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Earl of Derwentwater, Eadric Streona, Dr. Eck, Erastus, Frederick of Hohenzollern, Fritigern, Macdonald of Glencoe, Granvella, Hanno, Sir Simon Harcourt, Hroswitha, Hubert de Humayun, John 'Sans Peur,' St. John of the Cross, Jouffroy, L Liutprand, Lothaire I. and II., Maine de Biran, Sir Walter Earl of Mar, Masinissa, Countess Matilda, Morcar, Moseilam of Nithsdale, Popes Paul IV. and V., Strongbow and othe of Pembroke, Penda, the De la Pole family, Prester John, R Patrick Ruthven, Patrick Sarsfield, Tancred, Theodore Archbi Canterbury, Thurstan, Tissaphernes, Togrul Beg, Earl of Vermuyden, Vigilantius, Wahhab, Governor Wall, Adam Wei Zizim, and Zoroaster. Among the memoirs and notices of e persons recently deceased which first find a place in this work mentioned those of W. E. Aytoun, the Marquis d'Azeglio, W.T.1 Frederika Bremer, John Brown, W. A. Butler, A. H. Clough, Cockerell, J. Conolly, Bishop Cotton, David Cox, G. L. Craik, Eastlake, John Gibson, G. W. Gordon, Marshall Hall, Gen. H Father Ignatius, Ingres, John Keble, Dr. Lappenberg, Dom Alfred de Musset, H. Olshausen, Sir W. Parker, J. E. Riddle, Sir Ross, Emile Saisset, B. Silliman, Dr. Shirley, Sir G. Smart, Dr. wood Smith, John Snow, Jared Sparks, Joseph Toynbee, Ventura, Thomas Wakley, M. L. Watson, and C. G. Zumpt.

In the preparation of the latter half of the work I have ha advantage of consulting the new and elaborate Dictionnaire Crit of M. JAL, to whom I gladly acknowledge my obligations for not

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chronological and other corrections in It gives me much pleasure to make g? assistance and valuable suggestions Rev. G. W. Cox, editor of Brande's " and Art.'

Earl of Derwentwater, Eadric Streona, Dr. Eck, Erastus, Fingal

, Frederick of Hohenzollern, Fritigern, Macdonald of Glencoe, Cardinal Granvella, Hanno, Sir Simon Harcourt, Hroswitha, Hubert de Burgh, Humayun, John 'Sans Peur,' St. John of the Cross, Jouffroy, Layamon, Liutprand, Lothaire I. and II., Maine de Biran, Sir Walter Manny, Earl of Mar, Masinissa, Countess Matilda, Morcar, Moseilama, Earl of Nithsdale, Popes Paul IV. and V., Strongbow and other Earls of Pembroke, Penda, the De la Pole family, Prester John, Roscelin, Patrick Ruthven, Patrick Sarsfield, Tancred, Theodore Archbishop of Canterbury, Thurstan, Tissaphernes, Togrul Beg, Earl of Tyrone, Vermuyden, Vigilantius, Wahhab, Governor Wall, Adam Weishaupt, Zizim, and Zoroaster. Among the memoirs and notices of eminent persons recently deceased which first find a place in this work may be mentioned those of W. E. Aytoun, the Marquis d'Azeglio, W.T.Brande, Frederika Bremer, John Brown, W. A. Butler, A. H. Clough, C. R. Cockerell, J. Conolly, Bishop Cotton, David Cox, G. L. Craik, Sir C. Eastlake, John Gibson, G. W. Gordon, Marshall Hall, Gen. Haynau, Father Ignatius, Ingres, John Keble, Dr. Lappenberg, Dom Miguel

, Alfred de Musset, H. Olshausen, Sir W. Parker, J. E. Riddle, Sir W.C. Ross, Emile Saisset, B. Silliman, Dr. Shirley, Sir G. Smart, Dr. Southwood Smith, John Snow, Jared Sparks, Joseph Toynbee, Father Ventura, Thomas Wakley, M. L. Watson, and C. G. Zumpt.

All human work must be imperfect will not insure absolute accuracy, noi both positive and negative. But it 'Dictionary of General Biography,' in honesty and catholicity of spirit, wi trustworthy book of the kind hither Chronological and Classified Index Manual for the Student than as a con

LONDON: September, 1867.

Besides the new articles, five hundred names have been inserted by way of cross references, thus making a total of between nine hundred and a thousand additional names, and nearly two hundred pages of new matter.

The dates have been carefully re-examined ; some erroneous statements have been corrected according to more recent information; notices which seemed vague I have endeavoured to make precise, and awkward sentences clear.

In the preparation of the latter half of the work I have had the advantage of consulting the new and elaborate Dictionnaire Critique

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In the Article on Halliday (Sir A.), for Cavity of the Throat, read Cavity of the Thorax

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A DICTIONARY

OF

GENERAL BIOGRAPHY.

6

AA

ABBOT AA, Peter Van der, an eminent book- he acquired among literary mon a character seller of Leyden, who, early in the 18th con- for profound learning and sound judgment, tury, compiled and published several extensive Diod at Geneva in 1767. collections of voyages and travels, among which Abbadie, Jacquos, an eminent Protestant was his Galerie du Monde,' an illustrated Atlas, divine, who accompanied Marshal Schomberg in 66 rols. He also published the great collec- to England in 1688, and was present when that tion of Gronovius on Greek, and of Grævius on great commander foll at the battle of the Boyne. Roman antiquities. Died, 1730.

On his return to London he was appointed Aalst. (Aelst.)

minister of the French church in the Savoy, Aarssen, Frans Van, Dutch diplomatist, and was subsequently mado dean of Killaloe, was born in 1572. Brought up in the house- He wrote many works, chietly thoological and hold of the Prince of Orange, he was appointed in the French language; the most osteomed of resident of the United Provinces at the French which are 'Art de se connaître soi-même,' and court in 1598, and subsequently ambassador. Traité de la Vérité de la Religion Chrétienne.' After temporary disgrace he was recalled to Born at Nay, in Béarn, in 1658; diod in LonHolland in 1615, when by his support of don, 1727. Maurice of Nassau, and his hostility to the Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed, of whom, noble Barneveldt, in whose prosecution he took though opposed to him at first, ho became a a leading part, he rendered himself very unpo- disciple, and servod in his army as a general. pular. When Maurice became supreme Aarssen He died in the 32nd year of the Hogira-A.D. was employed in various missions, and was 653. twice sent to England, in 1626 and 1640. Abbas, Shah, the Great, King of Persia, Died, 1641.

succeeded to the throno in 1586. He made war Abate, Andrea, a Neapolitan artist, who, on the Usbeks, and conquered Khorasan. Ho as a painter of fruit and objects of still life, ac- put an end to the war with the Turks by ceding quired great celebrity. He was employed, to- to them Armenia and other provinces, first gether with Luca Giordano, in adorning the transporting the Armenians into Persia. In Escurial for Charles II. of Spain. Died, 1732. 1590 ho mado Ispahan the seat of government,

Abati, Nicolo, more frequently, but or- and greatly improved and adorned it. With the roneously, called DELL' Abate, a renowned help of the English he drove the Portuguese painter in fresco. Born at Modena, 1512 ; died from Bender-Abassi and the Isle of Ormuz, and at Paris, 1571. His best works were at Bologna by other conquests enlarged his dominions. and Modena, but few of them are now extant. Abbas had some qualities which justified his Several of his relations also distinguished them- title Great, but these were mixed with other selves as painters.

and vicious qualities. While he was brave, a Abauzit, Firmin, a French scholar. Born patron of commerce and the arts, and an effiat Uzes in 1679. His mother, in order to secure cient ruler, he was also cruel, suspicious, jealous his education in the Protestant faith, sent him, of those who served him well, a merciless taxat two years of age, to Geneva, After finish- gatherer, and unscrupulous in putting to death ing his studies he went to Holland, and from the objects of his suspicion. Died, 1628. thence to England, where he formed an intimacy Abblati, Filippo, an historical painter, of with Sir Isaac Newton, by whom he was much some eminence. Born at Milan in 1640; died esteemed. He was highly panegyrised by Vol- there in 1715. taire and Rousseau. Though he published little, Abbot, Charles, (Colchester, Lord.]

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Abbot, George, archbishop of Canterbury early distinguished himself in arm in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and one appointed by Yezid, about 721, to t of the most active political characters of that ment of Spain. Recalled to Dama period. He was born in 1562, at Guildford in months later, he was again sent to Sp Surrey, where his father was a weaver and and formed the project of conquering clothworker. After receiving his education at the Franks. He first made war the grammar school in that town, he was sent Moorish chief, Munuza, who had alli to Baliol College, Oxford; and became succes- with Eudes, duke of Aquitaine; and sively master of University college, dean of duing him, he passed the Pyrenee Winchester, vice-chancellor of Oxford, bishop of Rhone, took Arles, defeated Eudes, as Lichfield and Coventry, then of London, and and ravaged Aquitaine and Burgu lastly, in 1610, primate of all England. Arch- vancing, as it might well seem, to th bishop Abbot was throughout his life the bitter of Europe, Abderahman was encou political and ecclesiastical rival and enemy of tween Tours and Poitiers, by the F Laud. Although he at first distinguished him- der Charles Martel and Eudes, in Oc self by a rigorous maintenance of the doctrines After six days of desultory combats, of divine right and passivo obedience, he be- battle took place, the Saracens were came, after the accession of Charles I., whom feated and their great captain killed. he crowned at Westminster, a steady and reso- not again attempt the conquest of G lute opponent of the despotic measures of the Abdalrahman, Ben Moawiya king. In 1622 an event occurred, which for a Cordova and first Ommyade Caliph time caused his suspension from the archiepis- was born at Damascus about 731. ! copal office; being at the seat of Lord Zouch in by flight the massacre of his family is Hampshire, while on a hunting party, he acci- after many wanderings passed int dentally shot one of his lordship's keepers. He whence, in 755, he crossed to Spain. was the author of several theological works; herents soon became numerous, and ex and was one of the eight divines, who, in 1604, following year he was proclaimed kin by the order of James I., made the translation ceived as such at Seville. Having de of the Bible now in use. He died at Croydon governor, Yusef, he made Cordova hi in 1633, and was buried in his native town, and was soon master of all Mohammed where he had founded and liberally endowed á His reign was disturbed by frequent ri hospital.

by wars with the kings of Leon. It w Abbot, Robert, bishop of Salisbury, and this caliph that, in 778, Charles ! elder brother of the above. He was an eminent (Charlemagne) undertook the exper divine, and famous for his skill in conducting famous in romance, which resulted in polemical discussions and vindicating the su- porary occupation of Navarre and part premacy of kings. Born, 1560; died, 1617. by the Franks, and ended with the Dr. Fuller, speaking of the two brothers, says, Roncesvalles. Abdalrahman built a

George was the more plausible preacher, Ro- palace at Cordova, and the famous mo bert the greatest scholar; George the abler of which remains and forms the Cat statesman, Robert the deeper divine ; gravity Cordova. Died, probably about 789. did frown in George, and smile in Robert.'

Abdul Medjid, sultan of Turke Abbot, Lemuel Francis, an English por- Mahmoud II., was born in 1823. He trait painter of the 18th century, was the son of his father in 1839, while Mehemet a clergyman in Leicestershire. He was for a carrying on war against him. A fe short time the

pupil of Hayman, and settled in after his accession he published an ed London. He appears to have had little skill lishing certain civil reforms. By the beyond that of catching likenesses. Among tion of the chief European powers, the best of his works are his portraits of Cow- Ali was reduced to submission and a p per and Lord Nelson. The latter

is now in the arrangement of the quarrel effected Naval Gallery, Greenwich Hospital. His

por- Much opposition was made to the Sul trait of Alexander Hood, Viscount Bridport, is jects of reform, especially to his conc in the National Portrait Gallery. Abbot died privileges to his Christian subjects, an insane, in 1803, about 40 years of age. sition was one of very great difficulty

Abbot, Charles. [Tenterden, Lord.]
Abdallah, the father of Mohammed. (See his courageous and generous protectie

tained great popularity in Western E Mohammed.]

Hungarian refugees, in 1849. The gr Abdallatiph, a Persian historian, born at of his reign was the Crimean war, Baghdad in 1161. He is said to have been a France and England allied themsel man of great learning and a voluminous writer ; Turkey against the encroachments of but the only one of his works much known in and which was terminated by the fall Europe is an abridged history of Egypt, en- topol after a long siege, in 1856. Die titled Al-kital Alsager,' or the little book,

A Beckett, Gubert Abbot, a disti which was published from a MS. in the Bod- humourist and satirical writer, was leian Library, by Professor White, in 1800. London in 1811, and educated at West

Abdalrahman (Abderahman), Ben While engaged in prosecuting his lega

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