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again my friend the old chief of Tintellust, who, however, in consequence of the measures adopted towards him by Mr. Richardson, behaved rather coolly towards me, although I did not fail to make him a small present.

Being most anxious to complete my scientific labours and researches in regard to Bornu, and to send home as much of my journal as possible, in order not to expose it to any risk, I staid most of the time in my quarters, which I had comfortably fitted up with a good supply of "siggedi" or coarse reed mats, taking only now and then, in the afternoon, a ride on horseback either round the town or into the large well-wooded valley which stretches along from N.W. to S.E., at some distance from the town, to the N.E. Once I took a longer ride, to a village about eight miles S.S.E., situated on an eminence with a vale at its foot, fringed with dtim palms and rich in saltpetre.

On the 20th of January, 1853,1 received from the hands of the Arab Mohammed el 'Akertit, whom I have had occasion to mention previously*, a valuable consignment, consisting of 1000 dollars in specief, which were packed very cleverly in two boxes of sugar, so that scarcely anybody became aware that I had received money, and the messenger seemed

* See Vol. L p. 185.

f Unfortunately they were not all Spanish or Austrian dollars j but there were among the number forty pieces of five francs, and more than one hundred Turkish mejidiye.

VOL. IV. G

well deserving of a present equal to his stipulated salary; but I received no letters on this occasion. I had also expected to be able to replace here such of my instruments as had been spoiled or broken, by new ones; but I was entirely disappointed in this respect, and hence, in my further journey, my observations regarding elevation and temperature are rather defective.

I then finished my purchases, amounting altogether to the value of 775,000 kurdi, of all sorts of articles which I expected would be useful on my further proceedings, such as red common bemuses, white turbans, looking-glasses, cloves, razors, chaplets, and a number of other things, for which I had at the time the best opportunity of purchasing, as all Arab and European merchandise, after the arrival of the k&ffala, was rather cheap. Thus I prepared for my setting out for the west; for although I would gladly have waited a few days longer, in order to receive the other parcel, consisting of a box with English ironware and 400 dollars, which was on the road for me by way of Kiikawa, and which, as I have stated before, had been entrusted, in Fezzari, to a Tebii merchant, it was too essential for the success of my enterprise that I should arrive in Katsena before the G6berawa set out on a warlike expedition against that province, for wbich they were then preparing on a grand scale. It was thus that the parcel abovementioned, which, in conformity with my arrange

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ments, was sent after me to Zinder by the vizier, and which arrived only a few days after I had left that place, remained there in the hands of the sherif el Fasi, and, on his being assassinated in the revolution of 1854, and his house plundered, fell into the hands of the slaves of the usurper 'Abd e' Rahman.

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CHAP. LV.

DEPARTURE FROM zfNDER.— THE BORDER REGION BETWEEN THE

B<5l$NU AND THE FULFULDE EMPIRES. SECOND STAY IN KA

TSENA.

Sunday, I Left the capital of the westernmost proMUi853.3<)th' vince of the B6rnu empire in the best spirits, having at length succeeded, during my prolonged stay there, in getting rid of the disease in my feet, which had annoyed me ever since my return from Bagirmi to Kiikawa. I had, moreover, strengthened my little caravan by two very excellent camels, which I had bought here; and I was now provided with a sufficient supply of money, stores, and presents, the total value of which exceeded 2000 dollars, and which seemed to guarantee success to my undertaking, at least in a pecuniary point of view, and gave me confidence once more to try my fortune with the Fulbe, my first dealings with whom had not been very promising. However, the road before me was anything but safe, as I had again to traverse with my valuable property that border district, intermediate between the independent H&us&wa and the Fulbe, which is the scene of uninterrupted warfare and violence, and unfortunately there was no caravan at the time; but nevertheless the most intelligent men in the place were of opinion that this route, by

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way of Gazawa, was safer than that by Daura, the unscrupulous governor of the latter province, under cover of his authority, which could not be withstood with a high hand, being apparently more to be feared than the highway robbers in the border wilderness, who by watchfulness and good arras might be kept at a respectful distance. But altogether this was a rather unfortunate circumstance for me, as I cherished the ardent desire of visiting the town of Daura, which, as I have explained on a former occasion, seems to have been the oldest settlement of the Hausa tribe, who appear to have been, from their origin, nearly related to the Berber family,—the Diggera, a section of that nation, being formerly entirely predominant in the territory of Daura. At that time, however, I entertained the hope that, on my return from the west, I might be enabled to visit the latter place; but circumstances prevented me from carrying out my design.

The whole country which we traversed on our way westward, besides being richly studded with fixed dwelling-places, was full of parties of A'sbenawa salttraders, partly moving on, partly encamped and having their merchandise carefully protected by fences of corn-stalks. But although these people greatly contributed to the animated character of the landscape, yet their presence by no means added to the security of the country; and altogether my order of march became now a very different one from what it had been. Throughout my march from

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