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UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.

INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE

THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITH

THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS.

SECOND EDITION,

IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES.

VOLUME XII.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY JOHN BROWN, ANCHOR CLOSE,

FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
AND SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

1816.

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I L'E

I LE (1) * TLE, n.]. (corrupted from aile, Fr.1 A Itex AQUIFOLIUM, or common Holly. Of

walk or alley in a church or public this there are many varieties with variegated building. Properly aile:

leaves, which are propagated by the gardeners Upward the columns shoot, the roofs afcend, for sale, and some years ago were in great efteem, And arches widen, and long iles extend. Pope, but at present are little regarded; the old taste of (2.) *ILE. 1. f. laille, Fr.) An ear of corn. filing gardens with fhorn evergreens being aboAinswortb.

kifhed. In the difpofition of clumps, however, or (3.) lle, a river of Somersetshire, which runs rather plantations, of evergreen trees and shrubs, into the Parret, one mile S. of Langport. a few, of the most lively colours, have a good ef

ILEHARRE, a town of France, in the dep. of feet in 'winter, if properly disposed. The best of the Lower Pyrenees, near Mauleon.

these varieties are the painted-lady holly, British ILEIGNES, a town of Hispaniola.

holly, Bradley's best holly, phyllis or cream holly, ILEN, a river of Wales, in Pembrokeshire. milkmaid holly, Prichet's beft holly, gold-edged

ILERAY, an isand of Scotland, on the W. hedgehog holly, Chyney's holly, glory-of-the-west coast of N. Vift, separated from it and from the holly, Broaderick's holly, Partridge's holly, Hereise of Kirkbost by sands, which are overflowed at fordshire white holly, Blind's cream 'holly, Long, high water. It is 3 miles long, half a mile broad, staff's holly, Eales's holly, filver-edged hedgehog and yields good crops of barley, befides pafture holly. All these are propagated by budding orgraft for cattle.

ing them upon stocks of the common greea holly. ILERDA, in ancient geography, the capital of There is also'a variety of the common hólly with the ILERGETES, lituated on an eminence between smooth leaves; but it is often found intermixed the rivers Sicoris and Cinga. It was often beliég, with the prickly-leaved on the same tree, and often ed and taken, being exposed to the incursions on the same branch there are both sorts of leaves. from Gaul; and under Gallienus it was destroy. The common holly grows naturally in woods and ed by the Germans. It is now called LERIDA, in forests in many parts of England, where rifes Catalonia, on the Segra.

from 20 to 30 feet, and sometimes more, but the ILERGETES, the people of ILERDA, errone- ordinary height is not above 25 feet: the stem by ouily called Iligertes by fome encyclopædifts. age becomes large, and is covered with a greyith

ILESTGAGUEN, a strong town of Morocco, smooth bark; and those trees which are not loped in the province of Hea, feated on a mountain. or browsed by cattle, are commonly furnished with

ILET, a river of Ruflia, which runs into the branches the greatest pårt of their length, forming Voiga, 40 miles NW. of Kazan.

á fort of cone; the branches are garnished with ILEUS. n. f. [Latin.] --An ileus, commonly oblong oval leaves, of a 'lucid green on their upá called the twisting of the guts, is really either à per furface, but are pale on their under, 'having a circumvolution, or insertion of one part of the gut itrong midrib: the edges are indented and waved, within the other. Arbuthnot.

with sharp thorns terminating each of the points, (1.) * ILEX. n. S. (Latin.]-The ilex, or great so that some of the thorns are raised upward, scarlet oak, thrives well in England, is, a hardy and others are bent downward, and being very fort of tree, and easily raised' of acorns. The Spa- stiff, they are troublesome to handle. The leaves Riards have a sort they call enzina ; the wood of are placed alternate on every fide of the branches; wbich, when old, is finely chambletted, as if it' and from the base of their footstalks come out the vere painted. Mortimer.

flowers in clusters, standing on very fhort foot. (2.) ILEX, the Holm or HOLIY Tree: A genus stalks; each of these fuftain five, fix, or añore of the tetragynia order, belonging to the tetrandria flowers. They are of a dirty white, and appear class of plants, and in the natural method ranking in May; but are fucceeded by roundish berries, under the 43d order Dumoja. The calyx is qua. which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas, dridentated; the corolla rotaceous; there is no and continue on the trees, if they are not destroytyle; the berry is monospermous. There are fe- ed, till after Christmas. The common holly is a veral species ; but the most remarkable is the very beautiful tree in winter; therefore deferves ? VOL XII. PART I,

А

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place in all plantations of evergreen trees and long to it. It is seated almost opposite Swansea, Thrubs, where its shining leaves and red berries in Glamorganshire, and is 49 miles NNW. of Exe make a fine variety. A few of the best variegated", ter, and 181 W. by S. of London. Lon. 4. 5. W. kinds properly intermixed, enliven the scene. It" Lat. 51. 14. N. is propagated by seeds, which never come up the ILHAVO, a town of Portugal, in Beira. first year, but lie in the ground as the haws do ; (1.) ILHEOS, a fertile province of Brazil, in the therefore the berries should be buried in the ground middle division. one year, and then taken up and fown at Mi. 3., the of ,

, upon a ing fun; the follow oed exposed only to the morn, seated on a riyer, so named, 90 miles NE. of Porto

Lon pear, which must be kept clean from weeds; and ILIA, the daughter of Numitor, and mother of if the spring prove dry, it will be of great fer- Romulus, the founder of Rome. See NUMITOR. but they must not have it oftener, nor in too great the lower bowels. The iliac passion is a kind of quantity, for too much moisture is very injurious convulfion in the belly. to these plants when young. In this seed bed the (2.) * ILIAC PASSION. A kind of nervous choplants may remain two years; and then be trans- lic, whose feat is the ilium, whereby that gut is

planted in autumn, into beds about six inches twisted, or one part enters the cavity of the part which called Vo asunder, where they may ftand two years longer; immediately below or above ; whence it is also

volvo, to roll.-Those clean from weeds; and if they have thriven well, who die of the iliac paffion have their bellies much they will be strong enough to transplant where swelled. Floger on the Humours. they are designed to remain; for when they are

a ger fize than those, which are removed when

they from the Greek verbstw, to wind or twist. See are much larger but it, the ground is not ready ANATOMY, N° 298, and MEDICINE, N° 193, 893 to receive them, they should be transplanted into -8950 å nursery in rows two feet diftant, and one foot (4.) Iliac Region. See ANATOMY, N° 267, asunder; where they may remain two years,longer.

ILIACORE, town of Indoftan, in Malabar? If they are to be grafted with any of the variega- ILIAD, (Inas, from liun.) an ancient epic ted kinds, that fhould be performed after they poem, the first and finest of those composed by have grown one year in the nursery; but the Homer

. The poet's design was to thow the plants fo grafted should continue two years after Greeks, who were divided into several little ftates, in the nursery, that they may make good shoots how much it was their interest to preferve har. before they are removed, though the plain ones mony, among themselves; for which end he sets beshould not stand longer than two years in the nur-fore them the calamities that befel their ancestors sery, because when they are older they do not from the wrath of Achilles, and his misunderftandtransplant so well. The best feason for removing ing with "Agamemnon, and the advantages that hollies is in autumn, especially in dry land , but afterwards accrųed to them from their union. The

and , be fiad is divided into 24 books or rhapsodies. transplanted with great Lafety, in spring, if the

ILIENSES, an ancient people of Sardinia, menplants are not too old, or have not stood long un. tioned by Livy; lib. 40, 6. 19. 1. 41.c.6, 12. removed. Sheep in winter are fed with croppings ILIENSIUM Pagus. Şee ILIUM, No 3. of holly Birds eat the berries. The bark fer- ILINSKOI, four towns of Russia, in the gov. mented, and washed from the woody fibres, make of Novogorod, Olonsk, Tobolsk, and Tuer. the cominon bird, lime. The plant makes an im

See ILIUM, No 2. penetrable fence, and bears cropping, though it,

(1.) ILION, Owo Of Alia, in Thibet. does not in all respects answer equally well with ILISSIADES, a title of the Muses; from the hawthorn, The wood is used in fineering, and ILISSUS, a river running to the E, of Athens; is sometimes itained black to imitate ebony. Han. wbich, with the Eridanus running on the W. Gide, Cles for knives, and cogs for mill wheels

, are made falls below the city into the sea. "It was facred to of it. It is also made into, hones for razors. Mile the Muses, and their altar food on its bank, where lar says, he has seen the figpe of a room laid with the lustration in the leffer mysteries was usually, compartments of holly, and mahogany, which had performed. a fine effect.

"TLITHYIA, a title of Juno and Diana, ILFELD, a town of Saxony, in Hohnstein. ILIVE, an English printer and letter 'founder, (13ILFOB, L.GREAT } nghe Roding, which pretended translation of the book of fashen and

(1.) ILFORD, GREAT, two villages of Effex, who published some fingular tracts; particularly a is navigable hence to the Thames. They are ham- an oration, proving that this world is Hell, and lets to the town of Larking; and lie 7 miles NE, that the souls of men are fallen angels. He died by E. of London,

at London in 1763. ILFRACOMBE, a sea-port of Devonshire, with (1.) ILIUM, in anatomy.' See ANATOMY, N° a spacious balin, formed by a good pier projeđing 290. into the Bristol Channel, The high tides here al. (2.) ILIUM, ILion, or Ilios, in ancient geogralow large vefsels to enter the harbour. This port phy, a name of Troy, but most commonly ufed employs a number of brigs and floops, chiefly in by the poets, and distinguished by the epithet te carıying ore from Cornwall, coal from Wales, tus ; at a greater diftance from the sea than that and cora to Bristol. A number of fishing skiffs be- afterwards called Ilium Novum. See N° 3.

(3.) LLIUM

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