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said courts, but out of their actual view, is punished only with fine and imprisonment?.

Not only such as are guilty of an actual violence, but of [ 126 ] threatening or reproachful words to any judge sitting in the courts, are guilty of a high misprision, and have been punished with large fines, imprisonment, and corporal punishment'. (9) And even in the inferior courts of the king, an affray or contemptuous behaviour is punishable with a fine by the judges there sitting; as by the steward in a court-leet, or the like.

LIKEWISE all such, as are guilty of any injurious treatment to those who are immediately under the protection of a court of justice, are punishable by fine and imprisonment: as if a man assaults or threatens his adversary for suing him, a counsellor or attorney for being employed against him, a juror for his verdict, or a gaoler or other ministerial officer for keeping him in custody, and properly executing his duty": which offences, when they proceeded farther than bare threats, were punished in the Gothic constitutions with exile and forfeiture of goods ".

Lastly, to endeavour to dissuade a witness from giving evidence; to disclose an examination before the privy council; or, to advise a prisoner to stand mute (all of which are impediments of justice); are high misprisions, and contempts of the king's courts, and punishable by fine and imprisonment. And antiently it was held, that if one of the grand jury disclosed to any person indicted the evidence that appeared against him, he was thereby made accessory to the offence, if felony: and in treason a principal. And at this day it is agreed, that he is guilty of a high misprision', and liable to be fined and imprisoned'. 2 Cro. Car. 373.

& Stiernh. de jure Goth. l. 3. c. 3. a Ibid.503.

• See Bar. 212. 27 Ass. pl. 44. $ 4. 0 1 Hawk. P. C. c.21. s. 10.

fol. 138. ( 3 Inst. 141, 142.

F1 Hawk. P. C. c.21. s.15. (9) It has been determined, that a judge sitting at nisi prius has the power of fining even a defendant conducting his own defence to a criminal charge, for contempt of the court in the course of that defence. R. v. Davison, + B. & A. 329.

CHAPTER THE TENTH.

OF OFFENCES AGAINST PUBLIC

JUSTICE.

THE order of our distribution will next lead us to take into

consideration such crimes and misdemesnors as more especially affect the commonwealth, or public polity of the kingdom : which, however, as well as those which are peculiarly pointed against the lives and security of private subjects, are also offences against the king, as the pater familias of the nation : to whom it appertains by his regal office to protect the community, and each individual therein, from every degree of injurious violence, by executing those laws, which the people themselves in conjunction with him have enacted; or at least have consented to, by an agreement either expressly made in the persons of their representatives, or by a tacit and implied consent presumed from and proved by immemorial usage.

THE species of crimes which we have now before us, is subdivided into such a number of inferior and subordinate classes, that it would much exceed the bounds of an elementary treatise, and be insupportably tedious to the reader, were I to examine them all minutely, or with any degree of critical accuracy. I shall therefore confine myself principally to general definitions, or descriptions of this great variety of offences, and to the punishments inflicted by law for each particular offence; with now and then a few incidental observations: referring the student for more particulars to other voluminous authors; who have treated of these subjects with greater precision and more in detail, than is consistent with the plan of these Commentaries.

The crimes and misdemesnors that more especially affect the commonwealth, may be divided into five species : viz. offences against public justice, against the public peace, against [ 128 ] public trade, against the public health, and against the public police or oeconomy; of each of which we will take a cursory view in their order,

First, then, of offences against public justice: some of which are felonies, whose punishment may extend to death ; others only misdemesnors. I shall begin with those that are most penal, and descend gradually to such as are of less malignity.

1. IMBEZZLING or vacating records, or falsifying certain other proceedings in a court of judicature, is a felonious offence against public justice. It is enacted by statute 8 Hen. VI. c. 12. that if any clerk, or other person, shall wilfully take away, withdraw, or avoid any record, or process in the superior courts of justice in Westminster-hall, by reason whereof the judgment shall be reversed or not take effect; it shall be felony not only in the principal actors, but also in their procurers and abettors. And this may be tried either in the king's bench or common pleas, by a jury de medietate : half officers of any of the superior courts, and the other half common jurors. Likewise by statute 21 Jac. I. c. 26. to acknowledge any fine, recovery, deed enrolled, statute, recognizance, bail, or judgment, in the name of another person not privy to the same, is felony without benefit of clergy. (1) Which law extends only to proceedings in the courts themselves: but by statute 4 W. & M. c. 4. to personate any other person (as bail) before any judge of assize or other commissioner authorized to take bail in the country, is also felony. For no man's property would be safe, if records might be suppressed or falsified, or persons' names be falsely usurped in courts, or before their public officers.

2. To prevent abuses by the extensive power, which the law is obliged to repose in gaolers, it is enacted by statute

(1) But the attainder does not work any corruption of blood, or forfeiture of dower

14 Edw. III. c. 10. that if any gaoler by too great duress of

imprisonment makes any prisoner, that he hath in ward, be[ 129 ] come an approver or an appellor against his will: that is, as we

shall see hereafter, to accuse and turn evidence against some other person ; it is felony in the gaoler. For, as sir Edward Coke observes, it is not lawful to induce or excite any man even to a just accusation of another; much less to do it by duress of imprisonment: and least of all by a gaoler, to whom the prisoner is committed for safe custody.

cess.

3. A THIRD offence against public justice is obstructing the execution of lawful process. This is at all times an offence of a very high and presumptuous nature; but more particularly so, when it is an obstruction of an arrest upon criminal pro

And it hath been holden, that the party opposing such arrest becomes thereby particeps criminis: that is, an accessory in felony, and a principal in high treason." (2) Formerly one of the greatest obstructions to public justice, both of the civil and criminal kind, was the multitude of pretended privileged places, where indigent persons assembled together to shelter themselves from justice, (especially in London and Southwark), under the pretext of their having been antient palaces of the crown, or the like“: all of which sanctuaries for iniquity are now demolished, and the opposing of any process therein is made highly penal, by the statutes 8 & 9 W. III. c. 27., 9 Geo. I. c. 28., and 11 Geo. I. c. 22., which enact, that persons opposing the execution of any process in such pretended privileged places within the bills of mortality, or abusing any officer in his endeavours to execute his duty therein, so that he receives 1 3 Inst. 91.

virons; the Savoy; and the Mint in • 2 Hawk.P.C. c.17. s.l.

Southwark. « Such as White-Friers, and its en

(2) It seems that there must be a knowledge of the party's guilt of the particular species of offence, to implicate the person opposing his arrest, as accessary to the crime (see Hawkins in the place cited); though where the party is actually in the custody of an accredited officer, as a constable or sheriff, he that rescues him must at his peril take notice of the crime with which he is charged. It should, however, be understood in all these cases, that where clergy is taken away from the original felony by statute, the person so hindering his arrest shall still have his clergy. i Hale P.C.606. See the 1&2G. 4. C. 88. p. 131. 7.(6).

bodily hurt, shall be guilty of felony, and transported for seven years: and persons in disguise, joining in or abetting any riot or tumult on such account, or opposing any process, or assaulting and abusing any officer executing or for having executed the same, shall be felons without benefit of clergy. (3)

4. An escape of a person arrested upon criminal process by eluding the vigilance of his keepers before he is put in hold is also an offence against public justice, and the party himself is punishable by fine or imprisonment. But the officer permitting such escape, either by negligence or connivance, is much [ 130 ] more culpable than the prisoner; the natural desire of liberty pleading strongly in his behalf, though he ought in strictness of law to submit himself quietly to custody, till cleared by the due course of justice. Officers therefore who, after arrest, negligently permit a felon to escape, are also punishable by fine®: but voluntary escapes, by consent and connivance of the officer, are a much more serious offence: for it is generally agreed that such escapes amount to the same kind of offence, and are punishable in the same degree as the offence of which the prisoner is guilty, and for which he is in custody, whether treason, felony, or trespass. And this whether he were actually committed to gaol, or only under a bare arrest." But the officer cannot be thus punished, till the original delinquent hath actually received judgment or been attainted upon verdict, confession, or outlawry, of the crime for which he was so committed or arrested : otherwise it might happen, that the officer might be punished for treason or felony, and the person arrested and escaping might turn out to be an innocent man. But, before the conviction of the principal party, the officer thus neglecting his duty may be fined and imprisoned for a misdemesnor 8. (4) 2 Hawk. P.C. c. 17. s.5.

$ 1 Hal. P.C. 598, 9.

2 Hawk. e i Hal. P.C. 600.

P.C. c. 19. s.26. fi Hal. P. C. 590. 2 Hawk, P.C. c.19. s. 22.

(3) The 9G.1.c.28., by which the capital punishment was imposed upon the offence last described, has been repealed in that part by the 1 G. 4. c. 116. (4) The offence for which the party is in custody must be a capital crime

at

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