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About this time Sóba, the mighty

king of Góber, residing in Mághale, one day W. of Chéberi, makes warlike expedi. tions beyond the Kwára.

Múláy А’hmed, the nephew of Mú- | 1680 1091

láy Ismáaíl, governor of Dara and
Sús, undertook an expedition into
Súdán, with a large body of troops,
and although he lost 1500 men in
crossing the desert, brought back
a rich spoil in gold and slaves, prin-
cipally from a place called Tagaret,
which it is not easy to identify,
especially as it is said that he found
there a king of Súdán. It is pro-
bably a place in Taganet, most
likely Tejígja. There is no men-
tion of a garrison dependent upon
Morocco. In this same year Tim-
búktu is said to have been con-
quered by the Mandingoes (Bám-
bara ?).

Mar. 22,
Múlay Ahmed el Dhébebi succeeds 1727 | 1140-1
to the aged Ismáaíl. Although his
reign lasted only two years, and he
was constantly engaged in civil
war, he is said to have made an ex.
pedition into Súdán, from whence
he brought back great treasures.t
But this is evidently a confused
statement, and probably refers to
the deeds of his elder namesake,
Múláy A'hmed el Dhébebi.

# There is great confusion in an article concerning this subject in a letter addressed by Jackson to Sir James Bankes, in the Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i. p. 366. Here the annual tribute which Timbuktu paid to this king is estimated at 5,000,000 dollars. The same sort of exaggeration we find in all Jackson's statements. | Even the very meritorious Gråberg de Hemso, in his Specchio di Marocco, p. 269., repeats this statement.

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Sidi Mohammed built Swéra or Mo- | 1757 | 1171-2 Babári, powerful king in Guber. gadór.

1770 1184 'Abd el Káder produces a reli

gious revolution in Fúta, combined, perhaps, with a reaction of the Wolot against the conquerors *, or rather of the race of the Toróde,- the Wolof intermixed with the Fülbe -

gainst the element Málinke About this time Gógo, which bad

and Púllo. Sáttigi Samba. hitherto been ruled by the Rumá,

lámu, the last of the Soltans was conquered by the Tawárek

Deniankóbe. The order of the tribe of the Awelímmiden.

succession is as follows:Probably in consequence of this

Chéro Solimán Bal, event, A'gades, baving been de

Almáme 'Abdu, prived of its commercial resources,

Almáme Mukhtar, begins to decline.

Almáme Bú-bakr,
Almáme Sbíray,
Almáme Yusuf,
Almáme Birán,
Almáme Hammad,
Almáme Makhmúdo,
Almáme Mohammed el A-

mín, son of Mohammed

Birán. The chief Káwa, who rules seventy | 1780 1195 Venture collects his information years over the Awelímmiden, esta

from two Moroccain merblishes a powerful dominion on the

chants. Tombo very powernorth bank of the Niger (A'usa).

ful. Marka, the Aswánek, in Baghena. Kawár, the Fúlbe,

in Másina. Timbuktu, according to the very 1787 | 1202–3 About this period falls the doubtful statement of Shabíni f,

quarrel between the Sheikh under the supremacy of Hausa.

EI Mukhtar el kebír and the If this were true, it would be a very

Welád Bille, the former overimportant fact; but it is evidently

throwing the latter with the a mistake, A'usa being meant.

assistance of the Méshedúf

and the A'hel Zenághi. • See M. le Colonel Faidherbe, in Bulletin de la Soc. Géogr. 1850. | Shabini, p. 12.

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Mohammed or Ahmed Lebbo brings 1816 | 1232-3 Great and sanguinary battle the religious banner from Gandó :

between the Songhay, Rumá, and gradually acquires the su

and Berabísh on the one side, premacy in Másina over the native

and the Awelímmiden on the chiefs.

other, near the island Kúrkozay.

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• Proceedings of the African Association, ii. p. 322.
+ Ritter, Erdkunde von Afrika, p. 446. seq., especially from Sidi Hámed's statement (p. 363.).

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1.30 p.m.
1.15 p.m.

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sunset | 75
sunrise 56 Foggy in the morn-

sunset 73 5
sunset | 75
sunrise | 53
sunset 72.5
1.20 p.m. 84
1.45 p.m. 83
sunrise | 57
1.30 p.m. 81
1.30 p.m. 83
sunset 72:30
No observation.
1.30 p m. 81
sunrise 50
sunrise 52 Cold N. E. gale ;

very heavy.
1.40 p.m.

Very cold, but no


Foggy morning. sunrise | 55 sunrise 43 1.30 p.m. 78 sunset 72


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sunrise 57.5
2 p.m.
2 p.m.
1 p.m. 88
sunset 77
sunrise 47
1.30 p.m. 94
sunset 82-3
No observation.
1.30 p.m. 81.2
sunset 70.2
sunrise 52

Heavy E. gale.

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to 31

No observation. Sky all this time


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