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VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
'TREATIES OF PEACE. tained except by an arrangement cal The articles of the treaty of peace culated to afford a just indemnity for with France are at length before the the past, and solid security for the fupublic; and high as this country had ture; bave deliberated, in concert with been raised by her recent military the king of France, on the means of efachievements, and by her two-and- fecting such an arrangement." With twenty years of manly struggle, some this view it is stipulatedtimes single-handed, for her own inde. 1. That the frontiers of France sball
pendence and the liberties of Europe, remain as they were in 1790, with cer* she is raised, if possible, still higher by tain specified exceptions, viz. The for
her conduct during the late negociations, tresses of Philippeville, and Mariesand by the happy results to which they bourg, and the whole of the ancient have been brought. The history of di.. duchy of Bouillon; the fortress of Sarreplomacy cannot, we believe, furnish an lonis and the course of the Sarre, togeinstance of a treaty concluded by sother with the fortress of Landau, shall many great powers, in which private be separated from France. A small views have been so completely merged cession is made, for the purpose of estain considerations of public good, and in blishing a free communication between which so much prudent caution and Geneva and the Swiss Cantons. From foresight have been employed, to pre. Geneva to the. Mediterranean Sea, the vent the possibility of future dispute · line will be the same which in 1790 seand collision. It will stand to future parated France from Savoy and the ages a monument of the wisdom, firm county of Nice. The principality of ness, magnanimity, and moderation of Monaco shall be detached from France,
the allied governments, and it furnishes and united to Savoy. The boundaries • a gratifying illustration of the growing shall be precisely fixed by commis.
influence which the principles of mo- sioners, to be named in three months ! rality and the claims of humanity have from the signature of the treaty. acquired in international deliberations. 2. That the places thus ceded by
The treaty signed at Paris on the 30th France shall be delivered np in ten days May, 1814, and the definitive act of the after the signing of the treaty, the king congress of Vienna, of the 15th June renouncing, for ever, all right of sove
1815, are confirmed in every particular reignty over them. · which is not altered or modified by the 3. That the fortifications of Huningen, * present treaty. The modifications, which have proved a constant source of Lowever, are considerable. The general annoyance to the city of Bale, shall be ground on which they have been intro- demolished, and no fortifications shall
duced is thus explained :-"The allied in future be erected nearer Bále than · powers, having, by their exertions and three leagues.
the triumph of their arms, preserved 4. That France shall pay to the allied France and Europe from the convulsions powers, a sum of 700 millions of francs, with which they were threatened by the by way of indemnity; the mode of pay. late enterprize of Napoleon Bonaparte, ment to be regulated by a separate conand by the revolutionary system repro. vention. duced in France for its support; now 5. That the state of fermentation participating with his most Christian which still exists in France, notwithmajesty in the wish, by the inviolable standing the paternal intentions of the · maintenance of the royal diguity and king and the advantages which all by putting again in full force the con- classes derive from the charter, making stitutional charter, to consolidate the measures of temporary precaution aborder of things happily re-established solutely necessary, a corps of the allied in France, and to bring back between troops, which shall not exceed 150,000 France and its neighbours those rela- men, shall occupy military positions tions of reciprocal confidence and good along the frontiers of France; but so as will which the mournful consequences not to infringe on the sovereignty of the of the Revolution, and of the system of king of France. This army will occupy conquest, had so long interrupted; and Condè, Valenciennes, Bouchain, Cam. convinced that this object cannot be at bray, Quesnoy, Maubeuge, Landrecies,
Avesnes, Rocroy, Givet with Charle- the baggage and the sick, shall be mont, Mezieres, Sedan, Montmedy, furnished at the expense of France; Thionville, Longwy, Bitsch, and the Tête and that clothing for the troops shall be de Pont of Fort Louis; and it will be introduced free from duties. maintained by France, according to the The conventions for securing the liquiregulations of a separate convention. dation of the claims of foreigners on the This military occupation is to cease, at French government stipulate generally, the latest, at the end of five years; but that France shall make good all such sooner, if the return of France to peace claims, when properly verified by comand order shall seem to the allies to jus- missioners ;--and particularly all soms tify an earlier evacuation.
due on contracts regularly made with 6. That all foreign troops, not included individuals for supplies to the French in this army of 150,000 men, sball forth. armies or garrisons; pay or salaries due with quit France.
to individuals, now become the subjects 7. That a separate convention shall of other powers; monies sent by post, regulate the measures necessary for but which were seized in their transit; giving complete efficacy to the claims bills, bonds, or mandates issued by the of foreigners, and particularly of the French government in favour of persons British, on the French government. or conimunes, now no longer within the
8. That all prisoners shall be restored French territory; monies borrowed by on both sides, with the least possible the French authorities, under a promise delay,
of payment; indemnities due to indi. The convention which regulates the viduals, for the occupation of their land payment of the pecnniary indemnity or the destruction of their buildings by stipulates, that the whole 700 millions the French military authorities; the sliall be liquidated in five years by a claims of the Hamburg bank, which will payment, every four months, of about 17 be the subject of a separate convention ; millions, without any charge of interest and the claims of persons who were · for this extension of time.
forced to pay twice over the duties and The military convention stipulates, double duties of customs, by an order that every thing relative to the compo- dated 8th May 1813, A commission shall sition and command of the army of oc.' be appointed to deterinine the claims scupation shall be determined by the of Holland to the non-payment of the allies; that the French government shall interest of the public debt. Various furnish, in kind, lodgings, firing, wght, other classes of claims are recognized, provisions and forage, the quantities to and very precise rules are laid down be furnished being very minutely and for their liquidation. Those of British clearly specified,--shall pay towards the subjects form the subject of a separate pay and clothing of the troops in the first convention, by which it is agreed, that year 30, apd in every succeeding year they shall be repaid the value of all 50, millions of francs, and shall provide property, whether in the funds, iv lands, for the wliole expense of the fortifica- or in mercliandize, which was contis. tions and their stores, which are tem. cated by the revolutionary government porarily placed in the hands of the al contrary to the faith of treaties, togelies; that the king of France may keep ther with interest on the same, in some garrisons in such towns of the frontier cases at three, and in others at four per departments as are not occupied by the cent Commissioners are to be ap. allies, but they are not to exceed a spe- pointed on the part of France and Enge cified number; that the military com- land, with power to administer oaths, mand of these departments shall be veste and call for books and papers, by whoni ed in the general of the allied troops, all British claims shall be examined. with the exception of the fortresses oc- On the same day, the 20th of Novem. cupied by the French troops, and a cir- ber, on which the above treaty with cle of 1000 toises around each; that the France was signed, the all ed, powerscivil administration, and that of the cus- namely, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, toms, sball remain in the hands of the and Prussia--concluded a treaty, bind. king's agents, and that the commanders ing themselves mutually," as the repose of the allied troope, instead of obstruct. of Europe is essentially dependant op ing, will aid them; that all deserters the security of that order of things shall be given up on both sides; that which is founded on the maintenance of medicines and other necessaries for the tile royal authority and the constitu. hospitals, and carriages for transporting tional charter," that they will explay all their means to prevent the general social edifice; that to produce this happy tranquillity, which has been the unceas- change, wisdom must be united with ing objects of their wishes and efforts, vigour, and moderation with fițmness. from being anew disturbed; that they They have no fear that his majesty will will, with that view, maintain in its full lend an ear to those rash and imprudent force and vigour the treaty this day con- counsels which would nourish disconcluded with France, and all the conven- tents, renew alarms, and excite animositions arising out of it; that they will also ties and divisions. To all the enemies of maintain the former treaties, so far as the public peace, they are fully conthey have not been modified by the pre- vinced that his majesty will oppose his' sent, and especially that which for ever attachment to the constitutional laws excludes Napoleon Bonaparte and his which he himself has promulgated, and family from the throne of France; and his determination clearly announced to as the same revolutionary principles be the father of all his subjects without which supported his usurpation may, distinction of rank or religious belief; under some new form, disturb France so as to efface even the recollection of and threaten the repose of other states, the evils they have suffered, and only to that in such case they will also unite all preserve of what has passed the good their forces to preserve the general which Providence has made to spring tranquillity; that should the allied from the calamities themselves. It is troops left in France be attacked or only thus that the wishes formed by the threatened on the part of France, or allied cabinets, for the preservation of should it be necessary to resume offen- his majesty's constitutional authority, sive operations to enforce the stipula for the happiness of his country, and tions of the treaties now made, they will the maintenance of the peace of the each furnish the fall contingent speci. world can be crowned with complete fied in the treaty of Charmont, or even success, and that France, re-established if necessary, the whole of their forces, on its ancient foundations, will resume in order to bring the war to an early the distinguished place to which she and prosperous termination, reserving is entitled in the commonwealth of Eu. a right in such case to make such ar- rope." rangements as shall secure Europe from Another note of the four great powers the recurrence of a like calamity; that to the same minister, signifies that they this agreement shall not be limited to have confided to the duke of Welling. the five years during which their troops ton the command of all their troops occupy military positions in France, which are to remain in France, and that but shall be maintained as long as may these troops will support the king be necessary for its objects; and that against every convulsion which might with a view to the peace and happiness tend to overthrow the existing order of of the universe, the four sovereigns will things, or to menace the tranquillity of renew, at fixed periods, meetings either Europe; and as doubts may arise as to of themselves or their ministers, con: the nature of the case calling for intersecrated to the common interests of na. vention, it is left to the tried prudence tions, and to the peace and prosperity and discretion of the duke of Welling of Europe.
ton to decide on the employment of the This treaty was transmitted to the troops, in concert with the king. It duke of Richelieu, accompanied with a will, therefore, be necessary he should note signed by the ministers of the four be correctly informed of all the events powers, in which they express a strong that may occur in France. To this end hope that the French king will accept a communication will be established it as a new proof of the interest they between him and the French govern.. take in the maintenance of his authority ment, and also between him and the and the repose and prosperity of his ministers of the four powers at the kingdom. The note contains the fol- court of France. The ministers close lowing remarkable passage: “ His ma. their vote with observing, that "they jesty has recognized, in common with carry with them, in quitting France, the them, the principle, that in a state torn consoling persuasion, that notwithstandfor a quarter of a century by revolu. ing the elements of disorder, the effects tionary convulsions, it is not by force of revolutionary events, which France alone that the minds of men can be may still contain, a wise and paternal again calmod, or confidence can be re- government, proceeding in a proper stored among the different parts of the manner to tranquillize and conciliate
the minds of the people, and abstaining of art which recal no less the sufferings from every act contrary to such a sys. of his illustrious house than the misfor. tem, may not only succeed in maintain- tunes of other nations. If the French ing the public tranquillity, but also in desire peace in the spirit of peace, can re-establishing universal union and con. they wish to preserve this source of fidence-relieving, as much as the pro. animosity between them and other na-ceedings of the government can effect. tions? if they do not, is it good policy it, the allied powers from the painful to flatter their vanity and to feed the necessity of having recourse to those hopes wbich the view of these trophies measures wbich, in case of any new is calculated to excite? Can even the convulsion, would be imperiously pre- army reasonably desire it? The mescribed to them by the duty of providing mory of its campaigns can never pefor the safety of their own subjects and rish: they are inscribed in the milithe general tranquillity of Europe." tary annals of Europe: they are graven
A separate treaty tixes the fate of the on the public monuments of their own seven Ionian Islands, Corfu, Cepha- country. Is it necessary to their new Ionia, Zante, St. Maure, Ithaca, Cerigo, successes in the field of battle, that and Paxo, with their dependencies. they should consecrate a system of pil. They are to be placed uhder the imme lage, by the adoption of which, in condiate government of the British Crown, tempt of the laws of modern warfare, and sball enjoy a free and representa the Chief who conducted them to battle tive government, the form of which did in fact tarnish the glory of their shall he regulated by Great Britain and arms? The principle of property is Russia in concert. The fortresses shall the only one which can here be safely be delivered to his Britannic Majesty, and justly applied. Let all these works and both they and the lonian troops of art, whether seized by force, or still shall be entirely under his command. more shamefully extorted under the The flag of the Ionian Islands shall be mask of treaties, be restored to their acknowledged by all the powers as a lawful owners. Perhaps there is no. free and independent flag; and the thing at the present moment which will trade of Russia and Austria shall enjoy more tend to fix the public spirit of there the same facilities as that of Great Europe, than such homage, rendered Britain.
by the king of France, to a principle We have been particularly pleased of virtue, conciliation, and peace. with a note addressed by lord Castle. There still remains, however, an ime reagh to the ministers of the allies, portant part of the negociations of Paand which has been published among ris to be noticed; we mean that which the diplomatic papers, on the subject regards the SLAVÉ TRADE. On the 27th of the claims preferred by various Ger- of July, 1815, lord Castlereagh ad. man, and Flemish, and Italian states, dressed a letter to prince Talleyrand, for the restoration of the works of art of calling his attention to the necessity of which the French had plándered them. guarding under existing circumstances It would, he says, be the height of weak- against any possible revival of the Slave ness, as well as of injustice, and would Trade. The assurance the king bad tend to prevent the French people from given to the British ambassador at returning to moral and peaceful habits, Ghent had tranquillized the prince reif the allies should refuse to attend to gent's ministers on that subject; but the claims in question, and especially now that his majesty is restored to his those of the feebler states. He dis. throne, they are anxious to be enabled claims the most remote view to the to relieve the solicitude of the British possession by England of any of these nation, by declaring that this question monuments. So far from it, the prince is now for ever closed. The answer of regent would not be disposed even to prince Talleyrand, dated the 30th July, take advantage of the pecuniary diffi. 1815, signifies, that the king has issued culties of the legitimate owners, in or- directions, that on the part of France, der to purchase them, but would rather the Slave Trade may cease from the preaid them with the means of replacing sent time every where and for ever. them in the same galleries from which What the Usarper had done was pull they were taken. As for the king of and void : it had only been done with France, he cannot believe his dignity a view to his own interest, and becanse heightened, or his title improved by he had ill appreciated the British goremaining surrounded with monuments vernment and people. At the time the former treaty had been concluded, the longer trade for slaves? We trust that king, yielding to the prejudices which this point will be immediately attended then existed, had with regret stipu. to, otherwise we may expect that the lated to continue the traffic for five peace of Europe, by taking away the years. “Since that period, these pre- privilege of search which attaches to judices had been attacked in several belligerents, will only pave the way for publications with such effect, that his a more extensive and secure Slave Trade majesty could now follow without re than has hitherto been carried on. By serve the dictates of his inclination; the establishment indeed of a Registry the more so, since it bas been proved of Slaves, but by that expedient alone, by inquiries made with the greatest we may prevent the illicit importation care, that the prosperity of the French of slaves into our own colonies; and colonies, not being compromised by therefore we sincerely hope that Mr. the immediate abolition of the trade, Wilberforce's bill for carrying into effect the abolition is not contrary to the in- that important measure will pass into terests of his subjects, which, above law, notwithstanding the vehement claall, he is bound to consult."
mours of the West Indian party. But The following article on the subject still it would be impossible, without the has been introduced into the general right of search, to give any efficacy treaty just concluded between France whatever to our treaties with Portugal, and the allies, viz.: “ The high con- Holland, Denmark, Sweden, or France tracting powers sincerely desiring to on the subject of the Slave Trade, or give effect to the measures on which even to execute our own abolition laws. they deliberated at the Congress of A British subject, it is obvious, may Vienna, relative to the complete and safely embark his property in the Slare universal abolition of the Slave Trade, Trade under a foreign flag, provided our and having each in their respective (domi. cruizers are debarred from institnting nions prohibited, without restriction, any examination of the ship or property their colonies and subjects from taking which that flag covers. any part whatever in this traffic, engage We also regret the entire silence of to renew conjointly their efforts with the the treaty with respect to Hayti. Mast view of securing final success to those it still be left in doubt whether France principles which they proclaimed in shall be at liberty to fit out fleets and the Declaration of the 4th of February, armies to sweep the inhabitants of this 1815, and of concerting, without loss of beautiful island from the face of the time, through their ministers at the earth? The abolition of the slave courts of London and of Paris, the most trade, if means should be adopted for effectual measures for the entire and rendering that, abolition effectual, will definitive abolition of a commerce so doubtless remove one great temptation odious, and so strongly condemned by to such an attempt. We know, however, the laws of religion and of nature." ; too well, the extravagant views, and the
Thus has another great step been burning thirst for Haytian blood, of the gained towards the complete extinction ancient colonists of St Domingo, not of this barbarous and cruel traffic. to fear that, while the question as to the Still we must lament that no means have fate of that island remains undecided, yet been agreed upon for giving effect they will be eagerly watching for the opto the humane and benevolent inten- portunity of glutting their savage ventions of the contracting parties. How geance France negociated the inde. are these prohibitory engagements to pendence of the United States of Amebe enforced? Will they not prove a rica. The Haytians have been emmere dead letter, unless a right of visi. barked with us in the tremendous contation and search on the coast of Afri. flict with the military power of Bonaca is granted to the national vessels of parte. They have nobly achieved their the different states? Without this, will liberty. Would it not have been just, the mere letter of the treaty prevent would it not have been politic, in us Frenchmen from fitting out slave ships, to have followed the precedent which and carrying off slaves from that coast, France herself had set us, and to have and landing them in Martinique and secured to the Haytians the fruits of Guadaloupe ; or Portugneze slave ships their gallant and successful struggle, from still crowding the shores of Nor- and to ourselves the lasting gratitude thern Africa, on which Portugal has of that interesting people? We trust, engaged that her subjects shall go that the reasons of our forbearance on