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Miscellaneous.

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come entitled by gift, grant, inheritance or devise, shall be and remain the estate and prop erty of such female, and shall not be liable for the debts, obligations or engagements of her i husband; and may be devised or | bequeathed by her as if she were unmarried.

MINNESOTA 11. I. No bill of attainder, ex post facto

law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed, and no conviction shall work corruption of

blood or forfeiture of estate. 2. xv. Persons residing on Indian lands within the State shall enjoy all the rights and privileges of citi. zens, as though they lived in any other portion of the State, and shall be subject to taxation,

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power to contract in reference thereto. Married Women are hereby fully emancipated from all disa bility on account of coverture. But this shall not prevent the Legislature from regulating contracts between husband and wife; nor shall the Legislature be prevented from regulating the sale of home

steads. 269. XIV. Every devise or bequest of lands,

tenements or hereditaments, or any interest therein, of freehold, or less than freehold, either present or future, vested or contirgent, or of any money directed to be raised by the sale thereof, contained in any last will and testament, or codicil, or other testamentary writing, in favor of any religious or ecclesiastical corporation, sole or aggregate, or any religious or eccleciastical society, or to any religious denomination, or association of persons, or to any person or body politic, in trust, either expressed or implied, secret or resulting, either for the use and benefit of such religious corporation, society, denomination or as. sociation, or for the purpose of being given or appropriated to charitable uses or purposes, shall be null and void, and the heirs. at-law shall take the same property so devised or bequeathed, as though no testamentary dis

position had been made. 270. XIV. Every legacy, gift or bequest of money or personal property, or of any interest, benefit

use therein, either direct, implied or otherwise, contained in any last will and testament, or codicil, in favor of any religious or ecclesiastical corporation, sole or aggregate, or any religious or

MISSISSIPPI. 7. III. The right to withdraw from the Federal Union on account of any real or supposed grievance, shall never be assumed by this State, nor shall any law be passed in derogation of the paramount allegiance of the citizens of this State to the government of the

United States. 16. III. Es post facto laws, or laws impairing the obligation of con

tracts, shall not be passed. 43. III. The property of the wife shall be protected from the debts of the

husband. 94. IV. The Legislature shall never create by law any distinction between the rights of men and women to acquire, own, enjoy and dispose of property of all kinds, or their

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Miscellaneous.

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ecclesiastical society, or to any religious denomination or association, either for its own use or benefit, or for the purpose of being given or appropriated to charitable uses, shall be null and void, and the distributees shall take the same as though no such testamentary disposition had been made.

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tracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges, franchises or immunities shall be passed by the Legislative Assembly.

NEBRASKA. 15. I. All penalties shall be proportioned

to the nature of the offense, and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; nor shall any person be transported out of the State for any offense committed within

the State. 16. I. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obli. gation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities, shall be passed.

NEVADA. 15. I. No bill of attainder, ex post facto

law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be

passed. 31. I. All property, both real and per

sonal, of the wife, owned claimed by her before marriage, and that acquired after. ward by gift, devise or descent, shall be her separate property; and laws shall be passed more clearly defining the rights of the wife in relation, as well to her separate property, as to that held in common with her husband. Laws shall also be passed providing for the registration of

the wife's separate property. 4. XV. No perpetuities shall be allowed. except for elemosynary purposes.

MISSOURI. 3. II. That Missouri is a free and in

dependent State, subject only to the Constitution of the United States; and as the preservation of the States and the maintenance of their governments are necessary to an indestructible Union, and were intended to coexist with it, the Legislature is not authorized to adopt, nor will the people of this State ever assent to, any amendment or change of the Constitution of the United States which may in anywise impair the right of local self-government belonging to the

people of this State. 15. II. That no ex post facto law, nor

law Impairing the obligation or contracts, or retrospective in its operation, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities, can be

passed by the General Assembly. 3. XIV. No person who shall hereafter

fight a duel, or assist in the same as second, or send, accept or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall hold

any office in this State.

MONTANA. 11. No ex post facto law, nor law im

pairing the obligations of con

or

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 23. I. Retrospective laws are highly injurious, oppressive, and unjust. No such laws, therefore, shoula

Miscellaneous.

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be made, either for the decision of civil causes or the punishment

of offenses. 84. I. No person can, in any case, be subjected to law martial or to any pains or penalties by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in active service, but by authority of the Legislature.

NEW JERSEY. 7. IV. The Legislature shall not

pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or depriving a party or any remedy for enforcing a contract which existed when the contract was made.

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sive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospective sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be

passed. 5. VI. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God. Second, all persons who shall have been convicted of treason, perjury or of any other infamous crime, since becoming citizens of the United States, or of corruption, or malpractice in office, unless such person shall have been legally restored to the

rights of citizenship. 6. X. The real and personal property of

any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner, entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and with the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were unmarried.

NORTH CAROLINA. 4. L That this State shall ever remain a member the · American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and that all attempts, from whatever source or upon what. ever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or to sever said Nation, ought to be resisted with the whole power of the State.

5. I

That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding

force. 32. L. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppres

NORTH DAKOTA. 3. I. The State of North Dakota is an

inseparable part of the American Union, and the Constitution of the United States is the su

preme law of the land. 16. I. No bill of attainder, ex post facto

law, or law Impairing the obliga. tions of contracts, shall ever be passed.

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Sec. Art.

or shall knowingly carry to another person such challenge, or who shall agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall be ineligible to any office of profit or

trust. 5. XV. The property and pecuniary rights

of every married woman, at the time of marriage, or afterward acquired by gift, devise or inheritance, shall not be subject to the debts or contracts of the husband; and laws shall be passed providing for the registration of the wife's separate property.

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Sec. Art. 213. XVII. The real and personal property of

any woman in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property to which she may after marriage become in any manner rightfully entitled, shall be her separate property, and shall not be liable for the debts of her husband.

OHIO. 28. II. The General Assembly shall have

no power to pass retroactive laws, or laws impairing the obilgation of contracts; but may; by general laws, authorize courts to carry into effect, upon such terms shall be just and equitable, the manifest intention of parties and officers, by securing omissions, defects and errors in instruments and proceedings arising out of the want of conformity with the laws of

this State. 5. XV. No person shall hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept or knowingly carry, a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in this State.

OREGON. 21. I. No ex post facto law, or law im

pairing the obligations of contracts, shall ever be passed, nor shall any law be passed, the taking effect of which shall be made to depend upon any authority, except as provided in this constitution; provided that the laws locating the capital of the State, locating county seats, and submitting town and corporate acts, and other local and special laws, may take effect or not, upon a

vote of the electors interested. 9. II. Every person who shall give or

accept a challenge to fight a duel,

PENNSYLVANIA. 17. I. No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making irrevocable any grant of special privileges or immunities, shall

be passed. 26. I. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall

forever remain Inviolate. 3. XII. Any person who shall fight a duel

or send a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or a bettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this state, and may be otherwise punished as shall be prescribed by law.

RHODE ISLAND. 12. I. No ex post facto law, or law im

pairing the obligation of con

tracts, shall be passed. 14. I. Every man being presumed inno

cent until he is pronounced guilty

Miscellaneous.

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by the law, no act of severity which is not necessary to secure an accused person shall be permitted.

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Sec. Art

navigable stream, unless the same be authorized

the General Assembly. 4. IV. Every citizen of this State owes

paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and no law or ordinance of this State in contravention or subversion thereof

can have any binding force. 8. XIV. The real and personal property of

woman held at the time of her marriage, or that which she may thereafter acquire, either by gift, grant, inheritance, devise or otherwise, shall not be subject to levy and sale for her husband's debts, but shall be held as her separate property, and may be bequeathed, devised or alienated by her the same as if she were unmarried: Provided, That no gift or grant from the husband to the wife shall be detrimental to the just claims of his creditors.

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SOUTH CAROLINA. 5. I. This State shall ever remain a member of the American Union, and all attempts, from whatsoever source, or upon whatever pretextto dissolve the said Union, shall be resisted with the

whole power of the State. 21. I. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, nor any law Impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be enacted; and no conviction shall work corruption of

blood or forfeiture of estate. 32. 1. No property qualifications shall be necessary for an election to or the holding of any office, and no office shall be created, the appointment to which shall be for & longer time than good behavior. After the adoption of this Constitution any person who shall fight a duel or send or accept a challenge for that purpose, or be an aider or a bettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of holding any office of honor or trust in this State, and shall be otherwise punished as

the law shall prescribe. 40. I. Al navigable waters shall remain forever public highways, free to citizens of the State and the United States, without tax, impost or toll imposed; and no tas, toll, impost or wharfage shall be imposed, demanded or recelved from the owner of any merchandise or commodity, for the use of the shores, or any whart erected on the shores, or in or over the waters of any

a duel

SOUTH DAKOTA. 12. VI. No ex post facto law, or law im

pairing the obligation of contracts or making any irrevocable grant of privilege, franchise or

immunity, shall be passed. 5. XXI. Rights of Married Women.-The

real and personal property of any woman in this State ac

quired before marriage, and all property to which she may after marriage become in any manner rightfully entitled, shall be her separate property, and shall not be liable for the debts of her husband.

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TENNESSEE. 11. I. That laws made for the punishment of acts committted previous

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