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Homestead Exemptions.

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lifetime of the surviving husband or wife, or so long as the survivor may elect to use or occupy the same as a homestead, or so long as the guardian of the minor children of the deceased may be permitted, under the order of the proper court having the jurisdiction, to use and occupy the same.

VIRGINIA. 1. XI. Every householder or head of a family

shall be entitled, in addition to the articles now exempt from levy or distress for rent, to hold, exempt from levy, seizure, garnisheeing, or sale under an execution, order or other process issued on any demand for any debt heretofore or hereafter contracted, his real and personal property, or either, including money and debts due him, whether heretofore or hereafter acquired or contracted, to the value of not exceeding two thousand dollars, to be selected by him : Provided, that such exemption shall not extend to any execution, order or other pro cess issued on any demand in the

following cases : First. - For the purchase-price of said

property or any part thereof. Second.-For services rendered by a

laboring person or a mechanic. Third. -For liabilities incurred by

any public officer or officer of a court, or any fiduciary, or any attorney at

law, for money collected. Fourth.-For a lawful claim for any

taxes, levies or assessments accru

ing after the first day of June, 1866. Fifth--For rent hereafter accruing. Sixth-For the legal or taxable fees

of any public officer or officers of a

court hereafter accruing. 2. XI. The foregoing section shall not be

construed as subjecting the property hereby exempted, or any portion thereof, to any lien by reason of any execution levied on property

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which has been subsequently restored to the defendant, or judgment rendered or docketed on or after the 17th day of April, 1861, and before the 2d day of March, 1867, for any debt contracted previous to the 4th day of April, 1864, except debts of the character mentioned in either

of the above first three exceptions. 3. XI. Nothing contained in this article shall

be construed to interfere with the sale of property aforesaid, or any portion thereof, by virtue of any mortgage, deed of trust, pledge or

other security thereon. 4. XI. The General Assembly is hereby pro

hibited from passing any law staying the collection of debts, commonly known as “stay laws;" but this section shall not be construed as prohibiting any legislation which the General Assembly may deem necessary to fully carry out the pro

visions of this article. 5. XI. The General Assembly shall, at its

first session under this Constitution, prescribe in what manner and on what conditions the said householder or head of a family shall tbereafter set apart and hold for himself and family a homestead out of any property hereby exempted, and may, in its discretion, determine in what manner and on what conditions he may thereafter bold, for the benefit of himself and family, such personal property as he may have and coming within the exemption hereby made. But this section shall not be construed as authorizing the General Assembly to defeat or impair the benefits intended to be conferred by the pro

visions of this article. 6. XI. An act of the General Assembly, en

titled "An act to exempt the homesteads of families from forced sales,"

Homestead Exemptions.

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WASHINGTON. 1. XIX. The Legislature shall protect by law

from forced sale a certain portion of the homesteads and other property of all heads of families.

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passed April 29, 1877, and an act entitled “ An act to stay the collection of debts for a limited period," passed March 2, 1866, and the acts amendatory thereof, are hereby

abrogated. 7. XI. The provisions of this article shall be

construed liberally, to the end that all the intents thereof may be fully

and perfectly carried out. 8. XI. The rights of ecclesiastical bodies in

and to church property conveyed to them by regular deed of conveyance shall not be affected by the late civil war, nor by any antecedent or subsequent event, nor by any act of the Legislature purporting to gov. ern the same, but all such property shall pass to and be held by the parties set forth in the original deed of conveyance, or the legal assignees of such original parties holding through or by conveyance, and any act or acts of the Legisla ture in opposition thereto shall be

null and void. 9. XI. The children of parents one or both

of whom were slaves at and during the period of cohabitation, and who were recognized by the father as his children, and whose mother recognized by such father as his wife, and was cohabitated with as such, shall be as capable of inheriting any estate whereof such father may have died seizod and possessed as though they had been born in lawful wedlock.

WEST VIRGINIA. 48. VI. Any husband or parent, residing in

this State, or the infant children of deceased parents, may hold a homestead of the value of one thousand dollars, and personal property to the value of two hundred dollars, exempt from forced sale subject to such regulations as shall be prescribed by law: Provided, That such homestead exemption shall in no wise effect debts or liabilities existing at the time of the adoption of this Constitution: And provided further, that no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes due thereon, or for the payment of purchase-money due upon said property, or for debts contracted for the erection of improvements thereon.

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WYOMING. 1. XIX. A homestead as provided by law shall

be exempt from forced sale under any process of law, and shall not be alienated without the joint consent of husband and wife, when that relation exists; but no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for the payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises, or for the erection of improvements thereon.

Immigration, Labor and Agriculture.


Bec. Art.

ARKANSAS. 1. X. The General Assembly shall pass

such laws as will foster and aid the agricultural, mining and manufacturing interests of the State, and may create a bureau to be known as the mining, manufacturing and agricultural bureau.

IDAHO. 1. XIII. There shall be established a bureau of immigration, labor and statistics, which shall be under the charge of a commissioner of immigration, labor and statistics, who shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the consent of the Senate. The commissioner shall hold his office for two years, and until his successor shall have been appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed. The commissioner shall collect information upon the subject of labor, its relation to capital, the hours of labor and the earnings of laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, social, intellectual and moral prosperity. The commissioner shall annually make a report in writing to the Governor of the State of the information collected and collated by him, and containing such recommendations as he may deem calculated to promote the efficiency of

the bureau. 2. XIII. Not more than eight (8) hours' actual

work shall constitute a lawful day's work on all State and municipal

works. 3. ΧΙΙΙ. . All labor of convicts confined in the

State's prison shall be done within the prison grounds, except where

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the work is done on public works

under the direct control of the State. 4. XIII. The employment of children under the

age of fourteen (14) years in under

ground mines is prohibited. 5. XIII. No person, not a citizen of the United

States, or who has not declared his intention to become such, shall be employed upon, or in connection

with, any State or municipal works. 6. XIII. The Legislature shall provide by

proper legislation for giving to mechanics, laborers, and material men an adequate lien on the sub

ject-matter of their labor. 7. XIII. The Legislature may establish boards

of arbitration, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine all differences and controversies between laborers and their employers which may be submitted to them in writing by all the parties. Such boards of arbitration shall possess all the powers and authority in respect to administering oaths, subpoenaing witnesses, and compelling their at tendance, preserving order during the sittings of the board, punishing for contempt, and requiring the production of papers and writings, and all other powers and privileges, in their nature applicable, conferred

by law on justices of the peace. 8. XIII. The commissioner of immigration,

labor and statistics shall perform such duties anù receive such compensation as may be prescribed by law.

KENTUCKY. 243. The General Assembly shall, by law

Immigration, Labor and Agriculture.

Sec. Art.

fix the minimum ages at which children may be employed in places dangerous to life or health, or injurious to morals; and shall provide adequate penalties for violations of such law.

Sec. Art.

offices. He shall have the supervision of the tobacco warehouses and all other buildings used for inspection and storage purposes by the State; and may, at the discretion of the Legislature, have the supervision of all public buildings now belonging to or which may hereafter be erected by the State. He shall frequently inspect such buildings as are committed to his charge, and examine all accounts for labor and materials required for their

construction or repairs. 5. X. He shall inquire into the undeveloped

resources of wealth of the State of Maryland, more especially concerning those within the limits of Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, which belong to the State, and suggest such plans as may be calculated to render them available as sources of

MARYLAND. 1. X. There shall be a Superintendent of

Labor and Agriculture elected by the qualified voters of this State at the first general election for Delegates to the General Assembly after the adoption of this Constitution who shall hold his office for the terin of four years, and until the election

and qualification of his successor. 2. X. His qualifications shall be the same as those prescribed for the Comptroller; he shall qualify and enter upon the duties of his office on the second Monday of January next succeeding the time of his election ; and a vacancy in the office shall be filled by the Governor for the resi

due of the term. 3. X. He shall perform such of the duties

now devolved by law upon the Commissioner of Immigration, and the Immigration Agent, as will promote the object for which those officers were appointed, and such other duties as may be assigned to to him by the General Assembly, and shall receive a salary of twentyfive hundred dollars a year; and after his election and qualification, the offices before mentioned shall


6. X. He shall make detailed reports to

every General Assembly within the first week of its session, in reference to each of the subjects committed to his charge, and he shall also report to the Governor, in the recess of the Legislature, all abuses or irregularities which he may find to exist in any department of public affairs with which his office is con

nected. 7. X. The office hereby established shall

continue for four years from the date of the qualification of the first incumbent thereof; and shall then expire, unless continued by the General Assembly.


4. X. He shall supervise all the State inspectors of agricultural products and fertilizers; and from time to time, shall carefully examine and audit their accounts, and prescribe regulations, not inconsistent with law, tending to secure economy and efliciency in the business of their

MONTANA. 1. XVIII. The Legislative Assembly may pro

vide for a bureau of agriculture, labor and industry, to be located at the capitol and be under the control of a commissioner appointed by

Immigration, Labor and Agriculture. Sec. Art.

Sec. Art. the Governor subject to the con- caused by willful failure to comply firmation of the Senate. The Com- with the provisions of this article, missioner shall hold his office for or laws passed in pursuance hereof, four years, and until his successor a right of action shall accrue to the is appointed and qualified. His party injured, for the damage suscompensation shall be as provided tained thereby, and in all cases in by law.

this State, whenever the death of a 2. XVIII.

person shall be caused by wrongful It shall be unlawful for the warden or

act, neglect or default, such 13 other officer of any State peniten

would, if death had not ensued, tiary or reformatory institution in

have entitled the party injured to the State of Montana, or for any

maintain an action to recover damState officer to let by contract to

ages in respect thereof, the perany person or persous or corpora

son who or the corporation which tion the labor of any convict con

would have been liable, if death fined within said institutions.

had not ensued, shall be liable foran

action for damages notwithstand. NORTH DAKOTA.

ing the death of the person injured, 209.

and the Legislature shall provide The labor of children under twelve

by law at its first session for the years of age shall be prohibited in

manner in which the right of action mines, factories and workshops in

in respect thereto shall be enforced. this State.

1. XIX. WYOMING. 22. I.

Eight (8) hours actual work shall con

stitute a lawful day's work in all The rights of labor shall have just

mines, and on all State and municiprotection through laws calculated to secure to the laborer proper

pal works. rewards for bis service and to pro- 1. XX. mote the industrial weifare of the It shall be unlawful for any person, State.

company, or corporation, to require 3. IX.

from its servants or employes as a No boy under the age of fourteen

condition of their employment, or years, and no woman or girl of any

otherwise, any contract or agreeage shall be employed or permitted

ment, whereby such person, comto be in or about any coal, iron or pany or corporation shall be releasother dangerous mines for the pur

ed or discharged from liability or pose of employment therein; Pro- responsibility, on account of pervided, however, this provision shall sonal injuries received by such not effect the employment of a boy servants or employes, while in tho or female of suitable age in an service of such person, company or office or in the performance of corporation, by reason of the neg clorical work at such mine or ligence of such person, company or colliery.

corporation, or the agents or em4. IX.

ployes thereof, and such contracts For any injury to person or property shall be absolutely null and void.

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