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UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.

INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE

THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITH

THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS,

SECOND EDITION,

IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES.

VOLUME XII.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY JOHN BROWN, ANCHOR CLOSE,

FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
AND SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

1816.

BODL LIBR.

SO. JUL. 1919
OXFORD

ENCYCLOPEDIA PERTHENSIS."

I LE

I LE (L.) * TLE. n. l. corrupted from aille, Fr.1 A flex AQUIFOLIUM, or common HOLLY. Of

walk or alley in a church or public this there are many varieties with variegated building. Properly aile:

leaves, which are propagated by the gardeners Upward the columns shoot, the roofs afcend, for sale, and some years ago were in great efteem, And arches widen, and long iles extend. Pope, but át present are little regarded; the old taste of (2.) * ILE. 1. . Laisle, Fr.] An ear of corn. filing gardens with fhorn evergreens being abo. Ainswortb.

lished. In the difpofition of clumps, however, or (3.) İLE, a river of Somersetshire, which runs rather plantations, of evergreen trees and shrubs, into the Parret, one mile S. of Langport. a few, of the most lively colours, have a good efILEHARRE, a town of France, in the dep. of feet in winter, if properly

, disposed. The best of the Lower Pyrenees, near Mauleon.

these varieties are the painted-lady holly, British ILEIGNES, a town of Hispaniola.

holly, Bradley's beft holly, phyllis or cream holly, ILEN, a river of Wales, in Pembrokeshire. milkmaid holly, Prichet's beft holly, gold-edged

ILERAY, an isand of Scotland, on the W. hedgehog holly, Chyney's holly, glory-of-the-west coast of N. Uif, separated from it and from the holly, Broaderick's holly, Partridge's holly, Hereisle of Kirkbost by Sands, which are overslowed at fordshire white holly, Blind's cream holly, Long; high water. It is 3 miles long, half a mile broad, staff's holly, Eales's holly, filver-edged hedgehog and yields good crops of barley, befides pasture holly. All these are propagated by budding orgraftfor cattle.

ing them upon stocks of the common greea holly. ILERDA, in ancient geography, the capital of There is also a variety of the common holly with the ILERGETES, lituated on an eminence between smooth leaves; but it is often found intermixed the rivers Sicoris and Cinga. It was often beliég- with the prickly-leaved on the same tree, and often ed and taken, being exposed to the incursions on the same branch there are both sorts of leaves. from Gaul; and under Gallienus it was destroy. The common holly grows naturally in woods and ed by the Germans. It is now called LERIDA, in forests in many parts of England, where it rises Catalonia, on the Segra.

from 20 to 30 feet, and sometimes more, but the ILERGETES, the people of Ilerda, errone. ordinary height is not above 25 feet: the stem by oully called Iligertes by fome encyclopædists. age becomes large, and is covered with a greyith

ILESTGAGUEN, a strong towa of Morocco, smooth bark; and those trees which are not loped in the province of Hea, eated on a mountain. or browsed by cattle, are commonly furnished with

ILET, a river of Russia, which runs into the branches the greatest part of their length, forming Volga, 40 miles NW. of Kazan.

á fort of cone; the branches are garnished with ILEUS. n. f. [Latin.)-An ileus, commonly oblong oval leaves, of a lucid green on their upcalled the twisting of the guts, is really either à per furface, but are pale on their under, having a circumvolution, or infertion of one part of the gut Itrong midrib: the edges are indented and waved, within the other. Arbuthnot.

with sharp thorns terminating each of the points, (9.) * ILEX. n. f. [Latin.)-The ilex, or great so that some of the tKorns are raised upward, scarlet oak, thrives well in England, is a hardy and others are bent downward, and being very fort of tree, and easily raised of acorns. The Spa- ftiff, they are troublesome to handle. The leaves. Riards have a sort they call enzina ; the wood of are placed alternate on every tide of the branches; which, when old, is finely chambletted, as if it and from the base of their footstalks come out the were painted. Mortimer.

flowers in clusters, standing on very short foot. (3.) İlex, the HOLM or Holly Tree: A genus stalks; each of these suftain five, fix, or inore of the tetragynia order, belonging to the tetrandria flowers. They are of a dirty white, and appear class of plants, and in the natural method ranking in May; but are fucceeded hy roundin berries, under the 4zd order Dumoja. The calyx is qua. which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas, dridentated; the corolla rotaceous; there is no and continue on the trees, if they are not destroy. Ryle; the berry is monospermous. There are fe- ed, till after Christmas. The common holly is a veral species; but the moft remarkable is the very beautiful tree in winter; therefore defea's

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place in all plantations of evergreen trees and long to it. It is seated almost opposite Swansea, shrubs, where its shining leaves and red berries in Glamorganshire, and is 49 miles NNW. of Exe. make a fine variety. A few of the best variegated ter, and 181 W. by S. of London. Lon. 4. 5. W. kinds properly intermixed, enliven the scene. It * Lat. 51. 14. N. is propagated by seeds, which never come up the ILHAVO, a town of Portugal, in Beira. first year, but lie in the ground as the haws do ; (1.) ILHEOS, a fertile province of Brazil, in the therefore the berries should be buried in the ground middle division. one year, and then laken up and fown at Mi. (2,3.) ILH eos, the capital of the above province, chaelmas, upon a bed exposed only to the morn, seated on a riyer, so named, 90 miles NE. of Porto ing sun; the following spring the plants will ap Segaro. Lon. 41. 35. W. Lat. 15. 5. S. pear, which must be kept clean from weeds; and ILIA, the daughter of Numitor, and mother of if the spring prove dry, it will be of great fer- ROMULUS, the founder of Rome. See NUMITOR. vice to the plants if they are watered once a-week; (1:) * ILIAC. adj. fitiacus, Lat.] Relating to but they must not have it oftener, nor in too great the lower bowels. The iliac paffion is a kind of quantity, for too much moisture is very injurious convulfion in the belly. to these plants when young. In this feed bed the (2.) * ILIAC PASsion. A kind of nervous choplants may remain two years; and then be tranf. lic, whose feat is the ilium, whereby that gut is planted in autumn, into beds about fix inches twisted, or one part enters the cavity of the part asunder, where they may ftand two years longer; immediately below or above; whence it is also during which time they must be conftantly kept called the volvulus, from volvo, to roll.—Those clean from weeds; and if they have thriven well, who die of the iliac pasion have their bellies much they will be strong enough to transplant where swelled. Floger on the Humours. they are designed to remain; for when they are 43.) The ILIAC PASSION is called also miferere transplanted at that age, they will grow to a laro mei, and chordäpsus. The name is derived by some ger hize than those which are removed when they from the Greek verbouwv, to wind or twił. See are much larger : but if the ground is not ready ANATOMY, N° 298, and MEDICINE, No 193, 89: to receive them, they should be transplanted into --8950 å nursery in rows two feet distant, and one foot (4.) Iliac Region. See ANATOMY, N° 267. alunder; where they may remain two years,longer. · ILIACORE, a town of Indoftan, in Malabar. If they are to be grafted with any of the variega- ILIAD, [111ms, from Iliun.) an ancient epic fed kinds, that mould be performed after they poem, the first and finest of those composed by have grown one year in the nursery; but the Homer

. The poet's design was to thow the lants lo grafted should continue two years after Greeks, who were divided into several little states, in the nursery, that they may make good shoots how much it was their interest to preferve har before they are removed, though the plain ones mony among themselves; for which end he sets beshould not stand longer than two years in the nur-fore them the calamities that befel their ancestors fery, because when they are older they do not from the wrath of Achilles, and his misunderftandtransplant fo well. The best season for removing ing with Agamemnon, and the advantages that hollies

, is in autumn, especially in dry land; but afterwards accrued to them from their union. The where the soil is cold and moist, they may.

be niad is divided into 24 books or rhapsodies. transplanted with great lafety, in spring, if the ILIENSES, an ancient people of Sardinia, men planıs are not too old, or have not stood long un; tioned by Livy; lib. 40.6.19.1.41.c. 6, 12. removed. Sheep in winter are fed with croppings ILIENSIUM Pagus. See ILIUM, No 3. of holly. Birds eat the berries. The bark fer- ILINSKOI, four towns of Rullia, in the gov. mented, and wated from the woody fibres, make of Novogorod, Oloník, Tobolsk, and Tuer. the cominon bird.lime. The plant makes an im- -(1.) ILION, or I410s. See ILIUM, N° 2. penetrable fence, and bears cropping, though it (2.) Ilion, a town of Afia, in Thibet. does not in all respects answer equally well with ILÍSSIADES, a title of the Muses ; from the hawthorn, The wood is used in fineering, and, ILISSUS, a river running to the E. of Athens; is sometimes stained black to imitate ebony. Han- which, with the fridanus running on the W. fide, dles for knives, and cogs for mill wheels, are made falls below the city into the sea. It was facred to of it. It is also made into hones for razors. Mile the Muses, and their altar food on its bank, where lar says, he has seen the. Napr of a room laid with the lustration in the lefler mysteries was usually compartments of holly, and mahogany, which had performed. a fine effect.

"ILITHYIA, a title of Juno and DIANA, ILTELD, a town of Saxony, in Hohnstein. ILIVE, an English printer and letter founder, (1.) ILFORD, GREAT, two villages of Essex, who published some fingular tracts ; particularly a

(2.) ILFORD, LITTLF 3 on the Roding, which pretended translation of the book of JASHER; and is navigable hence to the Thames. They are ham- an oration, proving that this world is Hell, and lets to the town of Larking; and lie 7 miles NE, that the souls of men are fallen angels. He died by E. of London.

at London in 1763. LLFRACOMBE, a sea-port of Devonshire, with (1.) ILIUM, in anatomy. See ANATOMY, N° a spacious balin, formed by a good pier projeding 299. into the Bristol Channel. The high tides here ale (2.) ILIUM, Ilion, or Ilios, in ancient geogra. low large veilels to enter the harbour. This port phy, a name of Troy, but most commonly used, employs a number of brigs and loops, chiefly in by the poets, and distinguished by the epithet les cariying ore from Cornwall, coal from Wales, tus; at a greater distance from the sea than that and corn to Brittol. A number of fishing Ikiffs bea afterwards called Ilium Novum, See N° 3.

(3.) ILIUM

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