves the consideration of a separate of Bourbon, and trembled for their repetition under epistle.--Ever, my dear friend, I remain sincerely a dynasty of monarchs, who professed the Catholic yours, faith with sincerity and zeal. · Add to these the pro

PAUL fligate who hate the restraints of religion, and the unthinking, who ridicule its abstracted doctrines, and you will have some idea how deeply this cause

LETTER IV. operated in rendering the Bourbons unpopular.

Those who dreaded, or pretended to dread, the innovations which might be effected by the influence of the clergy and the nobles,-a class which in- Retrospect--the ArmyUnpopularity of Louis-the Army dis cluded, of course, all the old partizans of democra satisfied-Irritation of the French-Departure of Allied Troops tical principles, -assumed the name of Constitution -- Insults offered to Foreigners-Hostile Feelings of Govern alisis, and afterwards of Liberalists. The one was

ment-Conspiracy in the Army-Bonaparte's Return-the Army

join him-hid Arrival at Paris--all hopes of Peace remored derived from their great zeal for the constitutional Liberals join Bonaparte--the Royalists. charter; the other from their affected superiority to the prejudices of ancient standing. Their ranks I left off in my last with some account of the afforded a convenient and decent place of refuge for Constitutionalists, Liberalists, or whatsoever they all those, who, having spent their lives in opposing are called, who opposed, from various causes, the the Bourbon interest, were now compelled to submit measures of Louis XVIII., without having originally to a monarch of that family. They boasted, that it any purpose of throwing themselves into the arms was not the person of the king to which they sub- of Bonaparte. To this desperate step they were mitted, but the constitution which he had brought probably induced by the frank and universal adhein his hand. Their party contained many partizans, sion of the army to the commander under whom especially among men distinguished by talent. De- they had so often conquered. No man ever better mocracy, according to Burke, is the foodful nurse understood both how to gain and how to maintain of ambition; and men, who propose to rise by the himself in the hearts of his soldiers than Bonaparte. mere force of their genius, naturally favour that form Brief and abrupt in his speech, austere and inaccesof government which offers fewest restraints to their sible in his manners to ihe rest of his subjects, he career. This party was also united and strengthened was always ready to play the bon camarade with by possessing many of those characters who had his soldiers; to listen to their complaints, to redress played the chief parts in the Revolution, and who their grievances, and even to receive their sugees. were fitted, both by talents and experience, to under- tions. This accessibility was limited to the privates stand and conduct the complicated ramifications of and inferior officers. To the mareschals and genepolitical intrigue.

rals he was even more distant and haughty than to Among those best qualified to "ride on the whirl- his other subjects. Thus he connected himself in. wind and direct the storm,"

was the celebrated timately and personally with the main body of the Fouché, Duke of Otranto, whose intimate acquaint- army itself

, but countenanced no intermediate faance with every intrigue in France had been ac-vourite, whose popularity among the troops might quired when he exercised the office of minister of interfere with his own. the police under the emperor. There is every reason To the motives of personal attachment, so de ply to think that this person had no intention of push- rooted, and so indusiriously fostered, must be added ing opposition into rebellion ;, and that it was only the confidence of the soldiers in military talente so his purpose to storm the cabinet, not to expel the brilliantly displayed, and in the long course of vicmonarch. It cannot be denied, that there were tory which had identified the authority of Napoleon among the Liberalists, the materials for forming with the glory of the French arms. "To a train of what is called in England a constitutional opposi- the most uniform and splendid success, they might tion, who, by assailing the ministry in the two indeed have opposed the reverses of the peninsular Chambers, might have compelled them to respect war, or the disastrous retreat from Moscow and the the charter of the constitution; and to those amongst battle of Leipsic, with all the subsequent reverses; them, who were actuated either by the love of ra- but, as soldiers and as Frenchmen, they were little tional liberty, or by a niodified and regulated spirit inclined to dwell upon the darker shades of the reof ambition, the reign of the Bourbons afforded much I trospect. Besides, partiality and national vanity

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