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tured by jealousies of the object of their wishes; often desire what they scorn, and as often consciously and knowingly embrace where they are mutually indifferent.

Florio, the generous husband, and Limberham, the kind keeper, are noted examples of the different effects which these desires produce in the mind. Amanda, who is the wife of Florio, lives in the continual enjoyment of new instances of her husband's friendship, and sees it the end of all his ambition to make her life one series of pleasure and satisfaction; and Amanda's relish of the goods of life is all that makes them pleasing to Florio: they behave themselves to each other, when present, with a certain apparent benevolence, which transports above rapture; and they think of each other in absence with confidence unknown to the highest friendship : their satisfactions are doubled, their sorrows lessened, by participation.

On the other hand, Corinna, who is the mistress of Limberham 3, lives in constant torment: her equipage is an old woman, who was what Corinna is now; and an antiquated footman, who was pimp to Limberham's father, and a chambermaid, who is Limberham's wench by fits, out of a principle of politics to make her jealous and watchful of Corinna. Under this guard, and in this conversation, Corinna lives in state: the furniture of her habitation, and her own gorgeous dress, make her the envy of all the strolling ladies in the town; but Corinna knows she herself is but part of Limberham's household-stuff, and is as capable of being disposed of elsewhere, as any other

3 Corinna and Limberham, were Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, and Henry Cromwell, esq.

moveable. But while her keeper is persuaded by his spies, that no enemy has been within his doors since his last visit, no Persian prince was ever so magnificently bountiful: a kind look or falling tear is worth a piece of brocade, a sigh is a jewel, and a smile is a cupboard of plate. All this is shared between Corinna and her guard in his absence. With this great æconomy and industry does the unhappy Limberham purchase the constant tortures of jealousy, the favour of spending his estate, and the opportunity of enriching one by whom he knows he is hated and despised. These are the ordinary and common evils which attend keepers; and Corinna is a wench but of common size of wickedness, were you to know what passes under the roof where the fair Messalina reigns with her humble adorer.

Messalina 4 is the professed mistress of mankind; she has left the bed of her husband, and her beauteous offspring, to give a loose to want of shame and fulness of desire. Wretched Nocturnus 4, her feeble keeper! How the poor creature fribbles in his gait, and skuttles from place to place, to dispatch his necessary affairs in painful daylight, that he may return to the constant twilight preserved in that scene of wantonness, Messalina's bed-chamber! How does he, while he is absent from thence, consider in his imagination the breadth of his porter's shoulders, the spruce night-cap of his valet, the ready attendance of his butler! any of all whom he knows she admits, and professes to approve of. This, alas! is the gallantry, this the freedom of our fine gentlemen ; for this they preserve their liberty, and keep clear of that bugbear, marriage. But he does not understand

4 Who these were meant for, is not known.

either vice or virtue, who will not allow, that life without the rules of morality is a wayward uneasy being, with snatches only of pleasure! but under the regulation of virtue, a reasonable and uniform habit of enjoyment. I have seen, in a play of old Heywood's, a speech at the end of an act, which touched this point with much spirit. He makes a married man in the play, upon some endearing occasion, look at his spouse with an air of fondness, and fall into the following reflection on his condition:

• Oh marriage ! happiest, easiest, safest state;
Let debauchees and drunkards scorn thy rites,
Who, in their nauseous draughts and lusts, profane
Both thee and heav'n, by whom thou wert ordain'd.
How can the savage call it loss of freedom,
Thus to converse with, thus to gaze at
A faithful, beauteous friend?
Blush not, my fair-one, that thy love applauds thee,
Nor be it painful to my wedded wife
That my full heart o'erflows in praise of thee.
Thou art by law, by interest, passion mine :
Passion and reason join in love of thee.
Thus, through a world of calumny and fraud,
We pass both unreproach'd, both undeceiv'd;
While in each other's interest and happiness,
We without art all faculties employ,

And all our senses without guilt enjoy.'
STEELE.

No 50. THURSDAY, AUGUST 4, 1709.

Quicquid agunt homines

nostri est fartago libelli.

JUV. Sat. i. 85, 86.
Whatever good is done, whatever ill-
By human kind shall this collection fill.

White's Chocolate-house, August 2. THE HISTORY OF ORLANDO THE FAIR. CHAP. I. WHATEVER malicious men may say of our lucubrations, we have no design but to produce unknown merit, or place in a proper light the actions of our contemporaries who labour to distinguish themselves, whether it be by vice or virtue. For we shall never give accounts to the world of any thing, but what the lives and endeavours of the persons, of whom we treat, make the basis of their fame and reputation. For this reason, it is to be hoped that our appearance is reputed a public benefit; and though certain persons may turn what we mean for panegyric into scan-. dal, let it be answered once for all, that if our praises are really designed as raillery, such malevolent persons owe their safety from it, only to their being too inconsiderable for history. It is not every man who deals in rats-bane, or is unseasonably amorous, that can adorn story like Æsculapius'; nor every stockjobber of the India company can assume the port, and personate the figure of Aurengezebe?. My no

· Dr. Radcliffe, See No 44, 46, 47, and 67. . See N° 46.

ble ancestor, Mr. Shakspeare, who was of the race of the Staffs, was not more fond of the memorable Sir John Falstaff, than I am of those worthies ; but the Latins have an admirable admonition expressed in three words, to wit, Ne quid nimis", which forbids my indulging myself on those delightful subjects, and calls me to do justice to others, who make no less figures in our generation : of such, the first and most renowned is, that eminent hero and lover Orlando the Handsome4, whose disappointments in love, in gallantry, and in war, have banished him from public view, and made him voluntarily enter into a confinement to which the ungrateful age would otherwise have forced him. Ten lustra S and more are wholly passed since Orlando first appeared in the metropolis of this island : his descent noble, his wit humorous, his person charming. But to none of these recommendatory advantages was his title so undoubted, as that of his beauty. His complexion was fair, but his countenance manly ; his stature of the tallest, his shape the most exact : and, though in all his limbs he had a proportion as delicate as we see in the works of the most skilful statuaries, his body had a strength and firmness little inferior to the marble of which such images are formed. This made Orlando the universal flame of all the fair sex ; innocent virgins sighed for him, as Adonis ; experienced widows, as Hercules. Thus did this figure walk

3 Too much of one thing is good for nothing.' Terence, Andria, Act I. Scene 1, v. 34.

4 Robert Fielding, esq. then commonly known by the name of Beau Fielding. He was tried for felony at the Old Bailey, Dec. 4, 1706, for having married, Nov. 25, 1705, Barbara duchess of Cleveland; a former wife of his being then living.

s About fifty years.

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