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But this is not all.-Such vast are enabled securely to exercise a grind. assemblages of, thrown ing oppression over the more quiet and out of work simultaneously, will, inoffensive. They subvert the whole obto the end of time, inevitably ge- jects of society, defeat the chief ends of nerate acts of violence and deeds the social union, and expose the poor to of blood. Oppression towards their a tyranny the more galling and dangerfellow-creatures is the necessary

ous, that it is exercised by men of their and universal result of the congre

own rank in society, and supported by gation of thirty or forty thousand the physical strength of vast masses in idle, unrestrained men together-no

the state.” * thing short of military discipline can But suppose that this were not to be ever restrain them. Among such vast the result, and that by a simultaneous bodies, there will always be found strike of several hundred thousand many daring reckless characters, men, over the whole country, the who will not scruple to perpetrate present object of obtaining a deducacts of the greatest atrocity, to for- tion of two hours a day from the ward the purposes of the union. It period of work is gained - What is not in human nature to sit with will be the result ?- Will wages reits hands across, and see strangers main at their present level, low as it introduced to work at reduced wa- is, under such a reduction ? Unges, and thus defeat all the purposes questionably not. They will, and of the combination, without taking must fall, just in proportion to the the short and simple way of knockdiminution in the produce of looms; ing them on the head. The rapid and the condition of the workman growth of the atrocious practice of will be more miserable than ever. throwing vitriol in the manufactur. By no human contrivance-by no ing districts, proves how general intimidation or violence, or “ inert the operation of these principles has conspiracy,” can capitalists and masbecome. It is truly observed in a ters be compelled to pay wages, late publication on this subject which are a loss to themselves, or

“ If the working classes could be abridge materially the present slenbrought to combine without using vio. der rate of profits :-rather than do lence towards those who do not enter 80, capital will take wings to itself, into their views, the evil, how great so- and emigrate to other and more ever, would be comparatively inconsider. tranquil lands; and the peopled able to what is now presented; but, un. houses of Britain will be filled with fortunately, this never can be the case. starving millions, deprived by their Among the thousands and tens of thou own suicidal hands of the means of sands who are combined together to gain subsistence. these common objects, there always have The frantic anarchical course been, and always will be, found some reck- which the workmen are now purless and worthless characters who will suing, therefore, is as little calculanot scraple to exert violence, or even em

ted to afford the many effectual relief, brue their hands in the blood of such of their fellow-citizens as, by holding out,

as the blind and infatuated support

of the democratic faction in towns threaten to defeat the object of their com. bination. To the end of time such

has been; while it threatens to proworthless characters will be found in all

duce results more immediately ruinlarge bodies of mankind; they may be

ous and destructive than even the calculated upon as a given quantity to

Reform Bill, that stupendous monu. the last days of the world ; and therefore,

ment of general infatuation, is in the violence, intimidation, and bloodshed may

course of effecting. The one is a be permanently expected to attend such

burning delirium, which will at once combinations. The trades' unions, there

prostrate the patriot; the other a low fore, however plausible in theory, become,

fever, which will gradually, but cerin practice, the mere association of vio- tainly, exhaust his strength. lence and tyranny, over industry and peace; they are the engine by which An extensive struggle has latethe most lawless and reckless of society ly broke out in the west of Scot

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* Thoughts on the Reformed Ministry and the Reformed Parliament.-P. 37. Stillies, Edinburgh, 1834.

land, in consequence of a resolution selves were abject slaves, trembling under of the masters to employ no calico. that very intimidation which they were printers who were members of the labouring to inflict cn others—at least Trades' Unions, and bringing down such is the defence that is resorted to by new hands to supply the place of those who have abandoned the Unions. those who refused to abandon these

“ Those Trades' Unions, which now pernicious associations. The result cause so much confusion and alarm in the has been just what might have been country, originated in the former Political anticipated. Where the military Unions, which were organized under the were in sufficient force to protect the

direction of itinerant orators and agitanew workmen from the violence of

tors, of which apostles of mischief in this the associated trades, the masters

part of the country the chief was Mr have proved victorious, and the fresh

Joseph Hume, M. P. No merit would

have attached to his successful exertions hands are going on; where they

to abolish the laws against combinations, were not, the associated operatives

which had existed in England since the succeeded in expelling them. Twelve

tiine of Edward I., unless they had been delinquents, apprehended by the followed by practical results, and those Glasgow police, were liberated by results we now see before us.” the mob : eight unhappy prisoners are securely lodged within the walls Is, then, the cause of industry and of Stirling Castle. The west of production utterly hopeless? Have Scotland is approaching the condi- the monied classes, the traders, the tion of Ireland: the authority of law shop-keepers, succeeded, by the insiexists, where soldiers stand, or the dious spread of democratical princiguns of fortresses protect the pri- ples, in for ever dividing the producsoners. Where the defence of the tive classes, who are the source of industrious is left to themselves, all their wealth, but, from want of they are compelled to yield to the equal cunning, have been the unhapunionists.-Such are the fruits of py victims of their artifice ? Are the Whig Government! We insert with working classes for ever to follow pleasure the following just observa. the red flag of democracy to their tions of the Glasgow Herald on this own perdition, instead of the old subject :-*

banner of England, under which all “Nothing can equal the infatuation of the classes once throve and were prosoperative printers in the whole of this bu. perous ? Will mankind ever be gosiness: they had comparatively light work verned by words, and worship the and comparatively high wages; but these demon who flatters their passions, very circumstances, along with the notion regardless of the bread which is of more skill being required in their pro- vapisbing out of their mouths, the fession, led them to consider themselves furniture which is melting away from superior to the ordinary run of workmen, their dwellings, the clothes which and their vanity thus exposed them to are slipping from their backs? Such become easy tools in the hands of the is the force of public delusion, such revolutionists. Elated with the brilliant the astonishing manner in which the figure which they had made in reform

productive classes have been arrayed processions, they flattered themselves that

against each other by the arts of the they were the pets of Government, and would get their own way in every thing,

democratic or consuming faction,

that we much fear their ascendency even when they attempted to enact the part of tyrants over their fellow-labour.

will continue, that the situation of ers. While they affected the spirit of

of the wbole industrious classes, both independence, they basely submitted to

in town and country, under their delive on contributions from others; and

mocratic leaders, will daily become those of them who were married had the worse, until at length the cup of injustice and inhumanity to deprive their misery is full, and military despotfamilies of more than a balf of their usual ism closes the scene. rate of subsistence. While they were

But one thing is perfectly clear, proudly lording it over others to whom that if this deplorable result does they denied the freedom both of judging take place, it will not be because the and of acting, a large portion of them. means of extrication are utterly lost

• Glasgow Herald, Feb. 10, 1834.

to the nation. By a cordial union years, and which has brought on the with, and support of, the Conserva nation the unspeakable calamities tive body ; by a junction of the of free trade, contracted currency, strength of the agricultural and ma. Democratic Government, and the nufacturing producers, they may yet threatened change in the Corn Laws. shake off the monstrous load of shop- We say Conservatives, as the steady keepers, money-lenders, and traders friends of the Church, the shield who have risen into such fatal pre- of the poor against infidel attack eminence on their distresses. The and city corruption; as the supa classes who constitute the ten mil. porters of the national faith against Jions will be too strong, if united the combined attacks of Radical vioin a constitutional struggle, for the lence and public suffering, and as five; the producers of four hundred thoroughly convinced that it is only millions a year of produce must, in by doing justice, and protecting the end, if they will only act toge- equally all interests, and most of ther, overcome those who produce all the Funds, the great Savings' one. The Reform Bill, indeed, has Bank of the poor, that the national quadrupled the political power of the salvation can be accomplished. We urban and monied party, and redus say Conservatives, not as deluded ced to less than a half the forces of in. by the idea so lamentably prevadustry; the manufacturing operatives lent of late years, that it is by have to thank themselves for having destroying the interests, either of given this monstrous addition to the rural or urban producers, by the forces of their adversaries, and weak- free and unrequited admission of ened so alarmingly the strength of foreign produce, that the great surtheir friends. Still the case is not utter- plus revenue of the nation, the founly hopeless; their own acts are likely tain of prosperity to all classes, to relieve them; the extremity of suf. can be augmented; but by such profering, which they have brought upon tecting measures as will secure to themselves, may perhaps prove the our operatives, whether in town or means of dispelling the universal delu- country, a due return for the fruits sions by which they have been blinded. of their toil, and cease to grind down

But let us not be misunderstood; the British labourers for the benefit it is by constitutional means, and con- of the city Democrats, or the advan. stitutional means alone, that the bat, tage of foreign states. tle must be fought ; the Conserva. The views we have now sketched tives never can, and never will, be. out, explain that gradual, but evi. come Radicals; the Operatives must be- dently increasing approximation of come Conservatives. We do not say the Conservatives and the industri. Conservatives, in the false and odious ous classes, at which the Whigs so sense in which the falsehood of the loudly exclaim as a monstrous union urban consumers uses it, -that is, as of Tories and Radicals. This outcry the supporters of unjust or corrupt comes with peculiar consistency and power, such as the Democrats false- good grace from the correspondents Jy assert governed the country be of political unions, from those who fore the Reform Bill, we say Con- bowed to deputations headed by tai. servatives in the sense in which, and lors, from the advocates of the brickin which alone, we have ever sup, bat and the bludgeon, and the Jourported it; as the defenders of all the nals who, by the open threat of Ra. great interests in the State, and es. dical violence, overturned the constipecially of the vast bodies of agri. tution. The approximation proceeds cultural and manufacturing produ. from no political coalition, from no cers, from whose labours four-fifths insidious or designing ambition. It of the national income flows ; by is the result of the experience of whose hands all classes are fed and common injury; of the instinct clothed, and lodged. We say Con, which leads med, of whatever oppo. servatives, not as the enemies of the site opinions, on most subjects, to real and just interests of the consu- unite against those by whom they mers and monied men, but of that have both suffered wrong. But it unjust and oppressive advantage must be a very different coalition which they have gained by the town from that which history will for ever directed legislation of the last fifteen execrate; be attended by no such dereliction of public duty as that of their principles and practice of the constiopponents. What the servile ministe- tution, before the disastrous days of rial Press, the Receivers of man- monied ambition, cheap labour, free dates from Lord Brougham and Hol- trade, and Democratic, that is city land House, call an union of Tories ascendency. Whether by these or and Radicals, must be founded on any other methods, it is possible to very different principles from that get the better of the Reform Bill, and atrocious combination of monied am- the decisive superiority it has given bition and Radical delusion which to consumers over producers in the has produced, and is producing, such legislature, is perhaps doubtful; but fatal consequences. It must be found this much at least seems certain, that ed on an abandonment of all anarchi. in no other way is so fair a procal designs, and all demonstrations spect even opened of shunning perof violence by the latter, and of all dition, or avoiding that gradual but monied delusions by the former ; a unceasing degradation of the workreturn by our rulers to the principles ing classes, and the Conservatives of just remuneration to productive who depend on their labour, which industry, whether in town or coun- has been constantly increasing since try, and by our people to the subor- the deporable era when the Nation dination and loyalty of former times; was surrendered to the guidance of a recurrence, in short, to the true its democratic deceivers.



Chap, I.


Castle Elmere, June 10, 18% would drag life from their miserable « Here, my dear Katharine, I am still victims by degrees. Who can won- not carried off to the mountains der that the murmurs of the wretchby any of the savage Irish-not even ed shall not be modulated into mu. penitent for my folly in coming into sic for them? this land of barbarism and holy “ Thank God! thank God! my water-(too holy, defamers would dear friend, in our peaceful retreat say, to be employed in very ne no such murmurings distress us, and cessary ablutions)-but, let dear no despair is to be dreaded. My Aunt Sarah remember, my own land window at which I write, is openafter all. Here I am, and in my it is midnight-and midnight still as mind the fixed resolve never to is now shining on your own beautirest contented, until I have wiled ful Wycombe. How powerfully I am you hither, and won you to a know. recalled to the hours, when the dawn ledge, that the report of our poor stole unobserved on our prolonged people's misdeeds is fearfully good-nights and musings,--when we exaggerated by the distance to spoke not, but sat together in the which it is borne. Ah! Kate, we shade of your window's deep recess, suffer much wrong-the pictures of and felt as if we understood the us are very frightful-but, “had a nightingale's song, and listened to it lion been the painter ! We are the as the voice of our unspoken emoprey of more ignoble brutes, who tions. Do you remember, Katharine, slander us as unworthy of trust or when the notes were changed, and regard, and are full of indignation, the lark that sung so out of tune, because, now and then, some victim straining harsh discords and unpleacries out, and complains of his afflic. sing sharps, proclaimed, that the tion. Lie still, cries the horrid Po world was come again; and that if lypbemus,-I have no pleasure in we would continue to dream, we my dinner while you scream 80; must qualify by sleeping ?-What a but I forget, he slew his prey before painful endowment memory would he devoured it. Here our torturers be, if we had not hope to beguile it! prefer the Abyssinian practice, and I do indeed, Katharine, earnestly

long for you. I cannot thrill you and as winter had passed without the with the nightingale's song; nor brand of any offence, he thought it shew you, as among English oaks, not unfitting to mark his approbation a broad river shining in moonlight; of good conduct, by holding a solemn but you shall have the sublime music festival on the occasion. The result of distant waters, and you shall see, of bis deliberations was “ the hurlwith such a moon as now visits us, ing,” and its accompaniment, a dincataracts flashing into its beams, ner on the grass. All, however, and issuing from the recesses of would be incomplete if I did not, as mountains which, to your untravel the peerless lady of statelier, but, in led faculties, shall seem noble. all probability, more barbarous and And you may come without a fear. less lively feats of arms, grace the I told you it is midnight, and as contest with my august presence. A Julie de Roubigné says, the world large field, in the neighbourhood of is hushed around me,'-nothing to the Castle, was to be the arena; and prevent any daring plunderer from for some time before we appeared, climbing to my open window and I we could see the gathering-troop am as free from alarm as if I were at after troop marching to music, all in your side, in the inviolable security gay attire, and each party having apof Essex or Surrey.

propriate and distinguishing badges “ We have, indeed, no cause for and devices. When the assemblage apprehension here-more devoted was complete, and the arrangements attachment cannot be described or for the contest sufficiently advanced, imagined, than my dear father expe- we set forth, a highly imposing corriences from this calumniated peo. tège, and rode round the field, saple. How it would astonish Aunt luting each party as we passed, and Sarah, to witness his reception from receiving with due acknowledgthem to-day! She will say that I ment their tumultuous acclamations; am a giddy credulous girl; but I am but-the first burst, as we came sudsure, if she could witness the honest denly from a gate shaded by thick and hearty rejoicings, and hear the trees, into the sight of the assembly warm blessings, which duped my indeed, Katharine, it was awful! father and me, she would, herself, I bowed my head as at an apparition, be strongly solicited to give way be- and could not, by any effort, restrain fore so unsuspicious an impostor. fast-falling tears. Do not smile;

“ But, all this time, I have not ac- there is something very affecting in quainted you with the occasion on the raised voice of a multitude. Do which such demonstrations of attach- you not remember Job—the thunder ment were called forth. And how of the captains, and the shouting? can I possibly describe that most then it was a tribute to my dear iaextraordinary display, and its exci. ther, coming from hearts grateful for ting circumstances! Katharine, you favour and protection, and offering, I never saw an Irish hurling, and, am sure, the lives of the generous sooth to say, you never saw any and enthusiastic retainers who sent thing so surprising. If it be Hiber- it forth,-can you wonder that it nian cricketing, it surely exceeds overcame me? that aristocratic game in interest, “I did not faint, however, and soon more than it falls short of it in dignity was able, with proper dignity and and grace-the eagerness—the ve- condescension, to go through the hemence-the fiery contest of hun- portion of the pageant allotted to dreds for victory, and the surpassing me. You should know something exertions of the agile competitors. of the game. At opposite sides of You must positively come here and the field, a little arch of bended ozier, witness the fierce good-humour of called a goal, had been set up. The this most eager contention. It is, I object of the parties was to pass am confident, more worthy of a poet under one of these a ball, which they to describe, than the games of an- struck with curved instruments, call. cient days. We, too, and especially ed “Hurls." The ball was presented your unworthy friend, performed no to my fair hands by one of the lead. obscure part in this high tourna- ers, who knelt before he offered it; ment. Papa, you must know, had and when I had received it, another taken upon himself the duty of pre shout arose, more tumultuous, if serving the peace of our district; possible, than that which had previs

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