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517 half a weight of sugar, equal to six pounds and a quarter, with a corresponding quantity of tea (viz. half a pound), for three dollars; for, as I have said before, there had been no sugar previously in the market. Even when there is plenty, neither tea nor sugar can be bought separately. These articles must be bought together. It is remarkable that a similar custom is still prevalent in many parts of Europe, and even in this country.

The arrival of these Tájakánt procured me also the luxury of a couple of pomegranates, which had been brought by them from the Gharb, and which gave me an opportunity of expostulating with the Sheikh on the disgraceful circumstance, that such fruits as these are now only procurable from the north, while this country itself might produce them quite as well, and had in reality done so in former times. Even limes are not at present grown hereabouts, and it was only from Jenni that I had obtained some days previously a few specimens of this delicious kind of fruit, which grows in such plenty in Kanó, and which might be raised in almost any part of this region. Thus closed the year 1853, leaving me in a most unsettled position in this desert place.




The province of Zanfara in former times was far more extensive than at present, its ancient capital being situated half a day (hantsi) east from Sansánne 'Aísa on the road to Tóze, and this is perhaps Birni-n-Zánfara, founded by the powerful chief Babári about a century ago. At that time the province was a powerful kingdom; but at present it is in the most distracted condition, half of the places belonging to it being still under the rule of the Fúlbe, while the other half have revolted successfully, and are strictly allied with the Góberáwa.

Under the rule of the Fúlbe or Fullán, are the following places :

Zgrmi, with three governors: one, A’bu Hamid, who has ruled (in 1853) seven, another Tarna, who has ruled fifteen years, and a third one, a younger brother of Tarna, but who has exercised power for thirty years *; Káuri-n-Namóda, at present governed by Mahamúdu, a younger brother of the warlike and far-famed chief Namóda, who has ruled for the last twelve years; Búnka, Bóka, Góga, Yánkaba, Dába, Banga, Birni-n-Máddera, Módiki, Moríki with Ne-ébbúsuwa, Koré with Makauru, Dunfáwa, Dúchi, Badaráwa, Katúru, Kanna, Dan I'sa, Waúnaka-n-Féllani (in order to distinguish it from another town of the same name, which is allied with the Góberáwa), Yangwoy, Kiáwa, Rúra, Waúni, Jirgába, Gabáke, Kangwa, Kadámusá, Yanbúkki, Také-adoy, Birni

* Formerly there was in Zýrmi a powerful governor belonging to the faction of the Góberáwa, called Dan Jéka, who ruled twenty years, when he was murdered by Mámmedu (Mobámmedu).

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