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fall into the hands of other powers. tend for the empire of the ocean If Portsmouth and Plymouth are with the navies which have beat blockaded—if an enemy's fleet lies down the flag of Trafalgar ? How at the Nore, and foreign flags wave will they get their goods sold in triumphant in the Channel, how long such circumstances ? Reduced to will Canada, the East or West In- the home-market for consumption, dies, maintain their allegiance? How how will the clamorous millions soon will the splendid, but half whom the town-directed policy of ruined colonies in the Gulf of Mexi the last twenty years has called into co, shake off chains from which they existence, find bread? Where will have so long received nothing but be the sixty millions worth of mainjury-how rapidly will Canada nufactured goods which are now ex. rival the independence of the United ported? Where the hundreds of States, and lay the foundations of a thousands who now depend on their powerful state on the shores of the sale for their existence? Do the maSt Lawrence-how quickly will the nufacturers suppose that the evil magnificent empire of the East dis- days are never to arise to Britain solve into air! Let us not deceive that she alone is to be an exception ourselves, tranquil and imposing as to all earthly things? Do they ima. our colonial empire at present is;- gine that the export of sixty millions willingly as all the quarters of the a-year may be calculated upon as a globe now receive the law from the fixed issue, independent of all poliChapel of St Stephens ;-peaceably tical disasters, like the discharge of as our fleets pass from hemisphere the waters of the Thames into the to hemisphere, without leaving the ocean? Have they ever considered British dominions; a single rude how they would earn their subsistshock would unloose the girdle ence, if, with our maritime superiwhich surrounds the globe, and the ority, our means of exporting any parent state in the Atlantic would thing whatever, come to an end ? be left in melancholy loneliness to And how short-sighted, therefore, contemplate the empires which have are all those measures which, with risen from its ruined dominions. a view to give an additional and un
And let our manufacturers consi- natural impulse to the sale of our der the prospects wbich await them, manufactures in foreign states, lay if by such an event the sceptre of the axe to the root of that very nathe ocean is wrested from Britain, val power by which, and which Are they aware of the deep, the un. alone, any part of that foreign sale extinguishable jealousy of English can be permanently secured! industry and opulence which per Vainest of all is the hope, that by vades their rivals, both in Europe revolutionizing the adjoining states, and America ? If disaster attends and encircling ourselves like France our fleets, how rapidly will this feel. with a zone of affiliated republice, ing burst forth in every part of the we can obtain a permanent shield, world! With what alacrity would independent of our maritime supe. the combined fleets of Europe and riority. Do our deluded Movement America carry the torch into the ar- men really suppose that France and senals of Plymouth and Portsmouth, Belgium, under either Doctrinaire or and avenge, in the glorious pile, the Republican sway, under Marshal - bombardment of Copenhagen, and Soult or the Citizen King, will take
conflagration of Toulon! How gladly up arms to maintain the maritime would they cast anchor at the mouth superiority of Great Britain, or enof the Thames, the Mersey, and the able our manufacturers to deluge Clyde, and seize, with piratical avi. them and other nations with their dity, the fleets which have so long goods? We can tell them they never wafted to the British shores the riches were more miserably mistakeu. of the East and the West! And, if What have we got, either from France once these great arteries of the em- or Belgium, in return for our reci. pire are closed, where will be our procity concessions ? Have they low. boasted export of manufactures ? ered the duties on iron or cotton Will our deniocratic operatives, with goods ? What did America do in fur. their fervour, their self-sufficiency, iherance of the spirit of conciliation their Trades' Uuions, be able to man between free states ? Lay on the tathe remnant of our fleets, and con- riff, which was modified only by tho
threat of civil war from the Southern ding the Scheldt and watching Lis. States. The more republican nations bon. He did so; and the treaty of become, it may be relied on they Constantinople, which gave the Ruswill become the more jealous of each sians the command of the whole other's mercantile or manufacturing naval resources of the Turkish emindustry; for this plain reason, that pire, and ultimately of the whole the classes who are personally inte- sailors of Greece, was the conserested in such employments obtain quence. Russia could at this mothen the direction of public affairs. ment fit out, between herself and Who passed the Navigation Act ? her allies, eighty ships of the line, to The Long Parliament and Cromwell. join in the naval crusade against Who forced the exclusive tariff upon England; and of the quality of the the Southern States of America ? seamen on board her fleets, we have The manufacturing interests of the not only had proof in the fight of Na. northern parts of the Union. Why varino, but we have the best evidence is it that France is so resolutely fix in the authority of Nelson, who ed in resisting any relaxation of her counselled all his officers to “ lay rigid and exclusive mercantile sys. their vessels alongside a Frenchman, tem ? Because the manufacturing inbut strive to out-manæuvre a Rusterests in her great towns have ac- sian.” The stubborn valour of the quired a predominance in the Cham North will in the end be as formidable ber of Deputies. Nothing is more by sea as by land; the sea-kings who certain, therefore, than that the more so often desolated the British shores, democratic the European states be issued from the shores of the Baltic ; come, the more will they be devoured possibly a naval Leipsic yet awaits with jealousy of our manufacturing the maritime forces of England. and maritime greatness; and to hope If such is the enemy arising on for support from them,wben their go our own element against us on one vernments are directed by such in- side, what shall we say to the foe terests, is to fall into a delusion of which is appearing on the other? all others the most deplorable. The Americans have long been, next
The circumstances of the world to ourselves, the greatest carrying are such as to excite the most seri, nation in the world, and for the last ous alarms for the durability of our fourteen years, under the influence maritime superiority, independent of the reciprocity system, they have altogether of the disastrous effects never engrossed less than twoof the reciprocity system, in which thirds, sometimes as much as fivewe have so blindly and obstinately sixths, of the direct trade with Great persisted. It is in vain to conceal Britain. What their naval prowess that the maritime resources of Rus- is, we know by dear-bought experisia are not only already very consi- ence in the last war; and if bistoric derable, but extending with a rapi candour cannot award to the captors dity in the highest degree alarming. of the Guerrier, the Java, and the The whole fleets of the Baltic, the Macedonia, the highest naval honavies of Sweden, Denmark, and nours, it cannot refuse them the sePrussia, are at her command, and cond. This rapid growth of the are ready to start, at a moment's American, like the Russian marine, warning, to revenge the disasters of under the influence of a population Copenhagen, and assert the prin- which in those youthful states douciples of the armed neutrality. She bles once in thirty or forty years, has twenty-two sail of the line in render these two Powers in the the Black Sea; the remnant which highest degree formidable to the the flames of Navarino have left of British navy; and it is at the very the Turkish fleet is at her disposal ; time that they are making unexthe Dardanelles, under the auspices ampled strides on our own eleof a liberal Whig administration, ment, that we have chosen to transfer have become a Russian strait, and to them, by the reciprocity system, the Euxine an impregnable, inacces- the sinews of our maritime power. sible Russian harbour. We our Are then the prospects of England selves counselled the Sultan, when irretrievably gloomy: is the sun of he turned to us for aid in his extre- our naval superiority for ever set: mity, to apply to Russia, because and is the present generation desour fleets were employed in blocka. tined to witness the extinction of the greatest Colonial empire that ever When we reflect on the extraorexisted ?-No! the means of salva- dinary growth of our colonial shiption are yet in our power; our ma- ping during the last twelve years, ritime superiority may yet be main- amidst the stagnation and decay of tained ; our girdle of colonies may that employed in European comyet encircle the earth. It is in the merce; when we recollect, that du. extent and rapid growth of our own ring that time the tonnage employed Colonies that the counterpoise is to in the trade to New Holland has inbe found to all the ambition of Russia, creased tenfold, and that in the and all the jealousy of America. The commerce with our North Ameri. difference between colonial trade, can colonies risen from 350,000 to and trade with foreign nations, as it 500,000 tons, we cannot entertain a affects maritime power, is incalcu- doubt that the means of preserving lable; and for this plain reason, that for a very long period, and establishing colonial trade, like the home trade, on a securer basis than ever, our mais all carried on in your own bottoms ; ritime superiority, yet exists. Great whereas, more than a half of every Britain is an old state, teeming with foreign trade is engrossed by the wealth, inhabitants, and energy; her foreign nation. From the curious and colonial dependencies boundless in bighly valuable table below, it appears extent, inexhaustible in fertility, inthat while our exports to America calculable in importance. To unite are immense, amounting to twelve the heart with the extremities of millions' worth of British manufac- such an empire; to convey to the ture, the tonnage of our shipping, colonies, famishing for men, and mowhich that trade employs, is little ney, and manufactures, the overflowmore than a sixth of that employed ings of the parent state, redundant in the trade to Canada, which only with them all, the British navy, takes off a fourth part of the quantity public and private, exists; an inexof manufactures absorbed by the haustible and unconquerable arm, United States. In other words, the if not paralyzed by the insanity of employment given to British ship- its own government. It is in our own ping in the trade to our own colo. progeny, in our own descendants nies in North America is TWENTY- in every part of the globe, that we FOUR greater, on the same amount of must look for our only effectual exports and imports, than to the in- stay; it is in a sedulous and undependent state in the same portion ceasing regard to their interests, that of the globe; while our trade with we must seek for the means of Germany, which takes off nine mil. stanching the all but mortal wounds lions worth a-year of exports, only which the reciprocity system has ingives employment to a half the ship- flicted on our maritime power. But ping employed in the export of let us not deceive ourselves ; this goods to the West Indies, whose last stay can be preserved only by consumption of our goods is hardly constapt regard to colonial interests. half as great. In other words, on If the Whig system of colonial opthe same amount of exports and im- pression, exemplified in the project. ports, the encouragement to our ed equalization of the timber-duties, shipping is only a Fourth in the and accomplished ruin of the West German of what it is in the West India islands, is persisted in, the India trade. After so signal a proof finishing stroke to our national inof the difference between foreign and dependence is given; and, with the colonial trade, farther argument or loss of our colonies, our liberty, our illustration would be superfluous. glory, and our existence, is at an end.
* As the best illustration of the difference between colonial trade and trade with foreign nations in encouraging our shipping, we shall give returns for the last year of the exports, imports, and shipping, in the trade with Canada, West Indies, and New Holland, compared with America, Russia, and Germany.
LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS.
We have all our lives envied and flowers, and they loved them Adam. Yet, would you believe it, the better that thenceforth they not for his abode in Paradise. The reminded them always—but not soul cannot now conceive a perfect- painfully-of their transgressionly siuless and perfectly happy state now suffering a punishment so softof being; and a mere name, and no ened, that it sometimes was felt to more, to our ear is the garden of be a chastened peace. Their hillside Eden-ere was plucked
garden sloped to a stream, that, no “ That forbidden fruit, whose mortal taste
doubt, was a branch of the holy river, Brought death into the world, and all our
of which the blind seer sings, “south
ward through Eden went a river Our first parents are not felt to be
large.” We see the vision now-but our first parents till they have fallen;
we fear to paint it. Eve is still in then it is that we indeed love them;
her mortal prime; and as for Adam, our filial affection is made tender by
not Seth's self is comparable to his pity and awful by fear--and we
sire—though his parents were wont
to say, that their Seth had a face and weep to think of them, as they,
a form that reminded them of one of “ Hand in hand, and slow,
the angels--that to be indeed an Through Eden took their solitary way.”
angel, he wanted but those wings It was original sin that made this that winnowed fragrance through earth 80 beautiful-that gave it a the air as they descended on Parabeauty dashed and broken with tears. dise. Look Jong at a rose. bush covered And thus it is that to us all garwith Japsing dewdrops, and you dens are beautiful and all gardeners grow sorrowful-full of sorrow. If Adam's favourite sons. An Orchard ! there were not the consciousness of Families of fruit trees “nigh planted some great loss, and the presage of by a river," and that river the Clyde. some great restoration, à sight so Till we gazed on you we knew not simple in its purity could not so pro- how dazzling may be the delicate foundly move the spirit, as that its spring, even more than the gorgeous confession should be a prayer. Not autumn with all her purple and surely in form and colour alone lies gold. No frost can wither, no the beauty of the rainbow.
blast can scatter, such a power We envy Adam because he was of blossoming as there brightens driven from Paradise. For a while the day with promise that the the earth for him and poor Eve gladdened heart may not for a mobrought forth but thorns-sois it writ. ment doubt will be fulfilled !-And But as the wind blew from Paradise, now we walk arm in arm with a it brought seeds that sowed them. venerable lady along a terrace hung selves in the desert-till erelong the high above a river--but between us desert blossomed like the rose. “As and the brink of the precipice a leafsisted by younger hands, Adam could less lawn-not of grass, but of moss, afford to steal an hour or two as the whereon centuries seem softly emsun was westering, from the toil of bedded-and lo! we are looking-to field tillage, and through the twilight, the right down down the glen, and to and sometimes well on into the night, the left up up the glen-though to the would he and Eve, not unregarded left it takes a majestic bend, so that by the stars, work by their two selves, yonder castle, seemingly almost in shaping bowers, and arbours, and front of us, stands on one of its cliffs glades, so as to form, by a niodel —now we are looking over the top imperishable in their memories, an- of holly hedges twenty feet high, other small new garden of Eden- and over the stately yew-pawns not, indeed, so delightful-but dear- and peacocks-but hark! the flesher, far dearer to their souls, be- and-blood peacock sbrieking from cause every leaf was tinted by the pine! Ān old English gardengrief. Melancholy names did they such as Bacon, or Evelyn, or Cowgive, then, to the thoughtless plants ley would have loved-felicitously
placed, with all its solemn calm, balloon. It lies open at the 1322d page above the reach of the roar of a Scots and we espy much matter on the tish Flood!
Education of Gardeners—a pleasant But we shall not permit the visions and a prolific theme. In our walks of gardens thus to steady them. over the world, we have looked in selves before our imagination; and, upon hundreds of gardeners in their since come they will, away must they own houses, and have always met pass like magic shadows on a sheet. with a kind welcome. No other class -There you keep gliding in hundreds of men are so well off for wives. along with your old English halls, or How ladylike many matrons who rectories, or parsonages—some, alas! have received us with a curtsy, a looking dilapidated and forlorn, but smile, and a hand, in tree-shaded few in ruins, and, thank heaven! dwellings not far apart from the hall many of you in the decay of time or mansion-house, nests in secluded renewed by love, and many more spots which you may seek for without still fresh and strong, though breath- finding among the wide sweep of the ing of antiquity, as when there was demesne, that in its elegant cultiva. not one leat of all that mass of ivy tion still retains something of the in which the highest chimneys are wild character of the forest. Honest swathed, and buried all the gables.- men's daughters--not degraded, sureOh! stay but for one moment longer ly, by having been in household serthou garden of the cliffs ! Gone by! vice which they adorned-and now with all thine imagery-half garden visited familiarly by the young la. and half forest-reflected in thine dies, who disdained not to wear the own tarn--and with thee a glimmer bridal favours on the marriage-day, of green mountains and of dusky and have sent her baby-linen duly woods !-Sweet visionary shadow of every year. Not all such; for gar. the poor man's cot and garden! A deners intermarry_let us tell youblessing be upon thee almost on the not unfrequently with maidens of edge of the bleak moor!-But villages, the middle ranks the daughters of and towns, and cities travel by mistily, statesmen (cock lairds), tradesmen carrying before our ken many a green well to do—and clergymen. And we series of little rural or suburban could mention instances of gentle gardens, all cultivated by owner's or blood blushing in the faces of the tenant's hands, and beneath the blos- children of bold Sons of the Spade. somed fruit-trees, the ground varie- What matters it whom they marrygated with many a flush of flowers. if their bosom friends be chaste, What pinks! Aye-we know them modest, and good ? Many a pleasant well-the beautiful garden-plats on evening have we passed in such the banks and braes all round about domiciles, for we are something of a our native town, pretty Paisley-and botanist-though that not muchin among the very houses in nooks a florist of the second-rate in knowand corners which the sunshine does ledge, and of the first in love and not scorn to visit and as the glamour though no great linguist, we have goes by, sweet to our soul is the studied all the tongues of trees—and thought of the Kilbarchan, the love. not a language spoken in the forest liest flower in heaven or on earth of which we do not know all the for 'tis the prize-pink of our child. roots, and most of the ramifications. hood, given us by our Father's hand, Soon after suprise, whatever might and we see now the spot where the be the season, we always took our fine-grained glory grew !
departure; nor empty-handed were We hope our stomach is not out we allowed to go our ways-for all of order, and that these fancies are the gardeners who were friends of not the fumes of indigestion, as Ca- ours, enjoyed the privilege of giving banis and tbe materialists say. No presents of a dozen or two of green our stomach was never out of order gages—a few pints of grozets-say in its life, not even in the Bay of Bis- the Roaring Lion or the Fiery Dragon cay (). At all events, that huge En- -and if still the vernal breezes were cyclopædia of Gardening, beneath blowing, in our breast a Flower,comwhich our table groans, is no spec- posed of many flowers, that, as we tral illusion; and might ballast a crossed the moorland wilderness,