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in as much apprehension of his guards, as of those from whom they were to defend him. When that vessel came away, the soldiers murmured publicly for want of pay; and it was generally believed they would pillage the magazines, as the garrisons of Grenoble and other towns of France had already done. A vessel which lately came into Leghorn brought advice, that the British squadron was arrived at Port-Mahon, where they were taking in more troops in order to attempt the relief of Alicant, which still made a very vigorous defence. It is said admiral Byng will be at the head of that expedition. The king of Denmark was gone from Leghorn towards Lucca.
We are also informed, that the pope uses all imaginable shifts to elude the treaty concluded with the emperor, and that he demanded the immediate restitution of Comacchio; insisting also, that his imperial majesty should ask pardon, and desire absolution for what had formerly passed, before he would solemnly acknowledge king Charles. But this was utterly refused.
They hear at Vienna, by letters from Constantinople, dated the twenty-second of February last, that on the twelfth of that month the grand seignior took occasion, at the celebration of the festivals of the mussulmen, to set all the christian slaves which were in the gallies at liberty.
Advices from Switzerland import, that the preachers of the county of Tockenburg continue to create new jealousies of the protestants; and some disturbances lately happened there on that account. The protestants and papists in the town of Hamman go to divine service one after another in the same church, as is usual in many other parts of Switzerland ; but on Sunday the tenth instant, the popish curate, have ing ended his service, attempted to hinder the protestants from entering into the church according to custom; but the protestants briskly attacked him and his party, and broke into it by force.
Last night between seven and eight, his grace the duke of Marlborough arrived at court,
From my own Apartment, April 22. The present great captains of the age, the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene, having been the subject of the discourse of the last company I was in; it has naturally led me into a consideration of Alexander and Cæsar, the two greatest names that ever appeared before this century. In order to enter into their characters, there needs no more but examining their behaviour in parallel circumstances. It must be allowed, that they had an equal greatness of soul ; but Cæsar's was more corrected and allayed by a mixture of prudence and circumspection. This is seen conspicuously in one particular in their histories, wherein they seem to have shewn exactly the difference of their tempers. When Alexander, after a long course of victories, would still have led his soldiers farther from home, they unanimously refused to follow him. We meet with the like behaviour in Cæsar's army in the midst of his march against Ariovistus. Let us therefore observe the conduct of our two generals in so nice an affair. And here we find Alexander at the head of his army, upbraiding them with their cowardice, and meanness of spirit; and in the end telling them plainly he would go forward himself, though not a man followed him. This shewed indeed an excessive bravery; but how would the commander have come off, if the speech had not succeeded, and the soldiers had taken him at his word? the project seems of a piece with Mr. Bayes's in The Rehearsal ', who, to gain a clap in his prologue, comes out with a terrible fellow in a fur-cap following him, and tells his audience, if they would not like his play, he would lie down and have his head struck off. If this gained a clap, all was well; but if not, there was nothing left but for the executioner to do his office. But Cæsar would not leave the success of his speech to such uncertain events: he shews his men the unreasonableness of their fears in an obliging manner, and concludes, that if none else would march along with him, he would go himself with the tenth legion, for he was assured of their fidelity and valour, though all the rest forsook him; not but that, in all probability, they were as much against the march as the rest. The result of all was very natural: the tenth legion, fired with the praises of their general, send thanks to him for the just opinion he entertains of them; and the rest, ashamed to be outdone, assure him, that they are as ready to follow where he pleases to lead them, as any other part of the army.
N° 7. TUESDAY, APRIL 26, 1709.
Quicquid agunt homines
nostri est farrago libelli,
JUV. Sat. i. 85, 86.
' It is so just an observation, that mocking is catching, that I am become an unhappy instance of it, and am (in the same manner that I have represented Mr. Partridge') myself a dying man, in comparison of the vigour with which I first set out in the world. Had it been otherwise, you may be sure I would not have pretended to have given for news, as I did last Saturday, a diary of the siege of Troy. But man is a creature very inconsistent with himself. The greatest heroes are sometimes fearful ; the sprightliest wits at some hours dull; and the greatest politicians on some occasions whimsical. But I shall not pretend to palliate or excuse the matter; for I find by a calculation of my own nativity, that I cannot hold out with any tolerable wit longer than two minutes after twelve of the clock at night, between the eighteenth and nineteenth of the next month: for which space
See No 1, 11, 35, and 44. Mr. Granger tells us, that John Partridge, the almanack maker, was a shoemaker in Covent-garden in 1680, yet styled himself physician to his majesty in 1682. But though he was one of the sworn phy, sicians, he never attended the court, nor received any salary. Biog. Hist. of England, 4to. 1769, vol. ii. p. 322, and 379.
of time you may still expect to hear from me, but no longer; except you will transınit to me the occurrences you meet with relating to your amours, or any other subject within the rules by which I have proposed to walk. If any gentleman or lady sends to Isaac Bickerstaff, esq; at Mr. Morphew's, near Stationers-hall, by the penny-post, the grief or joy of their soul, what they think fit of the matter shall be related in colours as much to their advantage, as those in which Gervas ? has drawn the agreeable Chloe. But since, without such assistance, I frankly confess, and am sensible, that I have not a month's wit more, I think I ought, while I am in my sound health and senses, to make my will and testament; which I do in manner and form following:
Imprimis, I give to the stock-jobbers about the Exchange of London, as a security for the trusts daily reposed in them, all my real estate; which I do hereby vest in the said body of worthy citizens for ever.
"Item, Forasmuch as it is very hard to keep land in repair without ready cash, I do, out of my personal estate, bestow the bear-skin”, which I have frequently lent to several societies about this town, to supply
2 Jervas. See No 4, note.
3 Stock-jobbers, who contract for a future transfer of stock which they do not, and are not likely to possess, are called bears (i. e. sellers of bear-skins); and those who contract to buy such stock are denominated bulls. It is not understood that, when the time comes, the real stock contracted for shall be transferred; all the money that then actually passes between the bull and the bear is the difference between the price of that stock, as it really stands in the market, and the price previously agreed upon by the speculative buyer and seller. -See N° 38. and, for a full illustration of these terms, Mortimer's “Every Man his own Broker.”