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good alone Iş good, without a name ; vileness is so.] Shakespeare may mean that exter. sal circumstances have no pov over the real nature of things. Good alone (by it self) without a name (without the addition of tities) is good. Vileness is so (is itself.) Either of tirem is what its name implies.
“Let's write good angel on the devil's horn,
STEEVENS. Good is good, independent on any worldly distinction or title: 80 vileness is vile, in whatever state it may appear.
MALONE. TWELFTH NIGHT. P. 103. ---madonna,] Ital. mistress, dame. So, La maddona, by way of pre-emiBence, the Blessed Virgin.
STEEVENS. P. 104. --- most weak pia mater] The pia mater is the membrane that immediately covers the substance of the brain.
STEEVENS. P. 125. Daylight and champain discovers not more :) i. e. broad
an open country cannot make things plainer.
WARBURTON. P 130. Then westward hoe :) This is the name of a comedy by T. Decker, 1607. He was assisted in it by Webster, and it was acted with great success by the children of Paul's, on whoin Shakespeare has bestowed such notice in Hamiel, that we may be sure they were rivals to the company patronized by himself. STEEVENS.
P. 132. Look, where the youngest wren of nine comes,] The women's parts were then acted by boys, sometimes so low in stature, that there was occasion to obviate the impropriety by such kind of oblique apologies.
WARBURTON. The wren generally lays nine or ten eggs at a time, and the last batched of all birds are usually the smallest and weakest of the whole brood. STEEVENS.
P. 137. ---Play at cherry-pit--) Cherry-pil is pitching cherry-stones into a little hole. Nash, speaking of the paint on ladies' faces, says: “ You may play at cherrypit in their cheeks.”
STEEVENS. P. 188. More matter for a May morning.) It was usual on the first of May to exhi. bit metrical interludes of the comic kind, as well as the morris-dance.
P. 154. Like to the Egyptian thief, at point of death,
Kill what I love ;] In this simile, a particular story is presupposed, which ought to be known to show the justness and propriety of the comparison. It was taken from Heliodorus's Æthiopics, to which our author was indebted for the allusion. This “ Egyptian thief” was Thyamis, who was a native of Memphis, and at the head of a band of robbers. Theagenes and Chariclea falling into their hands, Thyamis fell desperately in love with the lady, and would have inarried her. Soon after, a stronger body of robbers coming down upon Thyamis's party, he was in such fears for his mistress, that he had her shut into a cave with his treasure. It was customary with those barbarians, when they despaired of their own safety, first to make away with those whom they held dear, and desired for companions in the next life. Thyamis, therefore, benetted round with his enemies, raging with love, jealousy, and anger, went to his cave; and calling aloud in the Egyptian tongae, so soon as he heard himself answered towards the cave's mouth by a Grea cian, making to the person by the direction of her voice, he caught her by the hair with his left hand, and (supposing her to be Charictea) with his right hand plunged his sword into her breast.
P. 159. ---You must allow vox.] The Clown, we may presume, had begun to read the letter in a very loud tone, and probably with extravagant gesticulation. Being reprimanded by his mistress, he justifies himself by saying, “ If you would have it read in character, as such a mad epistle ought to be read, you must permit me to as sume a frantic tone."
P. 176. We must be neat ;] Leontes, seeing his son's nose smutch'd, cries, we must be neat ; then recollecting ihat neat is the ancient term for horned cattle, he says, not neat, but deanly.
JOHNSON. P. 177. Affection! thy intention stabs the centre) Affection, I believe, signifies ima gination. Thus, in the Merchant of Venice:
affection, Mistress of passion, sways it," &c. i. e. imagination governs our passions. Intention is, as Mr. Locke expresses it, “ when the mind with great earnestness, and of choice, fixes its view on any idea, considers it on every side, and will not be called off by the ordinary solicitations of other ideas." This vehemence of the mind seerns to be what affects Leontes so deeply, or in Shakespeare's language ---stabs him to the centre.
STEEVENS. P. 188. A sad tale's best for winter :) Hence, I suppose, the title of the play.
TYRWHITT. P. 217. My traffic is sheets ;] Autolycus means that his practice was to steal sheets and large pieces of linen, leaving the smaller pieces for the kites to build with.
M. MASON When the good women, in solitary cottages near the woods where kites build, miss any of their lesser linen, as it bangs to dry on the hedge in spring, they conclude that the kite has been marauding for a lining to her nest; and there adventurous boys often find it employed for that purpose.
HOLT WHITE. P. 223. Then make your garden rich in gilly flowers,) There is some further conceit relative to gilly flowers than has yet been discovered. The old copy, (in both instances where this word occurs.) reads---Gilly'vors, a term still used by low people in Sussex, to denote a barlot. I suppose gill-Airt to be derived, or rather corrupted, from gily-flower or carnation, which, though beautiful in its appearance, is apt, in the gardener's phrase, to run from its colours, and change as often as a licentious female.
P. 226. ---the sleeve-hand, and the work about the square on't.) The word sleedehands occurs in Leland's Collectanea, 1770 : “ A surcoat (of crimson velvet) furred with mynever pure, the collar, skirts, and sleeve-hunds garnished with ribbons of gold.” So, in Coigrave's Dict." Poignet de la chemise" is Englished " the wristband, or gathering at the sleeve-hand of a shirt.” I conceive, that the “work about the square on'.," signifies the work or embroidery about the bosom part of a shift, which might then have been of a square form, or might have a square tucker, as Anne Bolen and Jane Seymour have in Houbraken's engravings of the heads of illustrious persons.
TOLLET. P. 233. Where no priest shovels-in dust.] This part of the priest's office might be remembered in Shakespeare time: it was not left off till the reign of Edward VI.
FARMER. That is---in pronouncing the words “ earth to earth,” &c.
HENLEY MACBETH. P. 279. The Prince of Cumberland.) The crown of Scotland was originally not hereditary. When a successor was declared in the life-time of a king, (as was often the case, the title of Prince of Cumberland was immediately bestowed on him as the mark of his designation. Cumberland was at that time held by Scotland of the crown of England, as a fief.
STEEVENS. P. 282. ---the blanket of the dark,] Blanket was perhaps suggested to our poet by the coarse woollen curtain of his own theatre, through which probably, while the house was yet but half-lighted, he had himself often peeped.--In King Henry VI. P. III. we have--night's coverture."
MALONE. P. 285. And falls on the other.] The general image, though confusedly expressed, relates to a horse, who, overleaping himself, falls, and his rider under him.
Macbeth, as I apprehend, is meant for the rider, his intent for his borse, and his ambition for his spur ; but, unluckily, as the words are arranged, the spur is said to oder-leap itself. Such hazardous things are long-drawn metaphors in the hands of careless writers.
STEEVENS. P. 295. New hatch'd to the woeful time.] Prophecying is what is new-halch'd, and in the metaphor holds the place of the egg. The cvents are the fruit of such hatching.
STEEVENS. P. 298. -the near in blood,
The nearer bloody.) Meaning, that he suspected Macbeth to be the murderer ; for he was the nearest in blood to the two princes, being the cousin-german of Dun
STEEVENS. P. 300. ---Colmes-kill ;] Or Colm-kill, is the famous lona, one of the western isles, which Dr. Johnson visited, and describes in his Tour.
It is now called Icolmkill. Kill, in the Erse language, ngnifies a burying-place.
MALONE. P. 309. Than pity for mischance!) “I have more cause to accuse him of unkindness for his absence, than to pity him for any accident or mischance that may have occasioned it.”
P. 322. ---when we hold rumour] Hold means, in this place, to believe, as we say, I hold such a thing to be true, i. e. I take it, I believe it to be so.
When we are led by our fears to believe every rumour of danger we hear, yet are not conscious to ourselves of any crime for which we should be disturbed with those fears,
P. 18. Knight, knight, good mother,---Basilisco-like :) Faulconbridge's words bere carry a concealed piece of satire on a stupid drama of that age, prinied in 1509, and called Soliman and Perseda. In this piece there is a character of a bragging cowardly knight, called Basilisco. His pretension to valour is so blown, and seen through, that Piston, a buffoon-servant in the play, juinps upon his back, and will not disengage him, till he makes Basilisco swear upon his dudgeon dagger to the contents, and in the terms he dictates to him; as, for instance:
“ Bas. O, I swear, I swear.
Philip, when his mother calls him knave, throws off that reproach by humorously laying claim to his new dignity of knighthood.
P. 30. Do like the mutines of Jerusalem.] The mutines are the mutineers, the seditious.
Our author had probably read the following passages in A compendious and most marvelous History of the latter Times of the Jewes Cominon-Weale, &c. Written in Hebrew, by Joseph Ben Gorion---translated into English, by Peter Morwyn : " The same yeere the civil warres grew and increased in Jerusalem; for the citizens slew one another without any truce, rest, or quietnesse.---The people were divided into three parties; whereof the first and best followed Anani, the high-priest; another part followed seditious Jehochanan; the third most cruel Schimeon.---Anani, being a perfect godly man, and seeing the common-weale of Jerusalem governed by the seditious, gave over his third part, that stacke to him, to Eliasar, his sonne. Eliasar with bis companie took the Temple, and the courts about it; appointing of his men, some to be spyes, some to keep watche and warde.---But Jehochanan tooke the mar ket-place and streetes, the lower part of the citie. Then Schimeon, the Jerosolimite, tooke the highest part of the towne, wherefore his men annoyed Jehochanan's parte sore with slings and crossebowes. Between these three there was also most cruel battailes in Jerusalem for the space of four daies.
** Titus' campe was about sixe furlongs from the towne. The next morrow they of tbe towne seeing Titus to be encarnped upon the mount Olivet, the captaines of the seditious assembled together, and fell at argument, every man with another, intending to turne their cruelty upon the Romaines, confirming and ratifying the same atonement and purpose, by swearing one to another ; and so became peace among them. Wherefore joyning together, that before were three severall parts, they set open the gates, and the best of them issued out with an horrible noyse and shoute, that they made the Romaines afraide withall, in such wise that they fled before the seditious, which sodainly did set upon them unawares.”
P. 33. ---Volquesson,] This is the ancient name for the country now called the Ver in; in Latin Pagus Velocassinus. That part of it called the Norman Vexin, was in dispute between Philip and John.
STEEVENS. P. 50. To England, if you will.] Neither the French king nor Pandulph has said. a word of England since the entry of Constance. Perhaps, therefore, in despair. she means to address the absent King John: “ Take my son to England, if you will;" now that he is in your power, I have no prospect of seeing him again. It is there forc, of no consequence to me where he is,
KING RICHARD II. P. 110. Like to a tenement, or pelting farm :) “In this 22d yeare of King Rickard (says Fabian.) the common fame ranne, that the king bad letten to farm the realme unto Sir William Scrope, earle of Wiltshire, and then treasurer of England, to Syr John Bushey, Sir John Bagot, and Sir Henery Grene, knightes."
MALONE P. 115. As blanks, benevolences, and I wot not what :) Stow records, that Richard II. * compelled all the Religious, Gentlemen, and Commons, to set their seales to blankes, to the end he might as it pleased him, oppresse them severally, or all at once : some of the Commons paid 1000 markes, some 1000 pounds," &c. Chronicle, p. 319, fol. 1639.
HOLT WHITE. P. 140. Then I must not say, no.) “The duke with a high sharpe voyce bade bring forth the king's horses, and then two little nagges, not worth forty franks, were brought forth; the king was set on the one, and the earl of Salisburie on the other : and ihus the duke brought the king from Flint to Chester, where he was delivered to the duke of Gloucesters sonne, and to the earle of Arundels sonne, (that loved him but little, for he had put their fathers to death, who led him straight to the castle." Stowe, (p. 621, edit. 1605,) from a manuscript account written by a person who was present.
MALONE P. 143. Westminster Hall.]. The rebuilding of Westminster-Hall, which Richard had begun in 1397, being finished in 1399, the first meeting of parliament in the new edifice was for the purpose of deposing him.
MALONE. P. 145. Surrey) Thomas Holland earl of Kent. He was brother to John Holland duke of Exeter, and was created duke of Surrey in the 21st year of King Richard the Second, 1397. The dukes of Surrey and Exeter were half brothers to the King, being sons of his mother Joan, (daughter of Edmond earle of Kent,) who after the death of her second husband, Lord Thomas Holland, married Edward
the Black Prince.
MALONE. P. 167. The grand conspirator, abbot of Westminster,
Hath yielded up his body to the grave; This Abbot of Westminster was William de Colchester. The relation here given of his death, after Holinshed's Chronicle, is untrue, as he survived the King many years; and though called the grand conspirator,” it is very doubtful whether he had any concern in the conspiracy; at least nothing was proved against him.
RITSON. P. 168. Carlisle, this is your doom) This prelate was committed to the Tower, out on the intercession of his friends, obtained leave to change his prison for Westminster Abbey. In order to deprive him of his see, the Pope, at the King's instance, translated him to a bishopric in partibus in fidelium; and the only.preferment he could ever after obtain, was a rectory in Gloucestershire. He died in 1409.
HENRY IV. PART I.
P. 175. ---the prisoners,) Percy had an exclusive right to these prisoners, except the Earl of Fife. By the law of arms, every man who had taken any captive, whose redemption did not exceed ten thousand crowns, had him clearly for himself, either to acquit or ransom, at his pleasure. It seems from Camden's Britannia, that Pounouny castle in Scotland was built out of the ransome of this very Henry Percy, when taken prisoner at the battle of Otterbourne by an ancestor of the present Earl of Eglington.
TOLLET. Percy could not refuse the Earl of Fife to the King; for being a prince of the blood royal, (son to the Duke of Albany, brother to King Robert I11.) Henry might justly claiın him by his acknowledged military prerogative. STEEVENS.
P. 176. Phabus ---he, that wandering knight so fair.) Falstaff starts at the idea of Phæbus, i. e. the sun; but deviates into an allusion to El Donzel del Febo, the knight of the sun in a Spanish Romance translated (under the title of The Mirror of Knighthood, &c.) during the age of Shakespeare. This illustrious personage was " most excellently fairc," and a great wanderer, as those who travel after him throughout three thick volumes in 4to. will discover.
STEEVENS. P. 179. ---sir John Sack-and-Sugar.] Much inquiry has been made about Falstafi's sack, and great surprize has been expressed that he should have mixed sugar with it. As they are here mentioned for the first time in this play, it may not be improper to observe, that it is probable that Falstaff's wine was Sherry, a Spanish
wine, originally made at Xerex. He frequently himself calls it Sherris-sack. Nor will his mixing sugar with sack appear extraordinary, when it is known that it was a very common practice in our author's time to put sugar into all wines. * Clownes and vulgar men (says Fynes Moryson) only use large drinking of beer or ale ---but gentlemen garrawse only in wine, with which they mix sugar, which I never observed in any other place or kingdom for that purpose. And because the taste of the English is thus delighted with sweetness, the wines in taverns (for I speak not of merchantes' or gentlemen's cellars) are commonly mixed at the filling thereof, to make them pleasant."
MALONE. P. 184. His brother-in-law, the foolish Mortimer ;] Shakespeare has fallen into some contradictions with regard to this Lord Mortimer. Before he makes his personal appearance in the play, he is repeatedly spoken of as Hotspur's brother-inlaw. In Act II. Lady Percy expressly calls him her brother Mortimer. And yet when he enters in the third Act, he calls Lady Percy his aunt, which in fact she was, and not his sister. This inconsistence may be accounted for as follows. It appears from Dugdale's and Sandford's account of ihe Mortimer famiiy, that there were two of them taken prisoners at different times by Glendower ; each of thein bearing the name of Edmund; one being Edmund earl of March, nephew to Lady Percy, and the proper Mortimer of this play; the other, Sir Edmund Mortimer, uncle to the former, and brother to Lady Percy. Shakespeare confounds the two persons.
STEEVENS. Another cause also may be assigned for this confusion. Henry Percy, according to the accounts of our old historians, married Eleanor, the sister of Roger earl of March, who was the father of the Edmund earl of March, that appears in the present play. But this Edmund had a sister likewise named Eleanor. Shakespeare might, therefore, have at different times confounded these two Eleanors. In fact, however, the sister of Roger earl of March, whom young Percy married, was called Elizabeth.
P. 198. How now, Kate?) Shakespeare either mistook the name of Hotspur's wife, (which was not Katharine but Elizabeth,) or else designedly changed it, out of the remarkable fondness he seems to have had for the familiar appellation of Kate, which he is never weary of repeating, when he has once introduced it; as in this sci·ne, the scene of Katharine and Petruchio, and the courtship between King Flenry V. and the French Princess. The wife of Hotspur was the Lady Elizabeth Mortimer, sister to Roger Earl of March, and aunt to Edmund Earl of March, who is introduced in this play by the name of Lord Mortimer.
STEEVENS. P. 206. ---in Kendal Green,] Kendal-green was the livery of Robert Earl of Hun. tington and his followers, while they remained in a state of outlawry, and their leader assumed the title of Robin Hood.
STEEVENS. P. 208. Give him as much as will make him a royal man.) He that received a noble was, in cant language, called a nobleman; in this sense the Prince catches the word, and bids the landlady give him as much as will make him a royal man,' that is, a real or royal man, and send him away.
JOHNSON, The royal went for 10s.---the noble only for 6s. and 8d.
TYRWHITT. This seems to be an allusion to a jest of Queen Elizabeth. Mr. John Blower, in a sermon before her majesty, first said : “My royal Queen," and a little after: "My no. ble Queen." Upon which says the Queen : * What, am I ten grouts worse than I was?”
· P. 223. Thy place in council thou hast rudely lost,] The Prince was removed from being President of the Council, immediately after he struck the Lord Chief Justice Gascoigne.
'MALONE. P. 227. Lord Mortimer of Scotland hath sent word,] There was no such person as Lord Mortimer of Scotland ; but there was a Lord March of Scotland. (George Dunbar,) who having quitted his own country in disgust, attached himself so warmly to the English, and did them such signal services in their wars with Scotland, that the Parliament petitioned the King to bestow some reward on him. He fought on the side of Henry in this rebellion, and was the means of saving his life at the battle of Shrewsbury, as is related by Holinshed. This, no doubt, was the lord whom Shakespeare designed to represent in the act of sending friendly intelligence to the King -Our author had a recollection that there was in these wars a Scottish lord on the King's side, who bore the same title with the English family, on the rebel side, (one being the Earl of March in England, the other, Earl of March in Scotland,) but his memory deceived him
as to the particular name which was common to them both. He took il to be Mortimer, instead of March.
STEEVENS. VOL. X