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to hold possession for ever of this distant province for his master in Morocco. This is a highly interesting fact. But a small spark of native independence nevertheless remained behind in this province, from whence the Moroccains, after the first energetic impulse was gone, were forced to fall back. While the Bashá himself was thus

waging relentless war against the nucleus and the eastern part of the Songhay empire, the conquest and destruction of national independence was going on no less in the west. The great centre of national feeling and of independent spirit in that quarter was Timbuktu, a town almost enjoying the rank of a separate capital, on account of the greater amount of Mohammedan learning therein concentrated. It was on account of this feeling of independence, probably, that the inhabitants would not bear the encroachments of the Káid el Mustapha upon their liberty, especially as he wanted to fill from his own choice, after the death of Yahia, the place of the Túmbutukoy, or Túmbutu-mangha, as he is here called, the office of the native governor. Thus a bloody tumult arose in the town, when the Tárki chief Ausamba came to the assistance of the distressed Káid, probably from motives of plunder; and thus the whole town was consumed by flames, it being a dreadful day for the inhabitants. Nay, the enraged Káid, who had now got the upper band, wanted to slaughter them all; but the Káid Mámi succeeded in reestablishing peace between the inhabitants and El Mustapha; and quiet and comfort began to return; so that even those who had emigrated again returned to their na.

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The Bambara appear as a conquering race.

tive homes. Even the inspector of the harbour, who had retired to the province of Banku, or Bengu, came back with the fleet. The communication therefore with Jinni and the region on the upper course

of the river was reopened. Having then made a successful ex

pedition against the Zoghorán, who devastated the districts of Bara and Dirma, and inflicted upon them a most severe punishment, the Káid Mámi went himself to Jinni, which had suffered a great deal from the devastating incursions of the pagan Bambara, and took up his residence for a time in the palace of the Jinnikoy. Having then installed 'Abd-Allah ben 'Oth mán as governor of Jinni, and arranged matters in that distant place, he returned to Timbúktu. Samba Lámido (“lámido” means “ governor"), evidently a Púllo, in Danka, or Denga, devastated many of the places on the Rás el má, and committed great havoc and blood

shed. Thus the Moroccains had con

quered almost the whole of this extensive empire, from Dendi as far as, and even beyond, Jinni; for they even took possession of part of Baghena, and conquered the whole province of Hómbori, or, as it is called from its rocky character, Tóndi or El Hajri, to the south of the river. Nay, they even conquered part of Tombo, the strong native kingdom inclosed between Hómbori, Mósi, Jinni, and Jimballa. They had their chief garrisons in Jinni, Timbuktu, Bắmba, which on this account received the name Kasbah, in Gágho, and Kalna in Dendi; and their chief strength consisted in intermarrying with the natives, and thus producing a distinct class

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of people, who, as Ermá, or Ruma, i are distinguished to this very day; while the peculiar dialect of Songhay, which they speak, has been produced lately as a distinct language by M. Raffenel.* But these half-castes soon found all their interest in their new abode, and cared little for Morocco; so that the advantage which the latter country drew from this conquest was only of a very transitory character. Certainly, there was some sort of order established; but there was no new organization, as it seems; the old forms being preserved, and soon becoming effete. On the whole, we cannot but admire the correctness of the following passage of Bábá A’hmed, who says: “ Thus this Mahalla, at that period, found in Sudán (Songhay) one of those countries of the earth which are most favoured with comfort, plenty, peace, and prosperity everywhere; such was the working of the government of the Emir el Múmenín, A'skíá el Háj Mohammed ben Abú Bakr, in consequence of his justice and the power of his royal command, which took full and peremptory effect, not only in his capital, but in all the districts of his whole empire, from the province of Dendi to the frontiers of Morocco, and from the territory of Bennendúgu (to the south of Jinni) as far as Tegháza and Tawát. But in a moment all was changed, and peaceful repose was succeeded by a constant state of fear, comfort and security by trouble and suffering; ruin and misfortune took the place of prosperity, and people began every

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The kingdoms of Asianti and

Dahome begin to become powerful.

where to fight against each other, and property and life became exposed to constant danger; and this ruin began, spread, increased, and at length prevailed throughout the whole region." Thus wrote old Bábá Ah'med, who had himself lost everything in consequence of that paramount calamity which had befallen his native land, and who had been carried a prisoner to the country of the conqueror, till, owing to the unbounded respect which the enemy himself felt for the learning and sanctity of the prisoner, he was released, and allowed to return to Songhay, where he seems to have finished his days, by endeavouring to console himself, for the loss of all that was dear to him, with science, and in writing the history of his unfortunate native country.

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. I had no time to excerpt this latter part of Bábá A’hmed's history, but it is full of information with regard to this turbulent period. VOL. IV.

S s

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1640

1050

The history of Songhay, composed

by Ahmed Bábá. Great inundation in Timbúktu, in

consequence of the high level attained by the river.

The Tademékket are driven

out of their former seats and deprived of their supremacy by the Awelímmid or A'relímmiden (the Lamta), wbu formerly bad been settled in Igidi with the Welád Delém with whom they were allied. Karidénne, the son of Shwash and of a wife from the tribe of the Tademékket, murdered the chief of the latter tribe. and drove them out of A'derár, when they went westward and implored the protection of the Basha, who assigned them new seats round about the backwaters between Timbúktu and Gundam.

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Sídi 'Ali, governor of Sús, takes re- 1667 | 1078-9 About this period the Welád fuge in Songhay *--a proof that

Bille, in 'Tishít, possessed the garrison stationed there had

great power. made themselves quite independent of Morocco at that time, notwithstanding the energetic rule of E' Rashid, who died

| 1672 1083

. Here again Jackson (Account of Morocco, p. 295.) has made a most erroneous statement, saying that Sidi'ah escaped into Súdán, where the king of Bambara received him hospitably, so that 'Ali was enabled to collect ! black warriors, with whom he marched against Morocco; and that these blacks were the means by which Ismaalt obtained influence in Timbuktu.

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