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Preamble.

in general convention, to consider, discuss and propose a new Constitution, or alterations and amendments to the existing Constitution of this Commonwealth; and by an act passed on the thirteenth of March, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fiftyone, did further provide for submitting the same to the people for ratification or rejection, and the same having been submitted ac

cordingly was ratified by them; And, whereas, the General Assembly

of Virginia, by an act passed on the twenty-first day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, did provide for the election, by the people, of delegates to meet in general convention, to consider, discuss and adopt alterations and amendments to the existing Constitution of this Commonwealth, the delegates so assembled did, therefore, having maturely considered the premises, adopt a revised

and amended Constitution as the form

of government of Virginia; And, whereas, the Congress of the

United States did, by an act passed on the second day of March, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and entitled "An act to provide for the more efficient government of the rebel States," and by acts supplementary thereto passed on the twentythird day of March and the nineteenth day of July, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, provide for the electina, by the people of Virginia,

qualified to vote under the provisions of said acts, of delegates to meet in convention to frame a Constitution or form of government for Virginia in conformity with said acts; and by the same acts did further provide for the submitting of such Constitution to the qualified voters for ratifica

tion or rejection; We, therefore, the delegates of the

good people of Virginia, elected and in convention assembled, in pursuance of said act, invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do propose to the people the following Constitution and form of government for this Comnion. wealth:

WASHINGTON. We, the people of the State of Wash

ington, grateful to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution.

WISCONSIN. We, the people of Wisconsin, grate

ful to Almighty God for our free. dom, in order to secure its bless. ings, form a more perfect government, insure domestic tranquility, and promote the general welfare, do establish this Constitution.

WYOMING. We, the people of the State of Wyoming, grateful to God for our civil, political and religious liberties, and desiring to secure them to ourselves and perpetuate them to our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

No Person to be Disfranchised.

NO PERSON TO BE DISFRANCHISED.

ARTICLE I.

1

Section 1. No member of this State shall be disfranchised,

2

or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any

3 citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment

4 of his peers.

Sec. Art.

be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time

than during good behavior. 31. I. That immigration shall be en

couraged; immigration shall not be prohibited, and that no citi

zen shall be exiled. 39. I. That this enumeration of certain

rights shall not impair or deny others retained by the people.

Sec. Art.

ALABAMA. 2. L That all persons resident in this

State, born in the United States, or naturalized, or who shall have legally declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, are hereby declared citizens of the State of Alabarna, possessing equal civil

and political rights. 3. I. That all political power is inher

ent in the people, and all free governments are founded in their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to change their form of government, in such manner as

they may deem expedient. 20. I. That no person shall be attainted

of treason by the General Assembly; and that no conviction shall work corruption of blood

or forfeiture of estate. 80. I. That no title of nobility or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor or emoluments shall ever be granted conferred in this State; and that no office shall

ARKANSAS. 1. II. All political power is inherent in

the people, and government is instituted for their protection, security and benefit; and they have the right to alter, reform or abolish the same in such man

ner as they may think proper, 3. II. The equality of all persons before

the law is recognized, and shall ever remain inviolate; nor shall any citizen ever be deprived of any right, privilege or immunity, nor exempted from any burden or duty, on account of race,

color or previous condition. 18. II. The General Assembly shall not

grant to any citizen or class of

or

No Person to be Disfranchised.

Sec. Art.

deny others retained by the people.

COLORADO. 1. I. That all political power is vested

in and derived from the people; that all government or right, originates from the people, is founded upon their will only and is instituted solely for the good of the whole.

Sec. Art.

citizens privileges or immunities which upon the same terms shall not equally belong to all

citizens. 19. II. Perpetuities and monopolies

are contrary to the genius of a republic, and shall not be allowed; nor shall any hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ever be granted or conferred in this

State. 29. II. This enumeration of rights shall

not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and to guard against any encroachments on the rights herein retained, or any transgression of any of the high powers herein delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of the government, and shall forever remain inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, or to the other provisions herein contained, shall be void.

2. II. That the people of this State have

the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves, as a free sovereign and independent State; and to alter and a bolish their Constitution and form of government whenever they may deem it necessary to their safety and happiness, provided such change be not repugnant to the Constitution of the United

States. 28. II. The enumeration in this Constitu

tion of certain rights shall not be construed to deny, impair or disparage others retained by the people.

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CALIFORNIA. 2. I. All political power is inherent in

the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever !

the public good may require it. 21. I. No special privileges or immuni

ties shall ever be granted which may not be altered, revoked or repealed by the Legislature, nor shall any citizen, or class of citizens, be granted privileges or immunities which, upon the same termy, shall not be granted i

to all citizens. 23. I. This enumeration of rights shall

not be construed to impair or

CONNECTICUT. 1. I. That all men, when they form a social compact, are

equal in rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges

from the community. 2. I. That all political power is inher

ent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such manner as they may think expedient.

1

а.

No Person to be Disfranchised.

Sec. Art.

upon their will only, and is insti. tuted solely for the good of the whole. Public officers are the trustees and servants of the people, and at all times amenable to them.

P. Hall

Bec. Art 20. I. No hereditary emoluments, privi

leges or honors shall ever be granted or conferred in this State,

DELAWARE. 15. I. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate. The estates of those who destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death, and if any Derson be killed by accident, no forfeiture shall be thereby in

curred. 19. I. No hereditary distinction shall be

granted, nor any office created or exercised, the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior; and no person holding any office under this State, shall accept of any office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.

1. I. Par. XVI. The social status of

the ciuzen shall never be the

subject of legislation. 2. I. Par. III. No conviction shall

work corruption of blood or for

feiture of estate., 5. I. Par. I. The people of this State

have the inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating their internal government, and the police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happi

ness. Par. II. The enumeration of rights

herein contained, as part of this Constitution, srall not be construed to deny to the people any inherent rights which they may have hitherto enjoyed.

FLORIDA 2. I. All political power is inherent in

the people, Government is instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the citizens, and they have the right to alter or amend the same whenever the public good may require it; but the paramount allegiance of every citizen is due to the Federal government, and the people of this State have no power to dissolve its

connection therewith, 24. I. This enunciation of rights shall

not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.

GEORGIA. 1. I All government, of right, origin

ates with the people, is founded

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No Person to be Disfranchised.

Sec. Art.

herein delegated remain with the people.

Sec. Art.

INDIANA 23. I. The General Assembly shall not

grant to any citizen, or class of citizens, privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shanto

not equally belong to all 36. I. Emigration from the State shall

not be prohibited.

KENTUCKY. 3. I. All men, when they form a social compact, are

equal; and no grant of exclusive, separate public emoluments or privileges shall be made ito any man or set of men, except in consideration of public services, but no property shall be exempt from taxation except as provided in this constitution; and every grant of a franchise, privilege or exemption shall remain subject to revocation, alteration or amend.

ment. 4. I. All power is inherent in the peo

ple, and all free governments are founded on their authority and instituted for their peace, safety, happiness and the protection of property. For the advancement of these ends, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform or abolish their government in such manner

they may deem proper. 23. I. The General Assembly shall not

grant any title of nobility or hereditary distinction, nor create any office, the appointment of which shall be for a longer time

than a term of years. 24. I. Emigration from the State shall

not be prohibited.

IOWA. 2. I. All political power is inherent to

the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the people, and they have the right, at all times, to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good

may require it. 25. I. This enumeration of rights shall

not be construed to impair or deny others, retained by the people.

KANSAS. 2. I. All political power is inherent in

the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and are instituted for their equal protection and benefit. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted by the Legislature, which may not be altered, revoked or repealed by the same body; and this power shall be exercised by

no other tribunal or agency. 19. I. No hereditary emoluments, honors

privileges shall ever be granted or conferred by the

State. 20. I. This enumeration of rights shall

not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not

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MAINE.

. 2. I. All power is inherent in the pea ple; all free governments are founded in their authority and instituted for their benent; they have, therefore, an inalienable and indefeasible right to insti. tute government, and to alter,

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