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looked with an enquiring eye at the “ After these miscreants, men," poor fellow, wbo appeared worn to cried I, having previously ordered the bone with illness, so that I was ten hands back to cover the boats puzzled to understand how Sprawl _“after them, and drive them from had brought him with him; but I the jungle.” took his hint, and presently the ca. “Hurrah!” We shoved along the nine rear-guard beat a retreat, and narrow path through which the all was quiet for a time.

enemy had vanished, and the first We now spiked the cannon and thing we overtook was one poor capsized them into the mud, where devil shot through the neck, writhing they instantly sank, and I had time to in agony, and endeavouring to extri. look around on the scene of conflict. cate himself from the sloughı. He There Jay six of our people stark was thrust through on the instant, as and stiff, countersunk into the soft unceremoniously as if he had been mud, which in two instances was gra- a crushed beetle. A little farther on dually settling over the bodies in a we encountered in another small bloody mire, while four wounded men by-track that took away to the left were struggling to extricate them- of us, three other men, evidently selves from the tenacious clay, and part of the gang, who had been pependeavouring to attain the hard foot pering us from beneath the covert of ing of the platform of planks. Three the bushes. These were shot down of them, with the assistance of their where they stood, and I cannot formessmates, did accomplish this, but get the imploring glances of the the fourth was too badly hurt, and poor fellows as they vainly beseeched too faint from the loss of blood, to our mercy, and the fearful sight of persevere, and in despair threw bim. their stretching themselves out, and self back, gasping on the bloody falling crash back amongst the quagmire.

branches when we fired. Two of “What is that?” said I, while them seemed to fall at once quite half a dozen dropping shots sparkled dead amongst the bloody leaves, but out from beneath the thick jungle, the third, shrieking aloud, bad wresand at the very instant one of the tled himself a fathom or two into boat-keepers stuck his head over the the brake before he received his stockade.

quietus from a marine, who walked " The tide has left us, sir, and close up to bim, and shot him through the mouth of the creek has not six the heart. Still we heard the shouts inches of water in it, sir. The boats of the rest of the party who had remust stick hard and fast until next treated, and were now well ahead of flood.”

us, and we pushed on in pursuitStartling enough this. What was when all at once, as if I had been to be done. To retreat, for the time, struck by the levin-brand, a flash of was out of the question, so we had light blazed across my eyes, and I no chance but in a forward demon- came to the ground by the run. stration,

LINES WRITTEN IN ANTICIPATION OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON'S ELECTION

TO THE CHANCELLORSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

Rich in the wreaths of Glory's race, full run,
Sated with spoils,-transcendent WELLINGTON,
One trophy yet awaited thee; one band
Of laurel, yet ungather'd at thy band.
Twine it about thy front, in Oxford's name,
To crown her honours and complete thy fame;
Stamp thy bold brows with Oxford's sacred sign,
Champion of Christendom !-by right 'tis thine.

W. G.
January 22, 1834.

.

PROGRESS OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION.

No. II.

TIJE TRADES' UNIONS.

Every man of common observa. by the force of numbers, and the tertion must now see to what the head. ror of combination, obtain that instrong passion for innovation is ra- stant and practical relief, which they pidly leading. It is in vain to con- have sought in vain in the delusive ceal, it would be folly to attempt to theories of their deceivers. deny, that, under the influence of The Trades' UNIONS, therefore, the prodigious changes of recent which have now spread with such times, a spirit has been nurtured, portentous rapidity through the which at length threatens the very whole country; which have arrayed elements of society with dissolution. millions of Englishmen in combinaAs long as the lower orders were de- tion against the authority of law, luded by the cry for Reform; as long and the order of society; which as they were infatuated enough to threaten to overwhelm industry by believe that, by supporting the Whigs the accumulation of numbers, and in office, they would convert the age extinguish opposition by the terrors of iron into that of gold; as long as of self-authorized punishment ; * they were deceived by the assurance, which lay the axe to the root of the that, by obtaining the command of national resources, by suspending the Legislature, they would readily the labour by which it is created, find a remedy for all their sufferings, and lock up the fountains of prosthey were kept tolerably quiet, as 'perity, by paralysing the capital against their rulers, and their fury which must maintain its producers, turned exclusively upon their devo- are a natural and inevitable, but not ted opponents of the Conservative uninstructive step in the progress of party. Now, however, that device revolution. They indicate, and that, will no longer answer its purpose. too, in a voice of thunder, the arriThe battle has been fought; the vic- val of the period when the vanity tory has been gained; Tory misrule of hope has been felt, and the falseis at end; Whig wisdom and libe- hood of promises experienced ; rality have been for three years and when the hollowness of professions a half in full operation; and the peo. has become apparent, and the selfishple naturally ask, what is the end of ness of ambition manifested itself ; ihese things ? What have we gained when Whig aristocracy can no longer by all the efforts we have made ? employ the multitude as the instruWhere are the fields, the wages, the ments of its will, and democratic plenty, which were promised us? flattery can no longer supply the Finding that they have gained no. want of real relief. The manufacthing by all they have done, that turing classes seem now resolved to wages are as low, taxes as burden- take the matter into their own some, employment as scarce, suffer- hands; they disdain to make any ing as general, as before the arrival appeal to their own Legislature, or of the promised millennium, they re- give any instructions to their darling turn in gloomy discontent to their representatives ; but boldly fixing a firesides, and, throwing aside all rate of wages, a period of labour, confidence in public men, and all and a set of regulations for themhope of relief derived from the Le- selves, they bid open defiance to all gislature, sternly resolve to take the the constituted authorities in the matter into their own hands, and, state, and invite Government and

. We are aware that all the respectable organs of the Trades' Unions disclaim acts of violence; but experience has proved, that while they exist, they cannot be prevented, and that, practically, whatever they may say, they amount to a tyranny of numbers over helpless industry.

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their masters into an open con- government. All this, we have no test with millions of desperate men, doubt, they would say; and all this, upon whose labour great part of the we have no doubt, they sincerely national resources iş dependent. believe. It is not the vanity of de

This fearful revolutionary system, mocratic principles and self-govern. therefore, need excite no surprise ment which is as yet felt and dein any thinking mind; we have long monstrated by the existence of the foreseen it, and foretold it, in this Trades' Unions; it is the vanity of Magazine, an hundred times over, the Reform Bill, and the ruinous It is the reaction of experience and tendency of Whig measures, which suffering against the delusive hopes is proved to bave been experienced; nursed bythe predictions and cbanges it is the loud voice of the manufacof former times; the proclamation, turing classes, at whose instigation, in the hundred-mouthed trumpet of and, professedly,' for whose behoof, the national voice, of the vanity of all the changes were made, which is all former innovations; the public heard, announcing that they have admission, that, from the regenerated been cheated and deceived, and that Legislature, the people have nothing direct self-government can alone to hope; and that, for any real alle- admit them to the social benefits to viation of their sufferings, they must which they are entitled. look to their own right arms and That the true friends of the work. their own firm resolution. It is to ing classes are the Conservatives, be regarded as a natural and neces that their worst enemies are the desary step in the progress of the dis magogues who lure them by the ease under which we are labouring; voice of flattery to perdition, must as the painful, but inevitable and be obvious from the consideration, well-foretold result of the insane in that labour and industry of every novations of which we have so long sort can only flourish during the sunbeen the victims; and as indicating shine of tranquillity and ease, and that step to amendment at least that they necessarily wither and die which arises from a perception of amidst the storms and the agitation the deadly tendency of the remedies of Revolution. If a tree is cut down, which have hitherto been adminis. the leaves and distant branches are tered.

the first to wither; and they lanThe people, indeed, are not, for guish and die long before any sympthe most part, aware of this; they toms of decay appear in the stem and would not admit, if it was put to larger branches, because the sap them, that their present distresses, which vivifies the whole is first which have prompted them to form stopped in its ascent to the farthest these formidable combinations, are extremities. It is the same with the the natural result of the bitter circulation of capital through the not disappointment experienced from less extensive and curiously conthe contrast between the promises structed filaments of society. If any which were held out to them, and shock is given to the heart, the work. the results which have attended the ing classes are the first to suffer, measures which were pursued; they because they are the last whom the would perhaps answer, if such a life-blood reaches, they receive it in thing was seriously stated in their the smallest quantities, and have the presence, that it was not because least stock to enable them to subsist their rulers are, but because they during its interruption. The rich, are not democratic, that their confi. by a cessation of credit, or a sus. dence in them is gone; and that the pension of industry, may be abridge substantial benefits which they were ed of their luxuries; the middling told would follow the Reform Bill ranks straitened in their comforts ; can never now be hoped for, until but the labouring poor are instantly the nest of Whig rotten boroughs is deprived of bread, and thrown withas thoroughly exterminated as that out employment upon the world, of Tory has been, and Annual Par. disabled, by the same cause which liaments, Universal Suffrage, and has prostrated them, from adminis. Vote by Ballot, have completely tering any effectual relief. and finally admitted the people to The stage in the progress of innovathe full powers and blessings of self- tion, which the simultaneous growth

of the Trades' Unions in all parts of ture of the principles which these the country proves to have arisen, regenerators of society are pouring is observable in every other convuls into the minds of our manufactusion of a similar kind which has yet ring population. desolated the world. It corresponds Cobbett tells us, in one of his reto the revolt of the 10th August in cent numbers, that the first French Revolution ; the

" Their intention is to take the governeffort, as Mignet tells us, of the

ment of the country entirely into their own working-classes to shake off the

hands. The view which they take of our burgher aristocracy who had got

present political situation is something possession of the legislature, and like this: both Houses of Parliament, who were determined to obtain for they say, have been most actively engaged themselves those benefits which had in doing whatever they could to bring so long been held out to them by the down the old fabric of society, and they demagogues to whom they bad lent have succeeded so well, that none of the ear. It corresponds to the revolt of political parties can much longer support Lyons in November, 1831, when the it. Were the producing classes not prestarving weavers of that great manu- pared with effective conservative measures, facturing city rose in open revolt Tories, Whigs, and Radicals would soon against the revolutionary authorities be in inextricable confusion. The proof Louis Philippe, and were only ducing classes, viewing matters in this subdued by Marshal Soult and the light, state their object to be to take their Duke of Orleans, at the head of a own affairs into their own hands; and greater force than fought the Duke

by taking their own affairs, they are perof Wellington at Toulouse ; or the fectly aware that they cannot avoid at great revolt of the Parisian opera

the same time taking the affairs of the tives at the Cloister of St Merri in

non-producers also into their own hands; June, 1832, which was only crushed

the management of which latter will deby a mightier military array than glit

pend on the particular arrangements which tered on the field of Jena or Aug

the producers may determine to adopt.

These are no trivial objects to have in terlitz. The pacific habits and more

view, namely, to reverse the state maorderly character of our working

chine so far that the producer may goclasses will, it is to be hoped, give a

vern the capitalist, and to make the capivery different character to this stage

talist minister to the wants and pleasures of the disease in the British Isles of the producers, instead of the producers from what obtained amidst the fier- to the capitalists! In this state of things, cer passions and military ideas of and with a body of men in the commutheir southern neighbours: but the nity holding these doctrines, it becomes a crisis is the same; it has arisen from matter of serious consideration for both the same deep-rooted disappoint- the Government and the public to ascerment at the deceit and delusions of tain their probable result if the course which they have been the victims, marked out be followed up. There have and will be attended in the end, if been Trades' Unions in existence for some not firmly coerced, with effects not length of time; many of them rich, and one whit less disastrous.

partaking of the nature of benefit socieFew of our readers are acquainted ties. But the Trades' Union, which is with the real objects of these formi, now attracting 80 much attention, is a dable Associations, or the manner in

thing of very recent origin, arising, in which they are levelled, not merely

some degree, out of the Political Unions. against the rights of their masters,

But the former being dissatisfied with

the conduct of the latter, and looking and the general authority of law, but the whole principles of religion

upon them as the creature of the middle and morality by which society is

classes, they have followed the steps of the

working classes in France, who soon came held together-by which the strong

strong to view the Girondists as a class who aimed are prevented from tyrannising over

at monopolizing all the benefits of the Revothe weak-and civilisation is pre- lution, and keeping the working class in rented from relapsing into the anar- the same state in which they found them. chy and bloodshed of savage life. The General Congress of the Union has We sball give, therefore, a few quo- already twice assembled, once at Birmingtations to illustrate the extent of the ham, and once in London, and it is said danger which now threatens society, that another meeting is to be convened and the perilous and seda cing na- early in 1834, at Barnsley, with the design of a general strike throughout the ed, they will wear no swords, carry no whole country.

muskets, assemble no train of artillery, If further proof be required, take seize upon no fortified places. They will the following extract from the declapresen

present no column for an army to attack,

no multitude for the riot-ar to disperse. ration of one of those societies:

They merely abstain, when their funds " Social RepormERS. All human

are sufficient, from going to work for one beings are good by nature. Ignorance is

week, or one month, through the three the only Devil that exists, or ever did kingdoms; ard what happens in conseexist. Vice is nothing else but ignorance.

quence? Bills are dishonoured, the GaTruth leads to virtue and happiness. The

zette teens with bankruptcies--capital is character of every human being is formed destroyed—the revenue fails—the system for him, and not by him. If the above be

of government falls into confusion, and true, all those that examine for them- every link in the chain which binds society selves will find every religion taught in the together is broken in a moment by this inert world by the different Priests, is founded

conspiracy of the poor against the rich.” on error and in direct opposition to truth and nature; hence have followed priest

What their religious principles are craft, war, law or injustice, aristocracy, may be judged of from the following and every drone that exists on the labour passages in the Prospectus of a new of the industrious many,” &c. &c. Paper about to be set up in Glasgow,

The design then is evident.andag to be entitled “The FREETHINKER." a specimen of the extent to which “ The objects which the projectors have it has already been adopted, we will in view, are, chiefly, the establishment of quote one or two of the resolutions an organ for the expression of free, unof a combination formed in Manches. fettered opinions-opinions ranging to ter, and called “ The Society for Pro- the utmost latilude of thought; the vin. moting National Regeneration.” dication of such of the opinions referred

to as are founded in Reason and Pbiloso“1. That it is desirable that all who

phy, from the false charges and aspersions wish to see society improved, and confu

of bigotry and self-interest; and the apsion avoided, should endeavour to assist

plication of an unerring test to the most the working classes to obtain' for eight

approved and vaunted arguments in fa. hours' work the present full day's wages,'

vour of Theology. such eight hours to be performed be

“ Discussions and disquisitions, howtween the hours of six in the morning and

ever, are not to preclude less weighty six in the evening; and that this new re

matters. The lighter arms of satire and gulation should commence on the first

ridicule must not be allowed to remain day of March next. 3. That persons be

inactive, while follies and absurdities call immediately appointed from among the

for their employment, although the shafts workmen to visit their fellow-workmen in

should occasionally be borrowed from the cach trade, manufacture, and employment,

quiver of a Taylor, a Byron, or a Vol. in every district of the kingdom, for the

taire. purpose of communicating with them on “ Shares. Five Slellings each. the subject of the above resolutions, and

Price

of each Number, 1!..” of inducing them to determine upon their adoption. 9. That the workmen and Let no one be so deluded as to suptheir friends use their utmost efforts to pose that these resolutions are likely obtain further subscriptions, and that all to prove a dead letter, or that the well-disposed females be respectfully re- utmost danger is not to be anticipaquested cordially to co-operate in this un- ted from the combinations in furdertaking."

therance of these objects which have These men are fully aware of their now sprung up in all the manufacown power. In illustration of this, turing districts of the country. Their we subjoin the following quotation organization is complete; their numfrom the Trades' Union Gazette of bers are prodigious; the talent which Glasgow, Feb. 1, 1834.

directs them is considerable; the de“ Power of the Trades' Unions.

votion which generally prevails to “ Their's will not be insurrection : it the cause is unbounded. It is well will be simply passive resistance. The

observed, in a recent number of an men may remain at leisure: there is able and intelligent provincial paand can be, no law to compel them to per, the Stirling Journal work against their will. They may walk “Not only is the machinery well adaptthe streets or fields with their arms fold, ed, but its effects are fearfully powerful.

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