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within a certain time. Migration to the Holy Land is visibly increasing. Multitudes from all parts of the world would hasten thither, could they become possessors of the dear soil, and enjoy reasonable protection. Mr. Noah proposes, that Christian societies and governments interested in the welfare of the Jews should exert their influence to procure these advantages for them in their native land of promise. The suggestion deserves notice.
Of modern efforts for the conversion of Israel to Christianity we can speak but briefly. The chief extraordinary obstacles which have hitherto opposed such efforts have been, a bigotry which treated the bare thought of investigating Christianity as a heinous sin, and which was ever prepared to stifle free inquiry by persecution ; the character of Talmudical education, which disqualified the pupil for independent judgment ; and accumulated prejudices against a religion too often exemplified only by profligate persecutors. But all these obstacles are gradually sinking away ; nor does growing infidelity appear so formidable as the superstition and fanaticism which have given place to it. Moreover, the spirit of inquiry, and the dissensions kindled by the progress of the revolution which Mendelssohn commenced, are favorable to Christian effort.
We shall speak only of what Protestants have done.
“ There occurs still,” says Mr. Whyte, “ the annual exhibition of a Jew baptized at Rome ; which ceremony I was privileged lately to witness. It took place in one of the most splendid churches, called St. John Lateran; the office was performed by a bishop; the convert put off the Jewish profession only for a time, and that, too, for a bribe ; and, as I was informed by a Roman Catholic on the spot, the same individual had been known to come forward
and to have been baptized several times.” — p. 238.
The first systematic efforts, on right principles, for the conversion of the Jews, after the Reformation, began with the establishment of the Callenberg Institute, at Halle, in 1728. This institution owed its origin to the pious zeal of Dr. Francke, and his pupil, Dr. Callenberg, though the former died before its formation. The Moravians seconded this enterprise, and of themselves, also, about the same time, sent missionaries to the Jews. The celebrated Schultze, who travelled much over Europe, Asia, and Africa, was VOL. LX. — No. 127.
sent out by the Callenberg Institute ; which also published parts of the New Testament, and various tracts, in Hebrew and Arabic. It fourished about sixty years ; then declined with the declining piety of its supporters, and soon came to an end. In 1809, there was established at London “ The Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews"; and since, several auxiliary and independent associations have been formed for the same purpose in other parts of Great Britain. On the continent, similar societies exist at Basle, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Berlin, Posen, and Breslau. The London institution is connected with the church of England. Its receipts for the year ending May, 1844, were £ 24,325. It employs seventy missionaries — thirty-six of them converted Jews — at twenty-seven stations in Great Britain, and in various parts of continental Europe and the East ; and it maintains in London a Hebrew college, two schools, and, as a place of employment and instruction for converts, the “ Jewish Converts' Operative Institution”; also, eight schools in the duchy of Posen. The missionaries of this society have made many converts ; three hundred and seventy-five baptisms are recorded in the London Jews' chapel, a good proportion of them being of adult proselytes. Their most interesting field of labor is the Holy Land ; they have stations at Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, and Saphet. In November, 1841, the Rev. Michael Solomon Alexander, a converted Jew, was consecrated
Bishop of the united Church of England and Ireland to reside at Jerusalem,” with jurisdiction over Palestine, and, for the present, over the rest of Syria, with Chaldea, Egypt, and Abyssinia. He entered his diocese in January, 1842. This appointment had been proposed by the king of Prussia, by a special ambassador to Queen Victoria, and a particular communication to the archbishop of Canterbury, with a view not only to the conversion of the Jews, but to the spiritual benefit of his own subjects in Palestine ; and he subscribed £15,000, as hall of the endowment of the new see, the annual stipend of which is fixed at £1,200. The London society added £3,000. The bishop is to be nominated alternately by the crowns of England and Prussia ; the archbishop of Canterbury, however, who is the metropolitan, having an absolute veto on the Prussian nomination. Before the bishop's arrival, there had been an
Episcopal chapel erected on Mount Zion. He laid the corner-stone of a new church in February, 1842, but great opposition has been made to its completion. Last year, however, a firman authorizing it was obtained from the Porte by the British ambassador.
In 1838, the General Assembly of the church of Scotland projected a mission to the Jews, and sent abroad four ministers on a tour of inquiry. They set out in April, 1839, and were absent about seven months ; in which time they traversed parts of France, Italy, Malta, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Wallachia, Moldavia, Hungary, Poland, and Prussia. The “ Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry” is a highly interesting record of their travels. Since their return, missions have been established at Pesth, in Hungary, Jassy, the capital of Moldavia, Damascus, and Constantinople. Upon the disruption of the Scottish church, all the missionaries which she had sent out adhered to the seceding body, or the free church ; with which the Irish Presbyterian church and the English Presbyterian synod have since zealously coöperated in their efforts for the Jews. At Pesih, especially, they have met with success perhaps unparalleled in the history of modern Jewish missions. At Jassy, too, where the prospect for a while seemed dark, a remarkable movement in favor of Christianity has commenced.
Dr. Tholuck has said, that more real converts have been made from Judaism within the last quarter of a century than altogether previously, since the primitive ages of the Church. In Berlin alone, there are reported to be one thousand converted Israelites; and twenty-two hundred have embraced Christianity in the Prussian dominions within eighteen years. Many of the most eminent scholars and professors in Europe are converted Jews. Nearly half a score of them occupy chairs in the University of Berlin, and among them are the celebrated Neander and Benary. Five are professors and two are lecturers in the University of Breslau ; five are professors in that of Halle ; and after we have named, in addition, Wehl, Arabic professor at Heidelberg, and Dr. Stahl, of Erlangen, an uncounted number still remain in Germany alone.
But one foreign missionary to the Jews belongs to this country, - Mr. Schauffler, sent to Constantinople by the American Board of Missions, in 1831, to be supported by a
“Ladies' Jews' Society," of Boston. • The American Society for meliorating the Condition of the Jews," by which « The Jewish Chronicle,” at first a newspaper, now a magazine, is published monthly, was incorporated by the legislature of New York, in 1821, though it had previously existed for about five years, under another name, as
6 The American Society for evangelizing the Jews.”
In 1827, they purchased a farm at New Paltz, Ulster county, in that State, as an asylum for converted Jewish emigrants from Europe ; but they accomplished little, and sold the farm in 1835, and languished until 1841, when a new impulse was received. They now employ an active missionary in the city of New York, and a travelling agent ; and they have invited Mr. John Neander, of Cassel, in Germany, to labor, under their direction, as a missionary among the Jews of this country. Several societies, auxiliary to this, have been formed in the United States, especially in New England ; and in the summer of 1943, there was established, at Philadelphia, “ The Pennsylvania Society for evangelizing the Jews,' for missionary operations in that State. American evangelists in foreign lands are often able to devote some effort to the sons of Israel, who are found everywhere. Yet it must be confessed, that the church of this country has done little, far too little, for this most interesting and important object. But even the unprecedented multiplication of late, here as well as in Great Britain, of popular works respecting the Jews, manifests, what is otherwise also clearly indicated, the dawn of a brighter day for the exiled daughter of Zion.
ART. IV. - An Introduction to the History of the Revolt
of the American Colonies ; being a Comprehensive View of its Origin, derived from the State Papers contained in the Public Offices of Great Britain. By GEORGE CHALMERS. Boston : James Munroe & Co. 1845. 2 vols. 8vo.
To write a good history or a good biography is no easy thing. He who undertakes to give an account of the transactions of the past has need of physical, moral, and mental qualities which are seldom sound combined. He should love hard study, and be able to endure it. Calmness and patience should never forsake him. He should know that nothing is to be taken on trust, and should contentedly devote days and even weeks to verify an incident that can be stated in a single line. He should sist testimony as thoroughly and weigh it as accurately as the judge upon the bench, and should know no sect in religion, and no party in politics. Since, in alınost every political event of moment, he will find that some good men have been given over to obloquy and shame, and that some bad men have been elevated to distinction, he should not hesitate to declare the truth, and the whole of it, in relation to both. To popular opinion, whether past or present, he should not listen ; since to correct that opinion, whenever wrong, is an important part of his duty.
We have often heard the remark made by intelligent per• sons, that a man may be an eminent bistorian without possessing either genius or originality. We do not think so. To recast and work over again the thoughts, opinions, and reasoning of other authors is not to write history. The annalist, like the poet, is not made, but is born with an aptitude for his particular department. Thus, no one will deny to Scott great intellectual or great creative power ; but his admirers will never rest his fame on his “ Life of Napoleon." Nor will any one hesitate to accord to our own Marshall reasoning faculties of the highest order ; yet few would cite the first volume of the first edition of his “Life of Washing
as the best work on our Colonial anpals. The book before us was written by an able, honest, laborloving, but strongly prejudiced, loyalist. George Chalmers, we venture to say, was never so happy as when delving among state papers. He had official concern with those of England for nearly half a century, and he used them for the composition of several valuable works upon British and American history. He wrote from the best sources of information, and his productions are entitled to consideration and respect. His “ Political Annals of the United Colonies” is esteemed, and has been quoted and relied upon as good authority almost universally. His “ Life of Mary, Queen of Scots » shows the ardor and zeal which he could bring to bear upon a favorite object. It is the plea of an advocate, to prove from official documents, that this unfor