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Water Rights.

WATER RIGHTS,

Sec. Art.

CALIFORNIA. 1. XV. The right of eminent domain is

hereby declared to exist in the State to all frontages on the

navigable waters of this State. 2. XV. No individual, partnership, or cor

poration, claiming or possessing the frontage or tidal lands of a harbor, bay, inlet, estuary, or other navigable water in this State, shall be permitted to exclude the right of way to such water whenever it is required for any public purpose, nor to destroy or obstruct the free navigation of such water; and the Legislature shall enact such laws as will give the most liberal construction to this provision, so that access to the na vigable waters of this State shall be always attainable for

the people thereof. 3. XV. All the tide lands within two

miles of any incorporated city or town of this State, and fronting on the waters of any harbor, estuary, bay or inlet, used for the purposes of navigation, shall be withheld from grant or sale to private persons, partnerships or corpora

tions. 210. XVII. All flowing streams and natural

water-courses shall forever remain the property of the State for mining, irrigating and manufacturing purposes.

Sec. Art.

locate and establish harbor lin-3 in the navigable waters of all harbors, estuaries, bays and in. lets of this state, wherever sua navigable waters lie within or in front of the corporate limits of any city or within one mile thereof upon either side. The State shall never give, sell or lease to any private person, corporation or association any rights whatever in the wat-rs beyond such harbor lines, ror shall any of the area lying b? tween any harbor line and the line of ordinary high tide, and within not less than fifty feet nor more than six hundred fet of such harbor line (as the conmission shall determine) be sold or granted by the State nor its rights to control the same rslinquished, but such area shall be forever reserved for landings, wharves, streets and other conveniences of navigation and

commerce. 2. XV. The Legislature shall provide gn

eral laws for the leasing of the right to build and maintain wharves, docks and other structures upon the areas mentioned in section 1 of this article, but no lease shall be made for any term longer than thirty years, or the Legislature may provide by general laws for the building and maintaining upon such ar a wharves, docks and other stric

tures. 3. XV. Municipal corporations shall have

the right to extend their streets over intervening tide lands to and across the area reserved, as herein provided.

WASHINGTON. 1. XV. The Legislature shall provide for

the appointment of a commission, whose duty it shall be to

Water Rights.

Son Art. 1. XVII. The State of Washington asserts

its ownership to the beds and shores of all navigable waters in the State up to and including the line of ordinary high tide in waters where the tide ebbs and flows, and up to and including the line of ordinary high water within the banks of all navigable rivers and lakes: Provided, that this section shall not be construed so as to debar any person from asserting his claim to vested

rights in the courts of the State. 2. XVII. The Siate of Washington disclaims

all title in and claim to all tide, swamp and overflowed lands, patented by the United State: Provided, The same is not impeached for fraud.

WYOMING. 1. VIII. The water of all natural streams,

springs, lakes or other collections of still water within the boundaries of the State are hereby declared to

be the property of the State. 2. VIII. There shall be constituted a board of

control, to be composed of the State Engineer and Superintendents of Water Divisions, which shall, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law, have the super

Sec. Art.

vision of the waters of the State and of their appropriation, disire bution and diversion, and of the various offices connected therewich. Its decisions to be subject to revior

by the courts of the State. 3. VIII. Priority of appropriation for bed

eficial uses shall give the be:ter right. No appropriation shall 39 denied except when such denial is

demanded by the public interests 4. VIII. The Legislature shall by law div.io

the Siate into four (4) water divisa ions, and provide for the appoiat.

ment of superintendents thereof. 5. VIII. There shall be a State Engineer, *10

shall be appointed by the Governor of the State and confirmed by the Senate; he shall hold his office for the term of six (6) years, or until his successor shall have been appointed and shall have qualfled. He shall be president of the board of control, and shall have getral supervision of the waters of the State and of the officers conncted with their distribution. No pursua shall be appointed to this positiva who has not such therr tical keowledge and such practical expeo rience and skill as shall fit him for the position.

Homestead Exemptions.

HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS.

See. Art.

ALABAMA. 1. X. The personal property of any resident

of this State to the value of one thousand dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempted froin sale on execution, or other process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted, since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Con

stitution. 2. X. Every homestead, not exceeding

eighty acres, and the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any city, town or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned or occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempted from sale, on execution or any other process from a court, for any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage, lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of such homestead, by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the

wife to the same. 3. X. The homestead of a family after the

death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.

Sec. Art. 4. X. The provisions of section one and

two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's lien for

work done on the premises. 5. X. If the owner of a homestead die,

leaving a widow but no children, such homestead shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof

shall inure to her benefit. 6. X. The real or personal property of any

female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterwards be entitled by gift, grant, inheritance, or devise, sball be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, and engagements of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her, the same as

if she was a femme sole. 7. X. The right of exemption herein before

secured, may be waived by an instrument in writing, and when such waiver relates to realty, the instrument must be signed by both the husband and wife, and attested by one witness.

ARKANSAS. 1. IX. The personal property of any resident

of this State, who is not married or the head of a family, in specific articles to be selected by such resident, not exceeding in value the sum of two hundred dollars in addition to his or her wearing apparel, shall be exempt from seizure on at. tachment, or sale on execution, or

Homestead Exemptions.

Soc. Art.

other process from any court issued for the collection of any debt by contract: Provided, That no property shall be exempt from execution for debts contracted for the purchase-money therefor while in

the hands of the vendee. 2. IX. The personal property of any resident

of this state who is married or the head of a family, in specific articles to be selected by such resident, not exceeding in value the sum of five hundred dollars in addition to his or her wearing apparel, and that of his or her family, shall be exempt from seizure on attachment, or sale on execution, or other process from

any court on debt by contract. 3. IX. The homestead of any resident of this

State who is married or the head of a family shall not be subject to the lien of any judgment, or decree of any court, or to sale under execution or other process thereon, except such as may be rendered for the purchase-money or for specific liens, laborers or mechanics' liens for improving the same, or for taxes, or against executors, administrators, guardians, receivers, attorneys for moneys collected by them and other trustees of an express trust for moneys due from them in their

fiduciary capacity. 4. IX. The homestead outside any city, town or village, owned and occupied as a residence, shall consist of not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres of land, with the improvements thereon, to be selected by the owner; provided the same shall not exceed in value the sum of twenty-five hundred dollars, and in no event shall the homestead be reduced to less than eighty acres, without re

gard to value. 5. IX. The homestead in any city, town or

Sec. Art.

village, owned and occupied as a residence, shall consist of not exceeding one acre of land, with the improvements thereon, to be selected by the owner; provided the same shall not exceed in value the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars, and in no event shall such homestead be reduced less than onequarter of an acre of land, without

regard to value. 6. IX. If the owner of a homestead die, leav.

ing a widow, but no children, and said widow has no separate homestead in her own right, the same shall be exempt and the rents and profits thereof shall vest in her dur. ing her natural life, provided that if the owner leaves children, one or more, said child or children shall share with said widow and be entitled to half the rents and profits till each of them arrives at twentyone years of age-each child's rights to cease at twenty-one years of age -and the shares to go to the young. er children, and then all to go to the widow, and provided that said widow or children may reside on the homestead or not; and in case of the death of the widow all of said homestead shall be vested in the minor children of the testator or

intestate. 9. IX. The exemptions contained in the Con.

stitution of 1868 shall apply to all debts contracted since the adoption thereof and prior to the adoption

of this Constitution. 10. IX. The homestead provided for in this

article shall inure to the benefit of the minor children, under the exemptions herein provided, after the decease of the parents.

CALIFORNIA. 1. XVII. The Legislature shall protect, by law,

Homestead Exemptions.

Sec. Art.

from forced sale, a certain portnio of the homestead and other property of all heads of families.

FLORIDA. 9. IX. There shall be exempt from taxation

property to the value of two hundred dollars to every widow that has a family dependent on her for support, and to every person that has lost a limb or been disabled

in war or by misfortune. 1. X. A homestead to the extent of one

hundred and sixty acres of land, or the half of one acre within the limits of any incorporated city or town, owned by the head of a family residing in this State, together with one thousand dollars' worth of personal property, and the improvements on the real estate shall be exempt from forced sale under process of any court, and the real estate shall not be alienable without the joint consent of husband and wife, when the relation exists. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes or assessments, or for the payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said property, or for the erection or repair of improvements on the real estate exempted, or for house, field or other labor performed on the same. The exemption herein provided for in a city or town shall not extend to more improvements or buildings than the residence and business house of the owner; and no judgment or decree or execution shall be a lien upon exempted property except as provided in this

article. 2. X. The exemptions provided for in sec

tion one shall inure to the widow and heirs of the party entitled to such exemption, and shall apply to all debts, except as specified in said section.

Sec. Art. 3. X. The exemption provided for in the

Constitution of this State, adopted in 1868, shall apply as to all debts contracted and judgments rendered since the adoption thereof, and prior to the adoption of this Consti.

tution. 4. X. Nothing in this article shall be construed to prevent the holder of a homestead from alienating his or her homestead so exempted by dead or mortgage duly executed by himself or herself, and by husband and wife, if such relation exists; nor it the holder bo without children to prevent him or her from disposing of his or her homestead by will in a

manner prescribed by law. 5. X. No homestead provided for in section

one shall be reduced in area on account of its being subsequently included within the limits of an incorporated city or town, without the consent of the owner.

GEORGIA. 1. Par. I. There shall be exempt from

levy by sale, by virtue of any process whatever under the laws of this State, except as hereinafter excepted of the property of every head of a family, or guardian, or trustee of a family of minor chil. dren, or very aged or infirm person, or persons having the care and support of dependent females of any age, who is not the head of & family, realty or personalty, or both, to the value in the aggregate of six

teen hundred dollars. 2. Par. I. No court or ministerial officer

in this state shall ever have jurisdiction or authority to enforce any judgmentexecution or decree, against the property set apart for such purpose, including such im.

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